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1.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1837506

ABSTRACT

To effectively control and prevent the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), suitable vaccines have been researched and developed rapidly. Currently, 31 COVID-19 vaccines have been approved for emergency use or authorized for conditional marketing, with more than 9.3 billion doses of vaccines being administered globally. However, the continuous emergence of variants with high transmissibility and an ability to escape the immune responses elicited by vaccines poses severe challenges to the effectiveness of approved vaccines. Hundreds of new COVID-19 vaccines based on different technology platforms are in need of a quick evaluation for their efficiencies. Selection and enrollment of a suitable sample of population for conducting these clinical trials is often challenging because the pandemic so widespread and also due to large scale vaccination. To overcome these hurdles, methods of evaluation of vaccine efficiency based on establishment of surrogate endpoints could expedite the further research and development of vaccines. In this review, we have summarized the studies on neutralizing antibody responses and effectiveness of the various COVID-19 vaccines. Using this data we have analyzed the feasibility of establishing surrogate endpoints for evaluating the efficacy of vaccines based on neutralizing antibody titers. The considerations discussed here open up new avenues for devising novel approaches and strategies for the research and develop as well as application of COVID-19 vaccines.

2.
Environ Res ; 212(Pt B): 113297, 2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796872

ABSTRACT

Meteorological factors have been confirmed to affect the COVID-19 transmission, but current studied conclusions varied greatly. The underlying causes of the variance remain unclear. Here, we proposed two scientific questions: (1) whether meteorological factors have a consistent influence on virus transmission after combining all the data from the studies; (2) whether the impact of meteorological factors on the COVID-19 transmission can be influenced by season, geospatial scale and latitude. We employed a meta-analysis to address these two questions using results from 2813 published articles. Our results showed that, the influence of meteorological factors on the newly-confirmed COVID-19 cases varied greatly among existing studies, and no consistent conclusion can be drawn. After grouping outbreak time into cold and warm seasons, we found daily maximum and daily minimum temperatures have significant positive influences on the newly-confirmed COVID-19 cases in cold season, while significant negative influences in warm season. After dividing the scope of the outbreak into national and urban scales, relative humidity significantly inhibited the COVID-19 transmission at the national scale, but no effect on the urban scale. The negative impact of relative humidity, and the positive impacts of maximum temperatures and wind speed on the newly-confirmed COVID-19 cases increased with latitude. The relationship of maximum and minimum temperatures with the newly-confirmed COVID-19 cases were more susceptible to season, while relative humidity's relationship was more affected by latitude and geospatial scale. Our results suggested that relationship between meteorological factors and the COVID-19 transmission can be affected by season, geospatial scale and latitude. A rise in temperature would promote virus transmission in cold seasons. We suggested that the formulation and implementation of epidemic prevention and control should mainly refer to studies at the urban scale. The control measures should be developed according to local meteorological properties for individual city.

3.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1145-1153, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764465

ABSTRACT

Analysis of large-scale gene expression post vaccination can provide an overview of immune responses. We used transcriptional approaches to comprehensively analyze the innate immune response signatures elicited by protein subunit (PS) vaccine ZF2001 and an mRNA vaccine named RRV. A fine-grained time-dependent dissection of large-scale gene expression post immunization revealed that ZF001 induced MHC class II-related genes, including cd74 and H2-Aa, more expeditiously than the RRV. Notably, the RRV induced MHC class I-related genes such as Tap1/2, B2m, and H2-D1/K1. At day 21 post immunization, the titres of binding and neutralization antibody (NAb) induced by both vaccines were comparable, which were accordant with the expression level of genes essential to BCR/TCR signalling transduction and B/T cells activation at day 7. However, compared to ZF2001, the early responses of RRV were more robust, including the activation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), expression of genes involved in RNA degradation, and transcription inhibition, which are directly related to anti-viral signals. This pattern also coincided with the induction of cytokines by the RRV. Generally, the transcriptomic patterns of two very different vaccines mapped here provide a framework for establishing correlates between the induction of genes and protection, which can be tailored for evoking specific and potent immune responses against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Protein Subunits/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Transcriptome , Vaccination , Vaccines, Subunit , Vaccines, Synthetic
4.
American journal of translational research ; 14(2):1332-1338, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1733133

ABSTRACT

Objective: To systematically determine the effect of Lianhua Qingwen Capsules on the early antiviral and anti-inflammatory action against COVID-19 (Coronavirus 2019) and its applicational value in the treatment of COVID-19. Methods: The clinical data of 66 early-mid-stage COVID-19 patients admitted to hospitals in Guangzhou between January 2020 and April 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients receiving Lianhua Qingwen Capsule treatment were assigned to the observation group (n=33) and those given conventional therapy were included in the control group (n=33). The two groups were compared in terms of clinical effects and main symptom (fever, cough and fatigue) disappearance rate. Results: In comparison with the control group, 1) the total effective rate was significantly higher in the observation group (P<0.05);2) the disappearance rates of fever, cough and fatigue were statistically higher in the observation group;3) the treatment time was significantly shorter and patient recovery was significantly better in the observation group;4) the laboratory index levels [white blood cell (WBC), interleukin-6 (IL-6), serum amyloid A (SAA)] were better in the observation group. Conclusion: Lianhua Qingwen Capsules can significantly improve the total effective rate for COVID-19 patients, as well as shorten the hospital stay and treatment time, which is worth of promotion in the clinic.

5.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 21(4): 471-481, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1647981

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Major emergent infectious diseases (MEID) pose the most serious threat to human health. The research proposes targeted response strategies for the prevention and control of potential MEID. AREAS COVERED: Based on the analysis of infectious diseases, this research analyzes pandemics that have a high probability of occurrence and aims to synthesize the past experience and lessons learned of controlling infectious diseases such as coronavirus, influenza, Ebola, etc. In addition, by integrating major infectious disease response guidelines developed by WHO, the European Union, the United States, and the United Kingdom, we intend to bring forward national vaccine R&D development strategies for emergency use. EXPERT OPINION: We advise to establish and improve existing laws, regulations, and also prevention and control systems for the emergent R&D and application of vaccines in response to potential infectious diseases. The strategies would not only help increase the various abilities in response to the research, development, evaluation, production, and supervision of emergency vaccines, but also establish surrogate endpoint of immunogenicity protection in early clinical studies to enable a rapid evaluation of the efficacy of emergency vaccines.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology
6.
Humanities & Social Sciences Communications ; 9(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1627834

ABSTRACT

Individuals worldwide are overwhelmed with news about COVID-19. In times of pandemic, media alternate the usage of different COVID-19 indicators, ranging from the more typical crude mortality rate to the case fatality rate, and the infection fatality rate continuously. In this article, we used experimental methods to test whether and how the treatment of individuals with different types of information on COVID-19 is able to change policy preferences, individual and social behaviours, and the understanding of COVID-19 indicators. Results show that while the usage of the crude mortality rate proves to be more efficient in terms of supporting policy preferences and behaviours to contain the virus, all indicators suffer from a significant misunderstanding on behalf of the population.

7.
Infant Ment Health J ; 43(1): 159-172, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611237

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we analyze program activity for Family Connects (FC), an evidence-based postpartum home-visiting intervention, during the COVID-19 pandemic. When the pandemic began, FC transitioned to a virtual protocol which maintains key psychosocial components of the in-person protocol and adjusts health assessments to address the lack of in-person contact. Program performance is contrasted for periods before the pandemic onset (April 2019-March 2020) and after the onset (April 2020-March 2021), involving 10,280 scheduled visits and 6696 visited families (46% non-Hispanic white; 20% non-Hispanic Black; 23% Hispanic; and 10% other race). Post-pandemic onset, FC program participation rates were at 89.8% of pre-pandemic levels. Home visitors observed post-onset increases in families' concerns about home safety but declines in families' needs related to infant care. Community connections were facilitated for 42.9% of visited families post-pandemic onset compared to 51.1% pre-pandemic onset. We conclude that post-pandemic onset virtual delivery rates of FC declined but are high enough to merit continued implementation during a period when some families will decline in-person visits. When in-person visits are deemed safe per public health guidelines, the findings suggest a hybrid approach that could maximize program outreach by prioritizing in-person contact and offering virtual delivery as a second choice.


En este ensayo, analizamos la actividad de programación de Conexión de Familia (FC), una intervención de visitas a casa posteriores al parto con base en la evidencia, durante la pandemia COVID-19. Cuando comenzó la pandemia, FC pasó a un protocolo virtual el cual mantiene componentes sicosociales claves del protocolo presencial y ajusta las evaluaciones de salud para considerar la falta de contacto personal. La actuación del programa se contrasta por períodos antes del comienzo de la pandemia (abril 2019 - marzo 2020) y después del comienzo (abril 2020 - marzo 2021), lo cual involucra 10,280 visitas y 6,696 familias visitadas (46% blancas no hispanas, 20% negras no hispanas, 23% hispanas, 10% de otras razas). Al comienzo de la postpandemia, el nivel de participación en el programa FC estaba al 89.8% del nivel de prepandemia. Los visitantes a casa observaron aumentos posteriores al comienzo en preocupaciones de las familias sobre la seguridad del hogar, pero bajas en necesidades familiares relacionadas con el cuidado de los infantes. Las conexiones comunitarias se facilitaron para el 42.9% de las familias visitadas después del comienzo de la pandemia, comparadas con el 51.1% antes del comienzo de la pandemia. En resumen, la actividad de programación de FC declinó después del comienzo de la pandemia, pero se mantuvo suficientemente alta como para ameritar la continuación de la implementación durante un período cuando algunas familias rechazaron las visitas en persona. Cuando las visitas en persona se estiman seguras según las directrices de salud pública, los resultados indican que un acercamiento híbrido pudiera conducir al máximo el alcance del programa por medio de darle prioridad al contacto en persona y ofrecer el servicio virtual como segunda opción.


Dans cet article nous analysons l'activité de programme pour une Family Connects (FC), une intervention postpartum à domicile fondée sur des données probantes, durant la pandémie du COVID-19. Lorsque la pandémie a commencé la FC a transitionné à protocole virtuel qui maintient les composantes psychosociales clé du protocole en personne et ajusté les évaluations de santé afin de répondre au manque de contact en personne. La performance du programme est comparée pour des périodes avant le début de la pandémie (avril 2019-mars 2020) et après le début de la pandémie (avril 2020-mars 2021), comprenant 10280 visites programmées et 6696 familles visitées (46% de blancs n'étant pas hispaniques, 20% de noirs n'étant pas hispaniques, 23% d'hispaniques et 10% d'autres races). Les taux de participation au programme FC, après le début de la pandémie, étaient à 89,8% des niveaux avant pandémie. Les visiteurs à domicile ont observé des augmentations des inquiétudes des familles à propos de la sécurité à la maison après le début de la pandémie mais des déclins dans les besoins familiaux liés au soin du nourrisson. Les liens avec la communauté ont été facilités pour 42,9% des familles visitées après le début de la pandémie, comparé à 51,1% avant le début de la pandémie. Pour conclure, l'activité de programme du FC a décliné après le début de la pandémie mais est restée suffisamment élevée pour mériter une exécution continue durant une période où certaines familles ont décliné les visites à domicile. Quand les visites à domicile ont été estimées sûres suivant les directives de santé publique les résultats suggèrent qu'une approche hybride pourrait maximiser la sensibilisation au programme en privilégiant le contact en personne et en offrant une prestation virtuelle comme second choix.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Female , House Calls , Humans , Infant , Postpartum Period , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(1): 99-114, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496673

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: C3 glomerulopathy (C3G) is characterized by the alternative-pathway (AP) hyperactivation induced by nephritic factors or complement gene mutations. Mice deficient in complement factor H (CFH) are a classic C3G model, with kidney disease that requires several months to progress to renal failure. Novel C3G models can further contribute to understanding the mechanism behind this disease and developing therapeutic approaches. METHODS: A novel, rapidly progressing, severe, murine model of C3G was developed by replacing the mouse C3 gene with the human C3 homolog using VelociGene technology. Functional, histologic, molecular, and pharmacologic assays characterize the presentation of renal disease and enable useful pharmacologic interventions in the humanized C3 (C3hu/hu) mice. RESULTS: The C3hu/hu mice exhibit increased morbidity early in life and die by about 5-6 months of age. The C3hu/hu mice display elevated biomarkers of kidney dysfunction, glomerulosclerosis, C3/C5b-9 deposition, and reduced circulating C3 compared with wild-type mice. Administration of a C5-blocking mAb improved survival rate and offered functional and histopathologic benefits. Blockade of AP activation by anti-C3b or CFB mAbs also extended survival and preserved kidney function. CONCLUSIONS: The C3hu/hu mice are a useful model for C3G because they share many pathologic features consistent with the human disease. The C3G phenotype in C3hu/hu mice may originate from a dysregulated interaction of human C3 protein with multiple mouse complement proteins, leading to unregulated C3 activation via AP. The accelerated disease course in C3hu/hu mice may further enable preclinical studies to assess and validate new therapeutics for C3G.


Subject(s)
Complement C3/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Glomerulonephritis, Membranoproliferative/genetics , Kidney Diseases/genetics , Animals , Complement C3/metabolism , Complement Pathway, Alternative/genetics , Exons , Gene Expression Regulation , Glomerulonephritis, Membranoproliferative/metabolism , Humans , Kidney Diseases/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Phenotype , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Renal Insufficiency/genetics , Renal Insufficiency/metabolism
9.
Addict Behav Rep ; 14: 100388, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474249

ABSTRACT

Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on alcohol and illicit substance use among adults without children, parents, and adolescents was investigated through two studies with five samples from independent ongoing U.S. longitudinal studies. In Study 1, 931 adults without children, parents, and adolescents were surveyed about the pandemic's impact on personal behavior. 19-25% of adults without children, parents, and adolescents reported an increase in alcohol or illicit substance use. In Study 2, 274 adults without children, parents, and adolescents who had been interviewed prior to the pandemic onset about alcohol and illicit substance use problems were re-interviewed after the pandemic's onset to test within-person change. The rate of alcohol or illicit substance use problems increased from pre-pandemic to post-pandemic onset from 13% to 36% among the three groups. Increase in alcohol and illicit substance use problems was positively correlated with increased depression/anxiety and household disruption, suggesting possible mechanisms for increases in substance problems. Findings in both studies held across low- and middle-income families. Findings suggest the need for communitywide policies to increase resources for alcohol and illicit substance use screening and intervention, especially for adolescents.

12.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 22(2): 87-98, 2021 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088801

ABSTRACT

The emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) not only poses a serious threat to the health of people worldwide but also affects the global economy. The outbreak of COVID-19 began in December 2019, at the same time as the influenza season. However, as the treatments and prognoses of COVID-19 and influenza are different, it is important to accurately differentiate these two different respiratory tract infections on the basis of their respective early-stage characteristics. We reviewed official documents and news released by the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC), the United States CDC, and the World Health Organization (WHO), and we also searched the PubMed, Web of Science, Excerpta Medica database (Embase), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, preprinted bioRxiv and medRxiv databases for documents and guidelines from earliest available date up until October 3rd, 2020. We obtained the latest information about COVID-19 and influenza and summarized and compared their biological characteristics, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, pathological mechanisms, treatments, and prognostic factors. We show that although COVID-19 and influenza are different in many ways, there are numerous similarities; thus, in addition to using nucleic acid-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and antibody-based approaches, clinicians and epidemiologists should distinguish between the two using their respective characteristics in early stages. We should utilize experiences from other epidemics to provide additional guidance for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/therapy , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prognosis
14.
Transfusion ; 61(4): 1047-1052, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999171

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Convalescent plasma is used as a treatment for COVID-19. Only limited data describe the efforts to recruit COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) donors. We describe our experience engaging persons recovered from COVID-19 to donate CCP. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of the CCP recruitment for an 11-hospital health system in Houston, Texas. We sought CCP donations from: a) "volunteers" responding to advertisements in social media, press releases, and websites and b) "referred" individuals directed to the program or identified from hospitalization records. We determined the proportions of donor candidates who passed initial telephone health screening, who qualified after diagnostic testing, who presented to the regional CCP donation center, and who completed CCP donation. RESULTS: There were 900 CCP donor candidates, including 363 volunteers and 537 referred donors. Of 360 contacted volunteers, 186 (5.7%) were excluded by interview; 133 were referred for additional diagnostic screening, 97 completed donor antibody and antigen testing, and 87 were qualified for CCP donation, resulting in 35 CCP donations (9.7% of initial telephone contacts). Among 533 referred donors, 448 (84.1%) were excluded by interview, 71 were referred for additional screening, 48 completed donor antibody and antigen testing, and 40 were qualified for CCP donation, resulting in one CCP donation (0.2% of initial telephone contacts). CONCLUSION: In this community, screening of a high number of candidates yielded a limited number of CCP donations. These observations have important implications for CCP donor recruitment and community pandemic planning.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Convalescence , Donor Selection , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
15.
Microb Pathog ; 150: 104645, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-957311

ABSTRACT

Influenza virus is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the major cause of death in influenza virus infected patients. Recent studies indicated that active glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) encoded by glucagon (GCG) gene exerts anti-inflammatory functions. The aim of this study was to determine the potential role of active GLP-1 in H9N2 influenza virus-induced ALI/ARDS in mice. First, we uncovered that GCG mRNA expression levels and GCG precursor protein levels were significantly increased, but total GLP-1 and active GLP-1 levels were decreased in the lungs of H9N2-infected mice. Next, liraglutide, an active GLP-1 analogue, was used to treat infected mice and to observe its effects on H9N2 virus-induced ALI. Liraglutide treatment ameliorated the declined body weight, decreased food intake and mortality observed in infected mice. It also alleviated the severity of lung injury, including lowering lung index, decreasing inflammatory cell infiltration and lowing total protein levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). In addition, liraglutide did not influence viral titers in infected lungs, but decreased the levels of interleukin-1ß, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in BALF. These results indicated that liraglutide alleviated H9N2 virus-induced ALI in mice most likely due to lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Animals , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Humans , Liraglutide/pharmacology , Lung , Mice
16.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-241664

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analysis the medication characteristics of the prescriptions issued via open channel by the National and Provincial Health Committee and the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine in treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We collected the data of traditional Chinese medicine related to treatment plans published by the National and Provincial Health Committee and the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine from the start of COVID-19 outbreak to February 19, 2020. The frequency analysis, cluster analysis and association analysis were performed. RESULTS: The study collected 4 national and 34 regional prevention and treatment plans, 578 items, 84 traditional Chinese formulations, 60 Chinese patent medicines, and 230 Chinese herbs. The high frequently used herbs were Liquorice, Scutellariabaicalensis, Semen armeniacaeamarae, and Gypsum. The commonly used traditional formulations included Maxing Shigan decoction, Yin Qiao powder, and Xuanbai Chengqi decoction. The Chinese patent drugs included Angong Niuhuang pill, Xuebijing injection, and Lianhua Qingwen capsule. The most common paired medications were Ephedra and Semen armeniacaeamarae, Fructusforsythiae and Liquorice. Two core combinations and one novel formula were discovered in the study. CONCLUSIONS: Yin Qiao powder and Huopo Xialing decoction are the basic formulations for Weifen syndrome of COVID-19. In addition, Maxing Shigan decoction, Liang Ge powder, Qingwen Baidu decoction and Da Yuan decoction are the basic formulations for Qifen syndrome of COVID-19. The main medication characteristics are clearing heat, entilating lung, removing toxicity and removing turbidity. It shows that removing toxicity and eliminating evil are the prescription thought in treating epidemic disease of traditional Chinese medicine.

17.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-51054

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analysis the medication characteristics of the prescriptions issued via open channel by the National and Provincial Health Committee and the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine in treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We collected the data of traditional Chinese medicine related to treatment plans published by the National and Provincial Health Committee and the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine from the start of COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan to February 19, 2020. The frequency analysis, cluster analysis and correlation analysis were performed. RESULTS: The study collected 4 national and 34 regional prevention and treatment plans, 578 items, 84 traditional Chinese formulations, 60 Chinese patent medicines, and 230 Chinese herbs. The high frequently used herbs were Liquorice, Scutellariabaicalensis, Semen armeniacaeamarae, and Gypsum. The commonly used traditional formulations included Maxing Shigan Decoction, Yin Qiao Powder, and Xuanbai Chengqi Decoction. The Chinese patent drugs included Angong Niuhuang Pill, Xuebijing Injection, and Lianhua Qingwen Capsule. The most common paired medications were Ephedra and Semen armeniacaeamarae, Fructusforsythiae and Liquorice. Two core combinations and one novel formula were discovered in the study. CONCLUSIONS: Yin Qiao Powder and Huopo Xialing Decoction are the basic formulations for Weifen syndrome of COVID-19. In addition, Maxing Shigan Decoction, Liang Ge Powder, Qingwen Baidu Decoction and Da Yuan Decoction are the basic formulations for Qifen syndrome of COVID-19. The main medication characteristics are clearing heat, entilating lung, removing toxicity and removing turbidity. It shows that removing toxicity and eliminating evil are the prescription thought in treating epidemic disease of traditional Chinese medicine.

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