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1.
Minerva Med ; 113(4): 695-706, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975625

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease characterized by systemic inflammation, which might enhance baseline thrombotic risk, especially in hospitalized patients. Little is, however, known about predictors of thrombotic complications in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We prospectively followed up 180 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Demographics, clinical and laboratory features at presentation and past medical history were tested as predictors of the first thrombotic complication through multivariate Cox regression analysis and a categorical score generated based on the results. RESULTS: Sixty-four thromboses were recorded in 54 patients, of whom seven with thrombosis on admission and 47 with thrombosis during hospitalization. Patients with thrombosis were mainly Caucasian and diabetic, had marked baseline signs of inflammation and organ damage, lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio, higher D-dimer levels and history of major hemorrhages. The latter three variables were independently associated to thrombotic complications and concurred to a 0-5 score, which accounted for 80% of the total sample variability. Patients with three or more points of the newly generated score were at higher risk for thrombotic complications (HR=4.9, P<0.001). Patients with thrombotic complications were more likely to be admitted to intensive care and/or to die (HR=1.9, P=0.036). Five of 180 patients were diagnosed with disseminated intravascular coagulation and three of them died. Eleven minor and no major bleeding events were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 are at increased risk for thrombosis and might be stratified on admission based on lower Pao2/FiO2 ratio, higher D-dimer levels and history of major hemorrhages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thromboembolism , Thrombosis , Algorithms , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hemorrhage , Humans , Inflammation , Preliminary Data , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/etiology
2.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 36(5): 1354-1363, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537350

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients with COVID-19 frequently develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Data on long-term survival of these patients are lacking. The authors investigated 1-year survival, quality of life, and functional recovery of patients with COVID-19 ARDS requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Tertiary-care university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: All patients with COVID-19 ARDS receiving invasive mechanical ventilation and discharged alive from hospital. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were contacted by phone after 1 year. Functional, cognitive, and psychological outcomes were explored through a questionnaire and assessed using validated scales. Patients were offered the possibility to undergo a follow-up chest computed tomography (CT) scan. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The study included all adult (age ≥18 years) patients with COVID-19-related ARDS admitted to an ICU of the authors' institution between February 25, 2020, and April 27, 2020, who received at least 1 day of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Of 116 patients who received IMV, 61 (52.6%) survived to hospital discharge. These survivors were assessed 1 year after discharge and 56 completed a battery of tests of cognition, activities of daily living, and interaction with family members. They had overall good functional recovery, with >80% reporting good recovery and no difficulties in usual activities. A total of 52 (93%) of patients had no dyspnea at rest. Severe anxiety/depression was reported by 5 (8.9%) patients. Comparing 2-month and 1-year data, the authors observed the most significant improvements in the areas of working status and exertional dyspnea. One-year chest CT scans were available for 36 patients; fibrotic-like changes were present in 4 patients. CONCLUSIONS: All patients who survived the acute phase of COVID-19 and were discharged from the hospital were alive at the 1-year follow up, and the vast majority of them had good overall recovery and quality of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiration, Artificial , Activities of Daily Living , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Minerva Cardiol Angiol ; 69(5): 596-605, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524826

ABSTRACT

The best timing of orotracheal intubation and invasive ventilation in COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome is unknown. The use of non-invasive ventilation, a life-saving technique in many medical conditions, is debated in patients with ARDS since prolonged NIV and delayed intubation may be harmful. Shortage of intensive care beds and ventilators during a respiratory pandemic can trigger a widespread use of early non-invasive ventilation in many hospitals but which is the best way to ventilate patients with severe bilateral pneumonia and severely increased spontaneous ventilation is controversial. Moreover, viral spreading to health-care workers and other hospitalized patients is an issue for any device used to administer oxygen. Even if protective mechanical ventilation is currently the gold standard for the management of acute respiratory distress syndrome, tracheal intubation is not without risks and is associated with delirium, hemodynamic instability, immobilization and post intensive care syndrome. Both invasive and non-invasive ventilation are associated with advantages and limitations that should be carefully considered when patients with COVID-19-ARDS need our attention. In the absence of strong evidence, in this review we highlight all the pro and con of these two different approaches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Lung , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand ; 66(2): 223-231, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome (COVID-19 ARDS) is a disease that often requires invasive ventilation. Little is known about COVID-19 ARDS sequelae. We assessed the mid-term lung status of COVID-19 survivors and investigated factors associated with pulmonary sequelae. METHODS: All adult COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit from 25th February to 27th April 2020 were included. Lung function was evaluated through chest CT scan and pulmonary function tests (PFT). Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of persisting lung alterations. RESULTS: Forty-nine patients (75%) completed lung assessment. Chest CT scan was performed after a median (interquartile range) time of 97 (89-105) days, whilst PFT after 142 (133-160) days. The median age was 58 (52-65) years and most patients were male (90%). The median duration of mechanical ventilation was 11 (6-16) days. Median tidal volume/ideal body weight (TV/IBW) was 6.8 (5.71-7.67) ml/Kg. 59% and 63% of patients showed radiological and functional lung sequelae, respectively. The diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO ) was reduced by 59%, with a median per cent of predicted DLCO of 72.1 (57.9-93.9) %. Mean TV/IBW during invasive ventilation emerged as an independent predictor of persistent CT scan abnormalities, whilst the duration of mechanical ventilation was an independent predictor of both CT and PFT abnormalities. The extension of lung involvement at hospital admission (evaluated through Radiographic Assessment of Lung Edema, RALE score) independently predicted the risk of persistent alterations in PFTs. CONCLUSIONS: Both the extent of lung parenchymal involvement and mechanical ventilation protocols predict morphological and functional lung abnormalities months after COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
5.
Acta Biomed ; 92(S6): e2021419, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503668

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Europe, Italy and Lombardy, in autumn 2020, there was a steep increase in reported cases due to the second epidemic wave of SARS-Cov-2 infection. We aimed to evaluate the appropriateness of COVID-19 patients' admissions to the ED of the San Raffaele Hospital. METHODS: We compared data between the inter-wave period (IWP, from 1st to 30th September) and the second wave period (WP, 1st October to 15th November) focusing on the ED presentation, discharge priority colour code and outcomes. RESULTS: Out of 977 admissions with a SARS-Cov-2 positive swab, 6% were in the IWP and 94% in the WP. Red, yellow and white code increased (these latter from 1.8% to 5.4%) as well as self-presented in yellow and white code. Discharges home increased from 1.8% to 5.4%, while hospitalizations decreased from 63% to 51%. DISCUSSION: We found a rise in white codes (among self-presented patients), indicating inappropriateness of admissions. The increase in discharges suggests that several patients did not require hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic brought out the fundamental role of primary care to manage patients with low-intensity needs. The important increase in ED admissions of COVID-19 patients caused a reduction of NO-COVID-19 patients, with possible inadequate treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Urban , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Braz J Anesthesiol ; 72(2): 189-193, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330668

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous dilation tracheostomy is an aerosol-generating procedure carrying a documented infectious risk during respiratory virus pandemics. For this reason, during the COVID-19 outbreak, surgical tracheostomy was preferred to the percutaneous one, despite the technique related complications increased risk. METHODS: We describe a new sequence for percutaneous dilation tracheostomy procedure that could be considered safe both for patients and healthcare personnel. A fiberscope was connected to a video unit to allow bronchoscopy. Guidewire positioning was performed as usual. While the established standard procedure continues with the creation of the stoma without any change in mechanical ventilation, we retracted the bronchoscope until immediately after the access valve in the mount tube, allowing normal ventilation. After 3 minutes of ventilation with 100% oxygen, mechanical ventilation was stopped without disconnecting the circuit. During apnea, the stoma was created by dilating the trachea and the tracheostomy cannula was inserted. Ventilation was then resumed. We evaluated the safeness of the procedure by recording any severe desaturation and by performing serological tests to all personnel. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients (38%) of 96 underwent tracheostomy; 22 (23%) percutaneous dilation tracheostomies with the new approach were performed without any desaturation. All personnel (150 operators) were evaluated for serological testing: 9 (6%) had positive serology but none of them had participated in tracheostomy procedures. CONCLUSION: This newly described percutaneous dilation tracheostomy technique was not related to severe desaturation events and we did not observe any positive serological test in health workers who performed the tracheostomies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tracheostomy , Apnea/etiology , Humans , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Tracheostomy/methods
7.
Minerva Med ; 113(4): 695-706, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267020

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease characterized by systemic inflammation, which might enhance baseline thrombotic risk, especially in hospitalized patients. Little is, however, known about predictors of thrombotic complications in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We prospectively followed up 180 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Demographics, clinical and laboratory features at presentation and past medical history were tested as predictors of the first thrombotic complication through multivariate Cox regression analysis and a categorical score generated based on the results. RESULTS: Sixty-four thromboses were recorded in 54 patients, of whom seven with thrombosis on admission and 47 with thrombosis during hospitalization. Patients with thrombosis were mainly Caucasian and diabetic, had marked baseline signs of inflammation and organ damage, lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio, higher D-dimer levels and history of major hemorrhages. The latter three variables were independently associated to thrombotic complications and concurred to a 0-5 score, which accounted for 80% of the total sample variability. Patients with three or more points of the newly generated score were at higher risk for thrombotic complications (HR=4.9, P<0.001). Patients with thrombotic complications were more likely to be admitted to intensive care and/or to die (HR=1.9, P=0.036). Five of 180 patients were diagnosed with disseminated intravascular coagulation and three of them died. Eleven minor and no major bleeding events were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 are at increased risk for thrombosis and might be stratified on admission based on lower Pao2/FiO2 ratio, higher D-dimer levels and history of major hemorrhages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thromboembolism , Thrombosis , Algorithms , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hemorrhage , Humans , Inflammation , Preliminary Data , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/etiology
8.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 87(8): 891-902, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262728

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is associated with elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines. We present the characteristics and outcomes of patients treated in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with immunosuppressive drugs, either tocilizumab or anakinra compared with controls. METHODS: A single-center observational prospective study on ICU invasively ventilated COVID-19 patients. The primary outcome was the clinical improvement at day 28. A Bayesian framework was employed, and all analyses were adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: Sixty-one consecutive invasively ventilated patients were included, nine (14.7%) received tocilizumab and 15 (24.6%) received anakinra. Over the first seven days, tocilizumab was associated with a greater decrease in C-reactive protein (P<0.001). After adjusting for confounders, the probability of clinical improvement at day 28 compared to control was 7∙6% (OR=0.36 [95% CrI: 0.09-1.46]) for tocilizumab and 40.9% (OR=0.89 [95% CrI: 0.32-2.43]) for anakinra. At day 28, the probability of being in a better clinical category was 2.5% (OR=2.98 [95% CrI: 1.00-8.88]) for tocilizumab, and 49.5% (OR=1.00 [95% CrI: 0.42-2.42]) for anakinra. CONCLUSIONS: In invasively ventilated COVID-19 patients, treatment with anakinra was associated with a higher probability of clinical improvement compared to tocilizumab; however, treatment with either drug did not result in clinically meaningful improvements compared with controls.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Bayes Theorem , Humans , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
9.
Panminerva Med ; 2021 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190730

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) is effective for symptom relief and respiratory support in patients with respiratory insufficiency, severe comorbidities and no indication to intubation. Experience with NIV as the ceiling of treatment in severely compromised novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients is lacking. METHODS: We evaluated 159 patients with COVID-19-related acute respiratory syndrome (ARDS), 38 of whom with NIV as the ceiling of treatment, admitted to an ordinary ward and treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and respiratory physiotherapy. Treatment failure and death were correlated with clinical and laboratory parameters in the whole cohort and in patients with NIV as the ceiling of treatment. RESULTS: Patients who had NIV as the ceiling of treatment were elderly, with a low BMI and a high burden of comorbidities, showed clinical and laboratory signs of multi-organ insufficiency on admission and of rapidly deteriorating vital signs during the first week of treatment. NIV failure occurred overall in 77 (48%) patients, and 27/38 patients with NIV as the ceiling of treatment died. Congestive heart failure, chronic benign haematological diseases and inability/refusal to receive respiratory physiotherapy were independently associated to NIV failure and mortality. Need for increased positive end-expiratory pressures and low platelets were associated with NIV failure. Death was associated to cerebrovascular disease, need for CPAP cycles longer than 12h and, in the subgroup of patients with NIV as the ceiling of treatment, was heralded by vital sign deterioration within 48 h. CONCLUSIONS: NIV and physiotherapy are a viable treatment option for patients with severe COVID-19 and severe comorbidities.

10.
Saudi J Med Med Sci ; 9(1): 59-62, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1027955

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the first wave of the novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infections, Italy experienced a heavy burden of hospital admissions for acute respiratory distress syndromes associated with the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Early evidence suggested that females are less affected than males. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the gender-related differences in presentation and severity among COVID-19 patients admitted to IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective observational study included all patients admitted to the hospital between February 25 and April 19, 2020, with a positive real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for COVID-19. The following data were collected: date of admission, gender, age and details of intensive care unit admission and outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 901 patients with COVID-19 were admitted to the hospital and provided consent for the study. Of these, 284 were female (31.5%). The percentage of admitted female patients significantly increased over time (25.9% of all admissions in the first half of the study period vs. 37.1% in the second half; P < 0.001). Females accounted for 14.4% of all COVID-19 intensive care unit admissions. There was no gender-based difference in the overall hospital mortality: 20.1% for females and 19.2% for males (P = 0.8). CONCLUSIONS: In our hospital, which was in the epicenter of the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic in Italy, female patients were few, presented late and were less critical than male patients.

11.
Blood Purif ; 50(1): 102-109, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-643726

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is no information on acute kidney injury (AKI) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) among invasively ventilated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in Western healthcare systems. OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence, characteristics, risk factors and outcome of AKI and CRRT among invasively ventilated COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Observational study in a tertiary care hospital in Milan, Italy. RESULTS: Among 99 patients, 72 (75.0%) developed AKI and 17 (17.7%) received CRRT. Most of the patients developed stage 1 AKI (33 [45.8%]), while 15 (20.8%) developed stage 2 AKI and 24 (33.4%) a stage 3 AKI. Patients who developed AKI or needed CRRT at latest follow-up were older, and among CRRT treated patients a greater proportion had preexisting CKD. Hospital mortality was 38.9% for AKI and 52.9% for CRRT patients. CONCLUSIONS: Among invasively ventilated COVID-19 patients, AKI is very common and CRRT use is common. Both carry a high risk of in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome , Ventilators, Mechanical
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