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1.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0045922, 2022 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950012

ABSTRACT

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the underlying conditions in adults of any age that place them at risk for developing severe illnesses associated with COVID-19. To determine whether SARS-CoV-2's cellular tropism plays a critical role in severe pathophysiology in the lung, we investigated its host cell entry receptor distribution in the bronchial airway epithelium of healthy adults and high-risk adults (those with COPD). We found that SARS-CoV-2 preferentially infects goblet cells in the bronchial airway epithelium, as mostly goblet cells harbor the entry receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and its cofactor transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2). We also found that SARS-CoV-2 replication was substantially increased in the COPD bronchial airway epithelium, likely due to COPD-associated goblet cell hyperplasia. Likewise, SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) infection increased disease pathophysiology (e.g., syncytium formation) in the COPD bronchial airway epithelium. Our results reveal that goblet cells play a critical role in SARS-CoV-2-induced pathophysiology in the lung. IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19's first case was discovered in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and by March 2020 it was declared a pandemic by the WHO. It has been shown that various underlying conditions can increase the chance of having severe COVID-19. COPD, which is the third leading cause of death worldwide, is one of the conditions listed by the CDC which can increase the chance of severe COVID-19. The present study uses a healthy and COPD-derived bronchial airway epithelial model to study the COVID-19 and host factors which could explain the reason for COPD patients developing severe infection due to COVID-19.

2.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 46(6): 1023-1035, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794779

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected every country globally, with hundreds of millions of people infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus and over 6 million deaths to date. It is unknown how alcohol use disorder (AUD) affects the severity and mortality of COVID-19. AUD is known to increase the severity and mortality of bacterial pneumonia and the risk of developing acute respiratory distress syndrome. Our objective is to determine whether individuals with AUD have increased severity and mortality from COVID-19. METHODS: We utilized a retrospective cohort study of inpatients and outpatients from 44 centers participating in the National COVID Cohort Collaborative. All were adult COVID-19 patients with and without documented AUDs. RESULTS: We identified 25,583 COVID-19 patients with an AUD and 1,309,445 without. In unadjusted comparisons, those with AUD had higher odds of hospitalization (odds ratio [OR] 2.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.94 to 2.06, p < 0.001). After adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, and comorbidities, individuals with an AUD still had higher odds of requiring hospitalization (adjusted OR [aOR] 1.51, CI 1.46 to 1.56, p < 0.001). In unadjusted comparisons, individuals with AUD had higher odds of all-cause mortality (OR 2.18, CI 2.05 to 2.31, p < 0.001). After adjustment as above, individuals with an AUD still had higher odds of all-cause mortality (aOR 1.55, CI 1.46 to 1.65, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This work suggests that AUD can increase the severity and mortality of COVID-19 infection. This reinforces the need for clinicians to obtain an accurate alcohol history from patients hospitalized with COVID-19. For this study, our results are limited by an inability to quantify the daily drinking habits of the participants. Studies are needed to determine the mechanisms by which AUD increases the severity and mortality of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , COVID-19 , Adult , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
ATS Sch ; 1(4): 416-435, 2020 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191227

ABSTRACT

The American Thoracic Society Core Curriculum updates clinicians annually in adult and pediatric pulmonary disease, medical critical care, and sleep medicine in a 3- to 4-year recurring cycle of topics. The topics of the 2020 Pulmonary Core Curriculum include pulmonary vascular disease (submassive pulmonary embolism, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, and pulmonary hypertension) and pulmonary infections (community-acquired pneumonia, pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria, opportunistic infections in immunocompromised hosts, and coronavirus disease [COVID-19]).

5.
Alcohol ; 90: 11-17, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-866385

ABSTRACT

Alcohol misuse is long established as a contributor to the pathophysiology of the lung. The intersection of multi-organ responses to alcohol-mediated tissue injury likely contributes to the modulation of lung in response to injury. Indeed, the negative impact of alcohol on susceptibility to infection and on lung barrier function is now well documented. Thus, the alcohol lung represents a very likely comorbidity for the negative consequences of both COVID-19 susceptibility and severity. In this review, we present the known alcohol misuse ramifications on the lung in the context of the current coronavirus pandemic.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism/epidemiology , Alcoholism/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Alcoholism/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Ethanol/administration & dosage , Ethanol/adverse effects , Humans , Lung/drug effects , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Risk Factors
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