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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1976, 2022 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783980

ABSTRACT

Global genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 has identified variants associated with increased transmissibility, neutralization resistance and disease severity. Here we report the emergence of the PANGO lineage C.1.2, detected at low prevalence in South Africa and eleven other countries. The initial C.1.2 detection is associated with a high substitution rate, and includes changes within the spike protein that have been associated with increased transmissibility or reduced neutralization sensitivity in SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern or variants of interest. Like Beta and Delta, C.1.2 shows significantly reduced neutralization sensitivity to plasma from vaccinees and individuals infected with the ancestral D614G virus. In contrast, convalescent donors infected with either Beta or Delta show high plasma neutralization against C.1.2. These functional data suggest that vaccine efficacy against C.1.2 will be equivalent to Beta and Delta, and that prior infection with either Beta or Delta will likely offer protection against C.1.2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(3)2022 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753697

ABSTRACT

We investigated Omicron infections among healthcare workers (HCW) presenting with symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection and evaluated the protective effect of vaccination or prior infection. Between 24 November and 31 December 2021, HCW in Johannesburg, South Africa, were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection by Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAAT). Blood samples collected either at the symptomatic visit or in the 3 months prior, were tested for spike protein immunoglobulin G (IgG). Overall, 433 symptomatic HCW were included in the analysis, with 190 (43.9%) having an Omicron infection; 69 (16.7%) were unvaccinated and 270 (62.4%) received a single dose of the Ad26.COV.2 vaccine. There was no difference in the odds of identifying Omicron between unvaccinated and Ad26.COV.2 vaccinated HCW (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.46, 1.43). One-hundred and fifty-four (35.3%) HCW had at least one SARS-CoV-2 NAAT-confirmed prior infection; these had lower odds of Omicron infection compared with those without past infection (aOR 0.55, 95%CI: 0.36, 0.84). Anti-spike IgG concentration of 1549 binding antibody unit/mL was suggestive of significant reduction in the risk of symptomatic Omicron infection. We found high reinfection and vaccine breakthrough infection rates with the Omicron variant among HCW. Prior infection and high anti-spike IgG concentration were protective against Omicron infection.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318127

ABSTRACT

Background: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at high risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection. We investigated the burden of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a longitudinal cohort of frontline HCWs in South Africa from April to September 2020.Methods: HCWs working in five departments at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital were followed-up weekly, independent of clinical symptomatology, during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic and tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Furthermore, paired sera collected at enrolment and end of surveillance were tested for IgG to receptor binding domain of the spike protein to evaluate for sero-response.Findings: Overall 137 (34·6%) of 396 enrolled HCWs had PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (132·1 [95%CI: 111·8, 156·2] per 1,000 person-months), and an additional 27 only showed sero-response at the end of follow-up. HCWs in the Internal Medicine department had the highest rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection (61·7%;103/167), with HCWs from other departments (27·5%;63/229) experiencing 70% lower odds of infection (adjust odds ratio 0·29 [95%CI: 0·17, 0·49]) in multivariable analysis. Among SARS-CoV-2 PCR-confirmed cases, 14 (10·4%) HCWs remained asymptomatic, 41 (30·4%) were pre-symptomatic and 80 (59·3%) were symptomatic. Symptomatic cases compared to asymptomatic had lower PCR cycle threshold values at diagnosis (24·2 vs. 28·9) and longer duration of PCR-positivity (18·9 vs. 13·0 days).Interpretation: The high rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection among HCWs in a relatively well-resourced middle-income setting attest to the threat that the COVID-19 pandemic poses to health care systems.Funding: This study was supported by the European & Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (grant number RIA2020EF-3020) and The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (grant number INV018148_2020). There was also partial support from the Department of Science and Technology and National Research Foundation: South African Research Chair Initiative in Vaccine Preventable Diseases;and the South African Medical Research Council.Conflict of Interest: MCN has received grant support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, MedImmune and Pfizer outside the submitted work;has received honoraria from Pfizer and Sanofi Pasteur outside the submitted work. CLC has received grant support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Pfizer and IMPRINT outside the submitted work;has received honoraria from Pfizer outside the submitted work. SAM has received grant support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Pfizer, GlaxoSmithKline, Minervax and Novavx outside the submitted work;personal fees from Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation outside the submitted work. All other authors have nothing to disclose.Ethical Approval: The study was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the University of the Witwatersrand (reference number 200405) and conducted in accordance with Good Clinical Practice guidelines. All study participants provided written informed consent.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317636

ABSTRACT

Background: Limitations in laboratory testing capacity undermine the ability to quantify the overall burden of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We undertook a cross-sectional population based sero-survey for SARS-CoV-2 infection in 26 sub-districts, Gauteng Province (population 15·9 million), South Africa. Furthermore, we estimated SARS-CoV-2 mortality risk triangulating seroprevalence, recorded COVID-19 deaths and excess mortality data.Methods: We employed multi-stage random household sampling with selection probability proportional to sub-district size, stratifying sub-district census-sampling frame by housing type and selecting clusters within household type strata. Serum SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) Immunoglobulin G (IgG) was measured using a quantitative assay on Luminex platform.Findings: Overall RBD IgG seroprevalence was 19·1% (95%Confidence interval [CI]: 18·1-20·1%), being similar in children and adults. Seroprevalence varied from 5·5% to 43·2% across sub-districts. Conservatively, there were 2 897 120 (95%CI: 2 743 907-3 056 866) SARS-CoV-2 infections, yielding an incidence of 19 090 per 100 000 until January 9, 2021, when 330 336 COVID-19 cases were recorded. The estimated mortality risk using recorded COVID-19 deaths (n=8198) was 0·28% (95%CI: 0·27-0·30) and 0·67% (95%CI: 0·64-0·71) assuming 90% of modelled natural excess deaths were due to COVID-19 (n=21 582). Notably, 53·8% (65/122) of individuals with previous self-reported confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were RBD IgG sero-negative.Interpretation: The imputed number of SARS-CoV-2 infections was 8·8 fold greater than recorded number of COVID-19 cases. The imputed SARS-CoV-2 infection mortality risk varied 2·39 fold when calculated using reported COVID-19 deaths (0·28%) compared with excess mortality derived COVID-19 attributable deaths (0·67%). Waning of RBD IgG may have inadvertently under-estimated number of SARS-CoV-2 infections, and conversely over-estimated mortality risk, by a factor of two. Funding Information: Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.Declaration of Interests: We declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: The University of the Witwatersrand Human Research Ethics Committee granted a waiver for formal approval of the survey, which was deemed to be part of public-health good and surveillance to manage the COVID-19 pandemic. Electronic signed informed consent was administered to individuals older than 15 years age, parental consent obtained for children <12 years of age, and assent and parental consent for adolescents 12-15 years old.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316095

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a public health emergency of international concern 1 . People living with HIV (PLWH) are at increased risk for adverse COVID-19 outcomes compared with HIV-negative individuals 2-5 , and are a high-risk group for COVID-19 prevention 4 . The ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine has demonstrated safety and efficacy against COVID-19 in clinical trials 6-8 . To date, there are no reports on the safety and immunogenicity of this, or any COVID-19 vaccine, in PLWH, and reports on the immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines in Africa are limited 9 . Here, we show comparable safety and immunogenicity of two doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 between PLWH and HIV-negative individuals in South Africa. Furthermore, in PLWH previously exposed to SARS-CoV-2, antibody responses increased substantially from baseline following a priming dose, with modest increases after a booster dose. Full-length spike and receptor-binding domain IgG geometric mean concentrations after a single dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 in PLWH previously exposed to SARS-CoV-2 were 6.49–6.84-fold higher than after two doses in those who were SARS-CoV-2 naïve at enrollment. Neutralizing antibody responses were consistent with the antibody-binding responses. This is the first report of a COVID-19 vaccine specific to PLWH, and specific to Africa, and demonstrates favorable safety and immunogenicity of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 in PLWH.

6.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327442

ABSTRACT

We investigated Omicron infections among healthcare workers (HCW) presenting with symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection and evaluated the protective effect of vaccination or prior infection. Between 24 th November and 31 st December 2021, HCW in Johannesburg, South Africa, were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection by Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAAT). Blood samples collected either at the symptomatic visit or within 3-months prior, were tested for spike protein immunoglobulin G (IgG). Overall, 433 symptomatic HCW were included in the analysis, with 190 (43.9%) having an Omicron infection;69 (16.7%) were unvaccinated and 270 (62.4%) received a single dose of Ad26.COV.2 vaccine. There was no difference in the odds of identifying Omicron between unvaccinated and Ad26.COV.2 vaccinated HCW (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.46, 1.43). One-hundred and fifty-four (35.3%) HCW had at least one SARS-CoV-2 NAAT-confirmed prior infection;these had lower odds of Omicron infection compared with those without past infection (aOR 0.55, 95%CI: 0.36, 0.84). Anti-spike IgG concentration of 1549 binding antibody unit/mL was suggestive of significant reduction in the risk of symptomatic Omicron infection. We found high reinfection and vaccine breakthrough infection rates with the Omicron variant among HCW. Prior infection and high anti-spike IgG concentration were protective against Omicron infection.

7.
J Virol Methods ; 300: 114394, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654865

ABSTRACT

We compared plasma and dried blood spots for detection of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. There was a good correlation between IgG values measured by both sampling methods, r = 0.935 and 0.965 for Receptor Binding Domain and full-length spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. Bland-Altman assessment showed good agreement between two sampling methods. Dried blood spots is a more pragmatic method for collecting samples for sero-epidemiological surveys of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 , Dried Blood Spot Testing , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262179, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636037

ABSTRACT

Comparisons of histopathological features and microbiological findings between decedents with respiratory symptoms due to SARS-CoV-2 infection or other causes, in settings with high prevalence of HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infections have not been reported. Deaths associated with a positive ante-mortem SARS-CoV-2 PCR test and/or respiratory disease symptoms at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital in Soweto, South Africa from 15th April to 2nd November 2020, during the first wave of the South African COVID-19 epidemic, were investigated. Deceased adult patients had post-mortem minimally-invasive tissue sampling (MITS) performed to investigate for SARS-CoV-2 infection and molecular detection of putative pathogens on blood and lung samples, and histopathology examination of lung, liver and heart tissue. During the study period MITS were done in patients displaying symptoms of respiratory disease including 75 COVID-19-related deaths (COVID+) and 42 non-COVID-19-related deaths (COVID-). The prevalence of HIV-infection was lower in COVID+ (27%) than in the COVID- (64%), MTB detection was also less common among COVID+ (3% vs 13%). Lung histopathology findings showed differences between COVID+ and COVID- in the severity of the morphological appearance of Type-II pneumocytes, alveolar injury and repair initiated by SARS-CoV-2 infection. In the liver necrotising granulomatous inflammation was more common among COVID+. No differences were found in heart analyses. The prevalence of bacterial co-infections was higher in COVID+. Most indicators of respiratory distress syndrome were undifferentiated between COVID+ and COVID- except for Type-II pneumocytes. HIV or MTB infection does not appear in these data to have a meaningful correspondence with COVID-related deaths.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , Autopsy , Biopsy, Large-Core Needle/methods , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , South Africa/epidemiology
9.
Cell ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1601904

ABSTRACT

On the 24th November 2021 the sequence of a new SARS CoV-2 viral isolate Omicron-B.1.1.529 was announced, containing far more mutations in Spike (S) than previously reported variants. Neutralization titres of Omicron by sera from vaccinees and convalescent subjects infected with early pandemic as well as Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta are substantially reduced or fail to neutralize. Titres against Omicron are boosted by third vaccine doses and are high in cases both vaccinated and infected by Delta. Mutations in Omicron knock out or substantially reduce neutralization by most of a large panel of potent monoclonal antibodies and antibodies under commercial development. Omicron S has structural changes from earlier viruses, combining mutations conferring tight binding to ACE2 to unleash evolution driven by immune escape, leading to a large number of mutations in the ACE2 binding site which rebalance receptor affinity to that of early pandemic viruses. A comprehensive analysis of sera from vaccinees, convalescent patients infected previously by multiple variants and potent monoclonal antibodies from early in the COVID-19 pandemic reveals a substantial overall reduction the ability to neutralize the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, which a third vaccine dose seems to ameliorate. Structural analyses of the Omicron RBD suggest a selective pressure enabling the virus bind ACE2 with increased affinity that is offset by other changes in the receptor binding motif that facilitates immune escape.

10.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295924

ABSTRACT

Global genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 has identified variants associated with increased transmissibility, neutralization resistance and disease severity. Here we report the emergence of the PANGO lineage C.1.2, detected at low prevalence in South Africa and eleven other countries. The emergence of C.1.2, associated with a high substitution rate, includes changes within the spike protein that have been associated with increased transmissibility or reduced neutralization sensitivity in SARS-CoV-2 VOC/VOIs. Like Beta and Delta, C.1.2 shows significantly reduced neutralization sensitivity to plasma from vaccinees and individuals infected with the ancestral D614G virus. In contrast, convalescent donors infected with either Beta or Delta showed high plasma neutralization against C.1.2. These functional data suggest that vaccine efficacy against C.1.2 will be equivalent to Beta and Delta, and that prior infection with either Beta or Delta will likely offer protection against C.1.2.

11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292654

ABSTRACT

Objective: Evaluate the impact of the timing of SARS-CoV-2 infection on pregnancy outcomes in a low-middle income setting.Design: two parallel, observational studies. Setting and population: pregnant women or women presenting for labour, enrolled between April-September 2020, in South Africa.Methods: i) longitudinal follow-up study of symptomatic or asymptomatic pregnant women investigated for SARS-CoV-2 infection antenatally, ii) cross-sectional study of SARS-CoV-2 infection at time of labour. SARS-CoV-2 infection was investigated by nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT). Main Outcome Measures: association of SARS-CoV-2 infection on nasal swab and birth outcomes.Results: Antenatally, 793 women were tested for SARS-CoV-2. Overall SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed in 138 women, including 119/275 with symptomatic illness (COVID-19) and 19/518 asymptomatic women;493 women were asymptomatic and SARS-CoV-2 non-reactive. Women with COVID-19 were 1.66-times (95%CI: 1.02, 1.71) more likely to have a low-birthweight newborn (30%) compared to asymptomatic women without SARS-CoV-2 (21%). Overall, 3117 women were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection at delivery, including 1560 healthy women with an uncomplicated term delivery. Adverse birth outcomes or pregnancy-related complications were not associated with infection at delivery. Among women with SARS-CoV-2 infection at delivery, NAAT was reactive on 6/98 of maternal blood samples, 8/93 of cord-blood, 14/54 of placentas and 3/22 of nasopharyngeal swabs from newborns collected within 72-hours of birth.Conclusions: Antenatal, but not intrapartum, SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with low-birthweight delivery. Maternal infection at the time of labour was associated with in utero foetal and placental infection, and possible vertical and/or horizontal viral transfer to the newborn.

12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(10): 1896-1900, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522151

ABSTRACT

From April to September 2020, we investigated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in a cohort of 396 healthcare workers (HCWs) from 5 departments at Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, South Africa. Overall, 34.6% of HCWs had polymerase chain reaction-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (132.1 [95% confidence interval, 111.8-156.2] infections per 1000 person-months); an additional 27 infections were identified by serology. HCWs in the internal medicine department had the highest rate of infection (61.7%). Among polymerase chain reaction-confirmed cases, 10.4% remained asymptomatic, 30.4% were presymptomatic, and 59.3% were symptomatic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cohort Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , South Africa/epidemiology
13.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2021 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493815

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limitations in laboratory testing capacity undermine the ability to quantify the overall burden of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: We undertook a population-based serosurvey for SARS-CoV-2 infection in 26 subdistricts, Gauteng Province (population 15.9 million), South Africa, to estimate SARS-CoV-2 infection, infection fatality rate (IFR) triangulating seroprevalence, recorded COVID-19 deaths and excess-mortality data. We employed three-stage random household sampling with a selection probability proportional to the subdistrict size, stratifying the subdistrict census-sampling frame by housing type and then selecting households from selected clusters. The survey started on 4 November 2020, 8 weeks after the end of the first wave (SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplification test positivity had declined to <10% for the first wave) and coincided with the peak of the second wave. The last sampling was performed on 22 January 2021, which was 9 weeks after the SARS-CoV-2 resurgence. Serum SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) immunoglobulin-G (IgG) was measured using a quantitative assay on the Luminex platform. RESULTS: From 6332 individuals in 3453 households, the overall RBD IgG seroprevalence was 19.1% [95% confidence interval (CI): 18.1-20.1%] and similar in children and adults. The seroprevalence varied from 5.5% to 43.2% across subdistricts. Conservatively, there were 2 897 120 (95% CI: 2 743 907-3 056 866) SARS-CoV-2 infections, yielding an infection rate of 19 090 per 100 000 until 9 January 2021, when 330 336 COVID-19 cases were recorded. The estimated IFR using recorded COVID-19 deaths (n = 8198) was 0.28% (95% CI: 0.27-0.30) and 0.67% (95% CI: 0.64-0.71) assuming 90% of modelled natural excess deaths were due to COVID-19 (n = 21 582). Notably, 53.8% (65/122) of individuals with previous self-reported confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were RBD IgG seronegative. CONCLUSIONS: The calculated number of SARS-CoV-2 infections was 7.8-fold greater than the recorded COVID-19 cases. The calculated SARS-CoV-2 IFR varied 2.39-fold when calculated using reported COVID-19 deaths (0.28%) compared with excess-mortality-derived COVID-19-attributable deaths (0.67%). Waning RBD IgG may have inadvertently underestimated the number of SARS-CoV-2 infections and conversely overestimated the mortality risk. Epidemic preparedness and response planning for future COVID-19 waves will need to consider the true magnitude of infections, paying close attention to excess-mortality trends rather than absolute reported COVID-19 deaths.

14.
Lancet HIV ; 8(9): e568-e580, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366764

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People living with HIV are at an increased risk of fatal outcome when admitted to hospital for severe COVID-19 compared with HIV-negative individuals. We aimed to assess safety and immunogenicity of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine in people with HIV and HIV-negative individuals in South Africa. METHODS: In this ongoing, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1B/2A trial (COV005), people with HIV and HIV-negative participants aged 18-65 years were enrolled at seven South African locations and were randomly allocated (1:1) with full allocation concealment to receive a prime-boost regimen of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, with two doses given 28 days apart. Eligibility criteria for people with HIV included being on antiretroviral therapy for at least 3 months, with a plasma HIV viral load of less than 1000 copies per mL. In this interim analysis, safety and reactogenicity was assessed in all individuals who received at least one dose of ChAdOx1 nCov 19 between enrolment and Jan 15, 2021. Primary immunogenicity analyses included participants who received two doses of trial intervention and were SARS-CoV-2 seronegative at baseline. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04444674, and the Pan African Clinicals Trials Registry, PACTR202006922165132. FINDINGS: Between June 24 and Nov 12, 2020, 104 people with HIV and 70 HIV-negative individuals were enrolled. 102 people with HIV (52 vaccine; 50 placebo) and 56 HIV-negative participants (28 vaccine; 28 placebo) received the priming dose, 100 people with HIV (51 vaccine; 49 placebo) and 46 HIV-negative participants (24 vaccine; 22 placebo) received two doses (priming and booster). In participants seronegative for SARS-CoV-2 at baseline, there were 164 adverse events in those with HIV (86 vaccine; 78 placebo) and 237 in HIV-negative participants (95 vaccine; 142 placebo). Of seven serious adverse events, one severe fever in a HIV-negative participant was definitely related to trial intervention and one severely elevated alanine aminotranferase in a participant with HIV was unlikely related; five others were deemed unrelated. One person with HIV died (unlikely related). People with HIV and HIV-negative participants showed vaccine-induced serum IgG responses against wild-type Wuhan-1 Asp614Gly (also known as D614G). For participants seronegative for SARS-CoV-2 antigens at baseline, full-length spike geometric mean concentration (GMC) at day 28 was 163·7 binding antibody units (BAU)/mL (95% CI 89·9-298·1) for people with HIV (n=36) and 112·3 BAU/mL (61·7-204·4) for HIV-negative participants (n=23), with a rising day 42 GMC booster response in both groups. Baseline SARS-CoV-2 seropositive people with HIV demonstrated higher antibody responses after each vaccine dose than did people with HIV who were seronegative at baseline. High-level binding antibody cross-reactivity for the full-length spike and receptor-binding domain of the beta variant (B.1.351) was seen regardless of HIV status. In people with HIV who developed high titre responses, predominantly those who were receptor-binding domain seropositive at enrolment, neutralising activity against beta was retained. INTERPRETATION: ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 was well tolerated, showing favourable safety and immunogenicity in people with HIV, including heightened immunogenicity in SARS-CoV-2 baseline-seropositive participants. People with HIV showed cross-reactive binding antibodies to the beta variant and Asp614Gly wild-type, and high responders retained neutralisation against beta. FUNDING: The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, South African Medical Research Council, UK Research and Innovation, UK National Institute for Health Research, and the South African Medical Research Council.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , HIV Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cross Reactions , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Male , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Safety , Vaccination
15.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(9): e323-e332, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358506

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Globally, very few childhood deaths have been attributed to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We evaluated clinical, microbiologic and postmortem histopathologic findings in childhood deaths in whom severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was identified antemortem or postmortem. METHODS: Surveillance of childhood deaths was ongoing during the initial COVID-19 outbreak in South Africa from April 14, 2020, to August 31, 2020. All children hospitalized during this time had a SARS-CoV-2 test done as part of standard of care. Postmortem sampling included minimally invasive tissue sampling (MITS) of lung, liver and heart tissue; blood and lung samples for bacterial culture and molecular detection of viruses (including SARS-CoV-2) and bacteria. The cause of death attribution was undertaken by a multidisciplinary team and reported using World Health Organization framework for cause of death attribution. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 was identified on antemortem and/or postmortem sampling in 11.7% (20/171) of deceased children, including 13.2% (12/91) in whom MITS was done. Eighteen (90%) of 20 deaths with SARS-CoV-2 infection were <12 months age. COVID-19 was attributed in the causal pathway to death in 91.7% (11/12) and 87.5% (7/8) cases with and without MITS, respectively. Lung histopathologic features in COVID-19-related deaths included diffuse alveolar damage (n = 6, 54.5%), type 2 pneumocyte proliferation (n = 6, 54.5%) and hyaline membrane formation (n = 5, 36.4%). Culture-confirmed invasive bacterial disease was evident in 54.5% (6/11) of COVID-19 attributed deaths investigated with MITS. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 was in the causal pathway of 10.5% (18/171) of all childhood deaths under surveillance. The postmortem histopathologic features in fatal COVID-19 cases in children were consistent with reports on COVID-19 deaths in adults; although there was a high prevalence of invasive bacterial disease in the children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Gastroenteritis/complications , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Tract Diseases/complications , Seizures/complications , South Africa/epidemiology
16.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332907

ABSTRACT

Endemic human coronaviruses (HCoV) are capable of causing a range of diseases from the common cold to pneumonia. We evaluated the epidemiology and seasonality of endemic HCoVs in children hospitalized with clinical pneumonia and among community controls living in countries with a high HIV burden, namely South Africa and Zambia, between August 2011 to October 2013. Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were collected from all cases and controls and tested for endemic HCoV species and 12 other respiratory viruses using a multiplex real-time PCR assay. We found that the likelihood of detecting endemic HCoV species was higher among asymptomatic controls than cases (11% vs. 7.2%; 95% CI: 1.2-2.0). This was however only observed among children > 6 months and was mainly driven by the Betacoronavirus endemic species (HCoV-OC43 and -HKU1). Endemic HCoV species were detected through the year; however, in Zambia, the endemic Betacoronavirus species tended to peak during the winter months (May-August). There was no association between HIV status and endemic HCoV detection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus/physiology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Male , Nasopharynx/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Seasons , South Africa/epidemiology , Zambia/epidemiology
17.
Cell ; 184(16): 4220-4236.e13, 2021 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272328

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has undergone progressive change, with variants conferring advantage rapidly becoming dominant lineages, e.g., B.1.617. With apparent increased transmissibility, variant B.1.617.2 has contributed to the current wave of infection ravaging the Indian subcontinent and has been designated a variant of concern in the United Kingdom. Here we study the ability of monoclonal antibodies and convalescent and vaccine sera to neutralize B.1.617.1 and B.1.617.2, complement this with structural analyses of Fab/receptor binding domain (RBD) complexes, and map the antigenic space of current variants. Neutralization of both viruses is reduced compared with ancestral Wuhan-related strains, but there is no evidence of widespread antibody escape as seen with B.1.351. However, B.1.351 and P.1 sera showed markedly more reduction in neutralization of B.1.617.2, suggesting that individuals infected previously by these variants may be more susceptible to reinfection by B.1.617.2. This observation provides important new insights for immunization policy with future variant vaccines in non-immune populations.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antigen-Antibody Complex/chemistry , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Chlorocebus aethiops , Crystallography, X-Ray , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Neutralization Tests , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vero Cells
18.
N Engl J Med ; 384(20): 1899-1909, 2021 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216484

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants threatens progress toward control of the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic. In a phase 1-2 trial involving healthy adults, the NVX-CoV2373 nanoparticle vaccine had an acceptable safety profile and was associated with strong neutralizing-antibody and antigen-specific polyfunctional CD4+ T-cell responses. Evaluation of vaccine efficacy was needed in a setting of ongoing SARS-CoV-2 transmission. METHODS: In this phase 2a-b trial in South Africa, we randomly assigned human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative adults between the ages of 18 and 84 years or medically stable HIV-positive participants between the ages of 18 and 64 years in a 1:1 ratio to receive two doses of either the NVX-CoV2373 vaccine (5 µg of recombinant spike protein with 50 µg of Matrix-M1 adjuvant) or placebo. The primary end points were safety and vaccine efficacy against laboratory-confirmed symptomatic Covid-19 at 7 days or more after the second dose among participants without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: Of 6324 participants who underwent screening, 4387 received at least one injection of vaccine or placebo. Approximately 30% of the participants were seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 at baseline. Among 2684 baseline seronegative participants (94% HIV-negative and 6% HIV-positive), predominantly mild-to-moderate Covid-19 developed in 15 participants in the vaccine group and in 29 in the placebo group (vaccine efficacy, 49.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.1 to 72.8). Vaccine efficacy among HIV-negative participants was 60.1% (95% CI, 19.9 to 80.1). Of 41 sequenced isolates, 38 (92.7%) were the B.1.351 variant. Post hoc vaccine efficacy against B.1.351 was 51.0% (95% CI, -0.6 to 76.2) among the HIV-negative participants. Preliminary local and systemic reactogenicity events were more common in the vaccine group; serious adverse events were rare in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The NVX-CoV2373 vaccine was efficacious in preventing Covid-19, with higher vaccine efficacy observed among HIV-negative participants. Most infections were caused by the B.1.351 variant. (Funded by Novavax and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04533399.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , HIV Seronegativity , HIV Seropositivity , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , South Africa , Young Adult
19.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(6): 503-512, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197052

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severity of viral respiratory illnesses can be increased with bacterial coinfection and can vary by sex, but influence of coinfection and sex on human endemic coronavirus (CoV) species, which generally cause mild to moderate respiratory illness, is unknown. We evaluated CoV and pneumococcal co-detection by sex in childhood pneumonia. METHODS: In the 2011-2014 Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health study, nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal (NP/OP) swabs and other samples were collected from 3981 children <5 years hospitalized with severe or very severe pneumonia in 7 countries. Severity by NP/OP detection status of CoV (NL63, 229E, OC43 or HKU1) and high-density (≥6.9 log10 copies/mL) pneumococcus (HDSpn) by real-time polymerase chain reaction was assessed by sex using logistic regression adjusted for age and site. RESULTS: There were 43 (1.1%) CoV+/HDSpn+, 247 CoV+/HDSpn-, 449 CoV-/HDSpn+ and 3149 CoV-/HDSpn- cases with no significant difference in co-detection frequency by sex (range 51.2%-64.0% male, P = 0.06). More CoV+/HDSpn+ pneumonia was very severe compared with other groups for both males (13/22, 59.1% versus range 29.1%-34.7%, P = 0.04) and females (10/21, 47.6% versus 32.5%-43.5%, P = 0.009), but only male CoV+/HDSpn+ required supplemental oxygen more frequently (45.0% versus 20.6%-28.6%, P < 0.001) and had higher mortality (35.0% versus 5.3%-7.1%, P = 0.004) than other groups. For females with CoV+/HDSpn+, supplemental oxygen was 25.0% versus 24.8%-33.3% (P = 0.58) and mortality was 10.0% versus 9.2%-12.9% (P = 0.69). CONCLUSIONS: Co-detection of endemic CoV and HDSpn was rare in children hospitalized with pneumonia, but associated with higher severity and mortality in males. Findings may warrant investigation of differences in severity by sex with co-detection of HDSpn and SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Coinfection/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumococcal Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/virology , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/virology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Logistic Models , Male , Nasopharynx/virology , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/virology , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Streptococcus pneumoniae
20.
Lancet ; 397(10277): 881-891, 2021 03 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174543

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine has been approved for emergency use by the UK regulatory authority, Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, with a regimen of two standard doses given with an interval of 4-12 weeks. The planned roll-out in the UK will involve vaccinating people in high-risk categories with their first dose immediately, and delivering the second dose 12 weeks later. Here, we provide both a further prespecified pooled analysis of trials of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and exploratory analyses of the impact on immunogenicity and efficacy of extending the interval between priming and booster doses. In addition, we show the immunogenicity and protection afforded by the first dose, before a booster dose has been offered. METHODS: We present data from three single-blind randomised controlled trials-one phase 1/2 study in the UK (COV001), one phase 2/3 study in the UK (COV002), and a phase 3 study in Brazil (COV003)-and one double-blind phase 1/2 study in South Africa (COV005). As previously described, individuals 18 years and older were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive two standard doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (5 × 1010 viral particles) or a control vaccine or saline placebo. In the UK trial, a subset of participants received a lower dose (2·2 × 1010 viral particles) of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 for the first dose. The primary outcome was virologically confirmed symptomatic COVID-19 disease, defined as a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)-positive swab combined with at least one qualifying symptom (fever ≥37·8°C, cough, shortness of breath, or anosmia or ageusia) more than 14 days after the second dose. Secondary efficacy analyses included cases occuring at least 22 days after the first dose. Antibody responses measured by immunoassay and by pseudovirus neutralisation were exploratory outcomes. All cases of COVID-19 with a NAAT-positive swab were adjudicated for inclusion in the analysis by a masked independent endpoint review committee. The primary analysis included all participants who were SARS-CoV-2 N protein seronegative at baseline, had had at least 14 days of follow-up after the second dose, and had no evidence of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection from NAAT swabs. Safety was assessed in all participants who received at least one dose. The four trials are registered at ISRCTN89951424 (COV003) and ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04324606 (COV001), NCT04400838 (COV002), and NCT04444674 (COV005). FINDINGS: Between April 23 and Dec 6, 2020, 24 422 participants were recruited and vaccinated across the four studies, of whom 17 178 were included in the primary analysis (8597 receiving ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and 8581 receiving control vaccine). The data cutoff for these analyses was Dec 7, 2020. 332 NAAT-positive infections met the primary endpoint of symptomatic infection more than 14 days after the second dose. Overall vaccine efficacy more than 14 days after the second dose was 66·7% (95% CI 57·4-74·0), with 84 (1·0%) cases in the 8597 participants in the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 group and 248 (2·9%) in the 8581 participants in the control group. There were no hospital admissions for COVID-19 in the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 group after the initial 21-day exclusion period, and 15 in the control group. 108 (0·9%) of 12 282 participants in the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 group and 127 (1·1%) of 11 962 participants in the control group had serious adverse events. There were seven deaths considered unrelated to vaccination (two in the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 group and five in the control group), including one COVID-19-related death in one participant in the control group. Exploratory analyses showed that vaccine efficacy after a single standard dose of vaccine from day 22 to day 90 after vaccination was 76·0% (59·3-85·9). Our modelling analysis indicated that protection did not wane during this initial 3-month period. Similarly, antibody levels were maintained during this period with minimal waning by day 90 (geometric mean ratio [GMR] 0·66 [95% CI 0·59-0·74]). In the participants who received two standard doses, after the second dose, efficacy was higher in those with a longer prime-boost interval (vaccine efficacy 81·3% [95% CI 60·3-91·2] at ≥12 weeks) than in those with a short interval (vaccine efficacy 55·1% [33·0-69·9] at <6 weeks). These observations are supported by immunogenicity data that showed binding antibody responses more than two-fold higher after an interval of 12 or more weeks compared with an interval of less than 6 weeks in those who were aged 18-55 years (GMR 2·32 [2·01-2·68]). INTERPRETATION: The results of this primary analysis of two doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 were consistent with those seen in the interim analysis of the trials and confirm that the vaccine is efficacious, with results varying by dose interval in exploratory analyses. A 3-month dose interval might have advantages over a programme with a short dose interval for roll-out of a pandemic vaccine to protect the largest number of individuals in the population as early as possible when supplies are scarce, while also improving protection after receiving a second dose. FUNDING: UK Research and Innovation, National Institutes of Health Research (NIHR), The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Lemann Foundation, Rede D'Or, the Brava and Telles Foundation, NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Thames Valley and South Midland's NIHR Clinical Research Network, and AstraZeneca.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization Schedule , Immunization, Secondary , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibody Formation , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Middle Aged , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
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