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1.
J Infect ; 84(3): 383-390, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1629925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of the Coronavirus-disease associated mucormycosis (CAM) syndemic is poorly elucidated. We aimed to identify risk factors that may explain the burden of cases and help develop preventive strategies. METHODS: We performed a case-control study comparing cases diagnosed with CAM and taking controls as recovered COVID 19 patients who did not develop mucormycosis. Information on comorbidities, glycemic control, and practices related to COVID-19 prevention and treatment was recorded. Multivariate regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors. RESULTS: A total of 352 patients (152 cases and 200 controls) diagnosed with COVID-19 during April-May 2021 were included. In the CAM group, symptoms of mucormycosis began a mean of 18.9 (SD 9.1) days after onset of COVID-19, and predominantly rhino-sinus and orbital involvement was present. All, but one, CAM cases had conventional risk factors of diabetes and steroid use. On multivariable regression, increased odds of CAM were associated with the presence of diabetes (adjusted OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.1-11), use of systemic steroids (aOR 7.7, 95% CI 2.4-24.7), prolonged use of cloth and surgical masks (vs. no mask, aOR 6.9, 95%CI 1.5-33.1), and repeated nasopharyngeal swab testing during the COVID-19 illness (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.2). Zinc therapy was found to be protective (aOR 0.05, 95%CI 0.01-0.19). Notably, the requirement of oxygen supplementation or hospitalization did not affect the risk of CAM. CONCLUSION: Judicious use of steroids and stringent glycemic control are vital to preventing mucormycosis. Use of clean masks, preference for N95 masks if available, and minimizing swab testing after the diagnosis of COVID-19 may further reduce the incidence of CAM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 6(1): e12645, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626487

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes abnormalities in the hemostatic system, collectively known as COVID-associated coagulopathy. The dynamics of clot formation are best discerned by whole-blood viscoelastic tests, such as thromboelastography (TEG). We aimed to assess the various abnormalities seen on TEG and explored the predictors of outcomes in these patients. METHODS: Thromboelastography was performed for 28 patients with COVID-19 using an automated thromboelastogram. The hemostatic condition was categorized as hypercoagulable in 17 (63%), hypocoagulable in 2 (7%), and normal in 8 (30%) based on TEG variables, such as reaction time , time until clot reaches a fixed strength, alpha angle, maximum amplitude, and clotting index. Laboratory parameters and clinical outcomes were compared between hypercoagulable and normal groups. RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients with a median age of 50 years (interquartile range, 40-60 years), male-to-female ratio of 0.9:1, median C-reactive protein of 25.7 (10.9-108.8) mg/L, serum ferritin of 693 (317-1031) µg/L, and albumin 2.9 (2.6-3.3) g/dL were included. The median prothrombin time/international normalized ratio and activated partial thromboplastin time were within normal range in the hypercoagulable and normal groups. The severity of COVID-19 was mild in 6 (22.2%), moderate in 2 (7.4%), and severe in 19 (70.4%) patients. Twenty-eight-day mortality among patients with hypocoagulable and hypercoagulable states was higher than normal coagulation status. (log-rank test, P = .002). CONCLUSIONS: Hypercoagulable state, together with a severe inflammatory state, is common in patients with COVID-19, despite thromboprophylaxis. TEG assesses coagulation status better than conventional coagulation tests. Coagulation abnormalities are associated with poor outcomes.

3.
Cureus ; 13(12): e20072, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579878

ABSTRACT

Introduction During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in India, several characteristics of hospitalized COVID-19 patients, based on demographics, mortality predictors, and presence of comorbidities, were found to be associated with poor outcomes. The objective of this study was to identify such epidemiological and clinical characteristics among the patients admitted at a tertiary-care center in India that may have predisposed them to COVID-19-related mortality. Methods This retrospective observational study conducted at the Department of Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, in May 2021 included 141 COVID-19 confirmed patients. The medical history, demographic characteristics, comorbidities, clinical findings, and laboratory data of each patient were obtained. The data were analyzed to identify significant clinical and laboratory parameters that led to the adverse final outcomes. Results Hypertension was the most common comorbidity and the presence of diabetes with hypertension led to poorer final outcomes. Lower oxygen saturation and requirement of oxygen supplementation at admission along with worse prognostic scores during admission led to poorer outcomes. Twenty-seven patients needed non-invasive ventilation (NIV) during the hospital course, and all ultimately landed up among the 56 patients who were managed on invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Multivariate logistic regression analysis performed identified COVID-19 severity at admission, co-existence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, systolic blood pressure less than 90 mm Hg, and serum creatinine greater than 1.2 mg/dL to be associated with higher COVID-19 mortality. Conclusion COVID-19 patients having the co-existence of diabetes and hypertension constitute a high-risk group and may be targeted by prompt vaccination strategies. The presence of severe disease along with a need for oxygen therapy and other intensive care interventions ultimately led to unfavorable outcomes.

4.
Cureus ; 13(10): e19080, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513117

ABSTRACT

Introduction A cytokine storm is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The objective of the study was to determine the prognostic significance of pro-inflammatory cytokines with the overall final outcome of patients with COVID-19. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 142 patients admitted with COVID-19 in the Department of Medicine at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, from May 2021 to June 2021. We obtained their demographic, clinical, and biochemical characteristics at baseline and 48-72 hours prior to the terminal event (survival/death). The data were analyzed to determine the prognostic significance of these markers on the final outcome. Results Higher levels of inflammatory markers were associated with a worse final outcome (ferritin p-value <0.001, c-reactive protein (CRP) p-value <0.001, interleukin 6 (IL-6) p-value 0.007, procalcitonin p-value 0.005, and lactic acid p-value 0.004). Optimal probability cut-offs for these markers for predicting mortality were: ferritin: 963 ng/mL (sensitivity - 67.35%, specificity - 67.50%), CRP: 66.3 mg/L (sensitivity - 78.43%, specificity - 74.12%), IL-6: 46.2 pg/mL (sensitivity - 59.26%, specificity - 59.57%), procalcitonin: 0.3ng/mL (sensitivity - 65.38 %, specificity - 66.67%), lactic acid: 1.5 mg/dL (sensitivity - 59.26%, specificity - 58.57%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done, which showed that pre-terminal event CRP was associated with a statistically significant higher risk of mortality (Unadjusted OR 18.89, Adjusted OR 1.008, p=0.002, 95% CI 6.815 - 47.541). Conclusion Inflammatory markers have a prognostic significance in patients with COVID-19, with higher levels being associated with worse outcomes.

5.
J Educ Health Promot ; 10: 269, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365750

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 may seem to have an impact on middle-aged and elderly people. However, not much is known about the lived experiences of middle-aged and elderly people during this pandemic. The study aims to explore psychosocial and behavioral impact of COVID-19 on the lives of these individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three focus group discussions and seven in-depth interviews were conducted. A format to guide discussions and interviews was made to bring uniformity across groups and participants. Participants were recruited through purposive and snowball sampling techniques. Discussions were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis method was used to extract key conceptual themes. RESULTS: There were 12 male and 10 female participants included, with a mean age of 62.2 years. Five subcategories identified were: Fear and anxiety, household confinement, lifestyle modification, preventive practices, and coping strategies. These sub-categories formed three major categories-psychological, social, and behavioral which ultimately led to the emergence of the main theme that is, COVID-19 effects on the life of middle-aged and older individuals. CONCLUSION: Middle-aged and elderly people are affected in many ways due to COVID-19. Addressing the psycho-social and behavioral problems can help in the better adjustment to tide over the pandemic.

6.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(5): 102238, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330759

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To evaluate the dose-effect association between COVID-19 vaccination and probability of turning RT-PCR positive and to assess the correlation between disease severity and vaccination status. METHODS: A single centre cross-sectional study was conducted amongst 583 individuals presenting to COVID-19 testing clinic and 55 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Vaccination status was assessed by the number of doses and duration since the last dose. Disease severity was evaluated by the requirement of hospitalisation and ICU admission/death. The association between the vaccination status and development of disease and its severity were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: The mean age of the population was 36.6 years and 82.6% had no comorbidities. The odds of turning RT-PCR positive was 0.17(95% CI: 0.11-0.27) among the clinical suspects who had taken both doses of the vaccine at least 14 days before (fully vaccinated). The odds of hospitalisation was 0.12(95% CI: 0.03-0.45) and ICU admission/death was 0.07(95% CI: 0.01-0.36) among fully vaccinated individuals. The protective role of vaccination was observed to start 14 days after receiving the first dose. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccination provides dose-dependent protection against the development of the disease. It also lowers the risk of hospitalisation and ICU admission/death in RT-PCR positive patients in a dose-dependent manner.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization Schedule , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccine Potency , Young Adult
7.
Drug Discov Ther ; 15(3): 130-138, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296656

ABSTRACT

Dengue is a life-threatening mosquito borne viral disease. We are still in the era of supportive treatment where morbidity and mortality are a major concern. Dengue infection in presence of other co-infections makes this scenario rather worse. Timely recognition and raising alarm to be intensive is the need of the hour for primary care physicians practicing in the community and indoors. This review provides a comprehensive knowledge about the recent trends of coinfection in dengue as well as their management consideration which will be particularly helpful for physicians practicing in rural and remote areas of India.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/therapy , Coinfection/therapy , Dengue Virus , Malaria/therapy , Virus Diseases/therapy , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Dengue Virus/genetics , Dengue Virus/pathogenicity , Humans , Malaria/epidemiology , Reinfection , Serogroup , Virulence , Virus Diseases/epidemiology
8.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 39(2): 200-211, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201396

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 has affected thousands of health care workers worldwide. Suboptimal infection control practices have been identified as important risk factors. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire to holistically assess the preventive practices of health care workers related to COVID-19 and identify the reasons for shortcomings therein. METHODS: The development of the questionnaire involved item generation through literature review, focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with health care workers and experts, followed by validation through expert opinion, pilot testing and survey. A cross-sectional survey on 147 healthcare workers was done using an online platform and/or interviews in August 2020 in New Delhi, India. Exploratory factor analysis using principal component extraction with varimax rotation was performed to establish construct validity. Internal consistency of the tool was tested using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. RESULTS: The developed questionnaire consists of two sections: Section A contains 29 items rated on a five-point Likert scale to assess preventive practices and Section B contains 27 semi-structured items to assess reasons for suboptimal practices. The first section has good validity (CVR = 0.87, S-CVI/Av = 0.978) and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient = 0.85) CONCLUSIONS: This questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for holistic assessment of preventive practices and barriers to it among health care workers. It will be useful to identify vulnerable practices and sections in health care settings which would assist policymakers in designing appropriate interventions for infection prevention and control. This will also be useful in future pandemics of similar nature.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Reproducibility of Results , Young Adult
9.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(3): 679-682, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157245

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The study aims to interpret current knowledge, attitude, perceptions and concerns regarding COVID-19 vaccine in the Indian population. METHODS: Eight focus group discussions were conducted. Participants were recruited via purposive sampling. Discussions were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Key themes were extracted using thematic analysis method. RESULTS: There were 19 males and 24 females, with a mean age of 36 ± 11 years. Sub-themes identified were knowledge, attitude, perception and concerns regarding COVID-19 vaccine, leading to the main theme, i.e., views about the COVID-19 vaccine. CONCLUSION: People have mixed perceptions regarding COVID-19 vaccine. Channelling correct messages may improve people's willingness to get vaccinated.


Subject(s)
Attitude to Health , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination/psychology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Data Analysis , Female , Focus Groups , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Patient Participation/psychology , Patient Participation/statistics & numerical data , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
10.
Cureus ; 13(3): e13681, 2021 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150969

ABSTRACT

Background Preventive strategies in the form of early identification and isolation of patients are the cornerstones in the control of COVID-19 pandemic. We have conducted this study to develop a clinical symptom-based scoring system (CSBSS) for the diagnostic evaluation of COVID-19.  Methods In this study, 378 patients presenting to screening outpatient clinic with clinical suspicion of COVID-19 were evaluated for various clinical symptoms. Statistical associations between presenting symptoms and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results were analysed to select statistically significant clinical symptoms to design a scoring formula. CSBSS was developed by evaluating clinical symptoms in 70% of the total patients. The cut-off score of the CSBSS was determined from ROC (receiver operating characteristics) curve analysis to obtain a cut-off for optimum sensitivity and specificity. Subsequently, developed CSBSS was validated in the external validation dataset comprising 30% of patients. Results Clinical symptoms like fever >1000F, myalgia, headache, cough and loss of smell had significant association with RT-PCR result. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval [CI]) for loss of smell, fever >100°F, headache, cough and myalgia were 5.00 (1.78-13.99), 2.05 (1.36-3.07), 1.31 (0.67-2.59), 1.26 (0.70-2.26) and 1.18 (0.50-2.78), respectively. The ROC curve and area under the curve of development and validation datasets were similar. Conclusion The presence of fever >100°F and loss of smell among suspected patients are important clinical predictors for the diagnosis of COVID-19. This newly developed CSBSS is a valid screening tool that can be useful in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected COVID-19. This can be used for the risk stratification of the suspected patients before their RT-PCR results are generated.

11.
Prev Med Rep ; 22: 101339, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096201

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected millions of people worldwide with far-reaching socio-economic implications in society. The adoption of preventive practices by the public remains the mainstay in reducing the spread of COVID-19 but there is a dearth of validated tools to assess such infection prevention practices related to pandemics. This study was conducted to develop and validate a questionnaire for the assessment of preventive practices against COVID-19 in the general population. It was done following a standardized protocol involving questionnaire development through literature review, focused group discussions, in-depth interviews, expert opinion, and pre-testing. This was followed by the validation of the questionnaire through a cross-sectional survey on 108 individuals from diverse backgrounds in New Delhi, India in July 2020. Exploratory factor analysis was used to evaluate construct validity. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The developed questionnaire for assessing preventive practices consists of two sections: the first section of 18 items to evaluate preventive practices and the second section of 19 items for assessing various reasons for deficiencies in the preventive practices. The first section has good content validity (CVR = 0.81 and S-CVI/Av = 0.97) and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient 0.82). Thus, this questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for the comprehensive assessment of preventive practices and barriers related to the COVID-19 pandemic. It will be useful in assessing the preparedness of the public and will be helpful to policymakers in designing appropriate interventions for protection against COVID-19.

12.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(2): 601-603, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1086907

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aim of the study is to develop a valid and reliable tool to assess sociobehavioural changes due to COVID among the general population. METHODS: This mixed method study has two phases. Phase I for questionnaire development (literature review, focus group discussion, expert evaluation and pilot testing). Phase II for establishing construct validity via factor analysis and internal consistency via Cronbach's ɑ by administering the questionnaire on 179 participants. RESULTS: A questionnaire comprising 33 questions and five domains was developed having Cronbach's α of 0·82. CONCLUSION: The developed questionnaire is a concise, easy to administer and valid tool to assess socio-behavioural changes.


Subject(s)
Attitude to Health , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Health Behavior , Social Participation , Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety/psychology , Diet , Exercise , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Fear/psychology , Female , Hand Disinfection , Humans , India , Male , Masks , Physical Distancing , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , Social Isolation/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(6): 1697-1701, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059533

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The lasting impact of COVID 19 pandemic and associated restrictions are bound to be significant on lifestyle-related behaviour including diet, physical activity and sleep which is one of the important components in the management of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. This study was conducted to develop and validate a questionnaire to assess changes in individual's lifestyle-related behaviour during COVID 19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The questionnaire was developed through a standardised methodology including literature review, focus group discussion, expert evaluation, pre-testing and validation. The face validity and content validity of the questionnaire were analysed. A cross-sectional survey was carried out on 103 participants to validate the questionnaire that used a 5-point Likert scale for the response option. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to establish construct validity. Cronbach's alpha was calculated to test the internal consistency of the whole questionnaire. RESULTS: A questionnaire with 20 items to assess the lifestyle-related behaviour of people was developed. The questionnaire shows a satisfactory validity and a good internal consistency with the Cronbach's alpha value of 0.72. CONCLUSION: The developed tool is valid and reliable to assess the changes in lifestyle-related behaviour of individuals during COVID 19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet , Exercise , Health Behavior , Life Style , Sleep , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , India , Male , Middle Aged , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
14.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(6): 2021-2030, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059532

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The impact of measures taken to contain COVID-19 on lifestyle-related behaviour is undefined in Indian population. The current study was undertaken to assess the impact of COVID-19 on lifestyle-related behaviours: eating, physical activity and sleep behaviour. METHODS: The study is a cross-sectional web-based survey. A validated questionnaire to assess the changes in lifestyle-related behaviour was administered on adults across India using a Google online survey platform. RESULTS: A total of 995 responses (58.5% male, mean age 33.3 years) were collected. An improvement in healthy meal consumption pattern and a restriction of unhealthy food items was observed, especially in the younger population (age <30 years). A reduction in physical activity coupled with an increase in daily screen time was found especially among men and in upper-socio-economic strata. Quarantine induced stress and anxiety showed an increase by a unit in nearly one-fourth of the participants. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 marginally improved the eating behaviour, yet one-third of participants gained weight as physical activity declined significantly coupled with an increase in screen and sitting time. Mental health was also adversely affected. A detailed understanding of these factors can help to develop interventions to mitigate the negative lifestyle behaviours that have manifested during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise/physiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Health Behavior/physiology , Life Style , Quarantine/trends , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise/psychology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine/psychology , Sleep/physiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
15.
Eur Radiol ; 31(8): 6039-6048, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1037943

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To study whether a trained convolutional neural network (CNN) can be of assistance to radiologists in differentiating Coronavirus disease (COVID)-positive from COVID-negative patients using chest X-ray (CXR) through an ambispective clinical study. To identify subgroups of patients where artificial intelligence (AI) can be of particular value and analyse what imaging features may have contributed to the performance of AI by means of visualisation techniques. METHODS: CXR of 487 patients were classified into [4] categories-normal, classical COVID, indeterminate, and non-COVID by consensus opinion of 2 radiologists. CXR which were classified as "normal" and "indeterminate" were then subjected to analysis by AI, and final categorisation provided as guided by prediction of the network. Precision and recall of the radiologist alone and radiologist assisted by AI were calculated in comparison to reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) as the gold standard. Attention maps of the CNN were analysed to understand regions in the CXR important to the AI algorithm in making a prediction. RESULTS: The precision of radiologists improved from 65.9 to 81.9% and recall improved from 17.5 to 71.75 when assistance with AI was provided. AI showed 92% accuracy in classifying "normal" CXR into COVID or non-COVID. Analysis of attention maps revealed attention on the cardiac shadow in these "normal" radiographs. CONCLUSION: This study shows how deployment of an AI algorithm can complement a human expert in the determination of COVID status. Analysis of the detected features suggests possible subtle cardiac changes, laying ground for further investigative studies into possible cardiac changes. KEY POINTS: • Through an ambispective clinical study, we show how assistance with an AI algorithm can improve recall (sensitivity) and precision (positive predictive value) of radiologists in assessing CXR for possible COVID in comparison to RT-PCR. • We show that AI achieves the best results in images classified as "normal" by radiologists. We conjecture that possible subtle cardiac in the CXR, imperceptible to the human eye, may have contributed to this prediction. • The reported results may pave the way for a human computer collaboration whereby the expert with some help from the AI algorithm achieves higher accuracy in predicting COVID status on CXR than previously thought possible when considering either alone.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19 , Humans , Radiography, Thoracic , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , X-Rays
16.
Cureus ; 12(12): e11815, 2020 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011764

ABSTRACT

Background Preventive practices are the mainstay to mitigate the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. We tried to assess the self-reported adherence of our participants to the already known preventive practices. Furthermore, we tried to determine whether the non-compliance to specific preventive practices was associated with the acquisition of the infection or not. Methods We enrolled 379 healthcare workers, hospital staff, and their family members who were tested for COVID-19 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in an outpatient clinic. Socio-demography and the infection prevention practices of the individuals were recorded in a preformed questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed to find out the statistical association between these factors and the RT-PCR results. Adjusted and unadjusted odds ratios were determined to find out the degree of protection provided by each of the preventive practices concerning the development of the disease. Results Social distancing (p<0.001), hand hygiene (p<0.001), ensuring N-95 mask fit check (p<0.001), and the use of alternative medications (p=0.002) were found to be protective. Resident doctors were at a lower risk of developing the disease as compared to the other healthcare workers (odds ratio: 0.39). Conclusion The failure to practice the already known preventive practices is probably one of the most important factors in the progression of the COVID-19 pandemic. Adherence to these practices is the intervention of choice to reduce disease transmission in the current scenario.

17.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 593099, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005534

ABSTRACT

Hydroxychloroquine has gained much attention as one of the candidate drugs that can be repurposed as a prophylactic agent against SARS-CoV-2, the agent responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Due to high transmissibility and presence of asymptomatic carriers and presymptomatic transmission, there is need for a chemoprophylactic agent to protect the high-risk population. In this review, we dissect the currently available evidence on hydroxychloroquine prophylaxis from a clinical and pharmacological point of view. In vitro studies on Vero cells show that hydroxychloroquine effectively inhibits SARS-CoV-2 by affecting viral entry and viral transport via endolysosomes. However, this efficacy has failed to replicate in in vivo animal models as well as in most clinical observational studies and clinical trials assessing pre-exposure prophylaxis and postexposure prophylaxis in healthcare workers. An analysis of the pharmacology of HCQ in COVID-19 reveals certain possible reasons for this failure-a pharmacokinetic failure due to failure to achieve adequate drug concentration at the target site and attenuation of its inhibitory effect due to the presence of TMPRSS2 in airway epithelial cells. Currently, many clinical trials on HCQ prophylaxis in HCW are ongoing; these factors should be taken into account. Using higher doses of HCQ for prophylaxis is likely to be associated with increased safety concerns; thus, it may be worthwhile to focus on other possible interventions.

18.
Public Health Nutr ; 24(6): 1275-1290, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-997752

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to develop and validate a questionnaire to assess the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on lifestyle-related behaviour related to eating, activity and sleep pattern. DESIGN: Indexed study used a mixed method design. Phase I employed qualitative methods for development of questionnaire including literature review, focus group discussion, expert evaluation and pre-testing. Phase II used quantitative methods for establishing construct validity of the questionnaire via parallel factor analysis. PARTICIPANTS: Phase 1 involved participation of experts from different fields (Departments of Medicine, Nutrition and Clinical Psychology) and general adult population. For phase II, data were collected from 124 adult respondents (female = 57·26 %); mean age (36 ± 14·8 years) residing in an urban setting. RESULTS: The questionnaire consisted of three sections: (A) socio-demographic and anthropometric parameters, (B) twenty-four items each for investigating the changes in eating, activity and sleep behaviour before v. during COVID-19, (C) six items assessing COVID-19 specific reasons for lifestyle change. The Cronbach's α value of the questionnaire is 0·83 suggesting its good internal consistency. CONCLUSIONS: This appears to be a valid tool to assess the impact of COVID-19 on lifestyle-related behaviours with potential utility for public health researchers to identify these changes at community level and develop strategies to reinforce corrective behaviours.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Health Impact Assessment/standards , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Adult , Aged , Exercise , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Reproducibility of Results , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep
19.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(1): 69-75, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965082

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Health care workers (HCWs) are at increased risk of getting infected with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and suboptimal preventive practices have been identified as an important risk factor in this regard. This study was done to evaluate the preventive practices being followed by health care workers and identify reasons for suboptimal compliance. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was done in HCWs belonging to various occupational roles and socio-cultural backgrounds across India through online platforms and telephonic interviews from July 30, 2020 to August 30, 2020. A scientifically designed and pre-validated questionnaire with good validity (CVR = 0.87, S-CVI/Av = 0.978) and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient = 0.85) was used. RESULTS: The responses of 956 participants were analysed. Various suboptimal practices like touching outer surface of masks, lack of social distancing in cafeteria and duty rooms, inability to wash hands for adequate duration and properly follow steps of hand hygiene, inability to don and doff PPE properly, carrying PPE to duty rooms before completely doffing, use of personal mobile phones during duty and improper sleep were identified. Lack of knowledge, long duty hours, shortage of PPE, high patient workload, and casual attitude regarding own safety were identified as important barriers. Resident doctors and paramedical staff in the age group 18-30 years reported lower adherence. CONCLUSIONS: Suboptimal compliance in preventive practices like handling PPE, distancing in cafeteria/duty rooms and hand hygiene is not uncommon in HCWs. Certain barriers are identified which should be addressed to ensure adequate safety of HCWs against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel/standards , Infection Control/standards , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hand Disinfection/standards , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Infection Control/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Physical Distancing , Young Adult
20.
Cureus ; 12(10): e11274, 2020 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-961832

ABSTRACT

Objectives COVID-19 has infected millions of people across the globe, leading to hundreds of thousands of deaths. Currently, there are no vaccines available for COVID-19, and the most effective way to curb its spread is to follow preventive practices. The present study aimed to assess the extent of adoption of preventive practices among the general population in India. Methods A web-based cross-sectional survey was carried out recruiting 964 participants from all over India through purposive sampling. A pre-validated questionnaire consisting of 37 questions was used to collect data. Items 1A to 18A covered various preventive practices and items 1B to 19B covered reasons for not following those preventive practices. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, t-tests and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were conducted. Results Most participants reported taking precautions such as wearing masks (91.80%), covering both nose and mouth (79.14%) and avoiding hand shaking (83.40%). However, practices like following social distancing in public places (51.76%) and workplace (51.04%), frequent hand washing/sanitising (63.59%) and washing hands for at least 20 seconds (45.44%) were less commonly observed. Participants failed to follow social distancing because of overcrowding and lack of space. They also found it cumbersome to wash hands multiple times. Female participants and people residing in metropolitan and small cities were fairly doing well in following preventive practices. Conclusion The study helped in identifying the glitches in following various preventive practices against COVID-19 during unlock phase and reasons for the failure to perform these practices.

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