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Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122257


Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus, continues to be a global threat. The number of cases and deaths will remain escalating due to the lack of effective therapeutic agents. Several studies have established the importance of the viral main protease (Mpro) in the replication of SARS-CoV-2 which makes it an attractive target for antiviral drug development, including pharmaceutical repurposing and other medicinal chemistry approaches. Identification of natural products with considerable inhibitory potential against SARS-CoV-2 could be beneficial as a rapid and potent alternative with drug-likeness by comparison to de novo antiviral drug discovery approaches. Thereof, we carried out the structure-based screening of natural products from Echinacea-angustifolia, commonly used to prevent cold and other microbial respiratory infections, targeting SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. Four natural products namely, Echinacoside, Quercetagetin 7-glucoside, Levan N, Inulin from chicory, and 1,3-Dicaffeoylquinic acid, revealed significant docking energy (>-10 kcal/mol) in the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro catalytic pocket via substantial intermolecular contacts formation against co-crystallized ligand (<-4 kcal/mol). Furthermore, the docked poses of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro with selected natural products showed conformational stability through molecular dynamics. Exploring the end-point net binding energy exhibited substantial contribution of Coulomb and van der Waals interactions to the stability of respective docked conformations. These results advocated the natural products from Echinacea angustifolia for further experimental studies with an elevated probability to discover the potent SARS-CoV-2 Mpro antagonist with higher affinity and drug-likeness.

Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Echinacea/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Binding Sites , Drug Discovery , Flavones/chemistry , Fructans/chemistry , Glycosides/chemistry , Inulin/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Protein Binding , Quinic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Quinic Acid/chemistry
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 40(6): 2769-2784, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-929708


Recent outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has raised serious global concern for public health. The viral main 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (Mpro), known to control coronavirus replication and essential for viral life cycle, has been established as an essential drug discovery target for SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we employed computationally screening of Druglib database containing FDA approved drugs against active pocket of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro using MTiopen screen web server, yields a total of 1051 FDA approved drugs with docking energy >-7 kcal/mol. The top 10 screened potential compounds against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro were then studied by re-docking, binding affinity, intermolecular interaction, and complex stability via 100 ns all atoms molecular dynamics (MD) simulation followed by post-simulation analysis, including end point binding free energy, essential dynamics, and residual correlation analysis against native crystal structure ligand N3 inhibitor. Based on comparative molecular simulation and interaction profiling of the screened drugs with SARS-CoV-2 Mpro revealed R428 (-10.5 kcal/mol), Teniposide (-9.8 kcal/mol), VS-5584 (-9.4 kcal/mol), and Setileuton (-8.5 kcal/mol) with stronger stability and affinity than other drugs and N3 inhibitor; and hence, these drugs are advocated for further validation using in vitro enzyme inhibition and in vivo studies against SARS-CoV-2 infection.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Pandemics , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology