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Circulation ; 147(8): e93-e621, 2023 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2236409


BACKGROUND: The American Heart Association, in conjunction with the National Institutes of Health, annually reports the most up-to-date statistics related to heart disease, stroke, and cardiovascular risk factors, including core health behaviors (smoking, physical activity, diet, and weight) and health factors (cholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose control) that contribute to cardiovascular health. The Statistical Update presents the latest data on a range of major clinical heart and circulatory disease conditions (including stroke, congenital heart disease, rhythm disorders, subclinical atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, heart failure, valvular disease, venous disease, and peripheral artery disease) and the associated outcomes (including quality of care, procedures, and economic costs). METHODS: The American Heart Association, through its Epidemiology and Prevention Statistics Committee, continuously monitors and evaluates sources of data on heart disease and stroke in the United States to provide the most current information available in the annual Statistical Update with review of published literature through the year before writing. The 2023 Statistical Update is the product of a full year's worth of effort in 2022 by dedicated volunteer clinicians and scientists, committed government professionals, and American Heart Association staff members. The American Heart Association strives to further understand and help heal health problems inflicted by structural racism, a public health crisis that can significantly damage physical and mental health and perpetuate disparities in access to health care, education, income, housing, and several other factors vital to healthy lives. This year's edition includes additional COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) publications, as well as data on the monitoring and benefits of cardiovascular health in the population, with an enhanced focus on health equity across several key domains. RESULTS: Each of the chapters in the Statistical Update focuses on a different topic related to heart disease and stroke statistics. CONCLUSIONS: The Statistical Update represents a critical resource for the lay public, policymakers, media professionals, clinicians, health care administrators, researchers, health advocates, and others seeking the best available data on these factors and conditions.

COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Heart Diseases , Stroke , Humans , United States/epidemiology , American Heart Association , COVID-19/epidemiology , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Heart Diseases/epidemiology
Hypertension ; 76(5): 1350-1367, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2153223


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is associated with significant morbidity and mortality throughout the world, predominantly due to lung and cardiovascular injury. The virus responsible for COVID-19-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-gains entry into host cells via ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2). ACE2 is a primary enzyme within the key counter-regulatory pathway of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which acts to oppose the actions of Ang (angiotensin) II by generating Ang-(1-7) to reduce inflammation and fibrosis and mitigate end organ damage. As COVID-19 spans multiple organ systems linked to the cardiovascular system, it is imperative to understand clearly how severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 may affect the multifaceted RAS. In addition, recognition of the role of ACE2 and the RAS in COVID-19 has renewed interest in its role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease in general. We provide researchers with a framework of best practices in basic and clinical research to interrogate the RAS using appropriate methodology, especially those who are relatively new to the field. This is crucial, as there are many limitations inherent in investigating the RAS in experimental models and in humans. We discuss sound methodological approaches to quantifying enzyme content and activity (ACE, ACE2), peptides (Ang II, Ang-[1-7]), and receptors (types 1 and 2 Ang II receptors, Mas receptor). Our goal is to ensure appropriate research methodology for investigations of the RAS in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and COVID-19 to ensure optimal rigor and reproducibility and appropriate interpretation of results from these investigations.

Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Blood Pressure Determination/methods , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/physiopathology , Incidence , Male , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Prognosis , Research Design , Risk Assessment , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology
J Pediatr ; 237: 115-124.e2, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281471


OBJECTIVES: To determine whether telehealth acceptance by parents of children with heart disease is predicted by sociodemographic and/or by parental digital literacy, and to assess parental perceptions of telehealth usability and reliability. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a single center study comparing telehealth acceptance versus visit cancellation/rescheduling for pediatric cardiology visits during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. All parent/guardians who consented to survey completion received a validated survey assessing their digital literacy. Consenting parents who accepted telehealth received an additional validated survey assessing their perceptions of telehealth usability and reliability. RESULTS: A total of 849 patients originally were scheduled for in-person visits between March 30 and May 8, 2020. Telehealth acceptance was highest among younger, publicly insured, Hispanic patients with primary diagnoses of arrhythmia/palpitations, chest pain, dysautonomia, dyslipidemia and acquired heart disease. Among parents who completed surveys, a determinant of telehealth acceptance was digital literacy. Telehealth was determined to be a usable and reliable means for health care delivery. CONCLUSION: Although the potential for inequitable selection of telehealth due to sociodemographic factors exists, we found that such factors were not a major determinant for pediatric cardiology care within a large, diverse, free-standing pediatric hospital.

Computer Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiology/organization & administration , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Parents , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires