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1.
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2159355

ABSTRACT

MERS-CoV belongs to the coronavirus group. Recent years have seen a rash of coronavirus epidemics. In June 2012, MERS-CoV was discovered in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, with 2,591 MERSA cases confirmed by lab tests by the end of August 2022 and 894 deaths at a case-fatality ratio (CFR) of 34.5% documented worldwide. Saudi Arabia reported the majority of these cases, with 2,184 cases and 813 deaths (CFR: 37.2%), necessitating a thorough understanding of the molecular machinery of MERS-CoV. To develop antiviral medicines, illustrative investigation of the protein in coronavirus subunits are required to increase our understanding of the subject. In this study, recombinant expression and purification of MERS-CoV (PLpro), a primary goal for the development of 22 new inhibitors, were completed using a high throughput screening methodology that employed fragment-based libraries in conjunction with structure-based virtual screening. Compounds 2, 7, and 20, showed significant biological activity. Moreover, a docking analysis revealed that the three compounds had favorable binding mood and binding free energy. Molecular dynamic simulation demonstrated the stability of compound 2 (2-((Benzimidazol-2-yl) thio)-1-arylethan-1-ones) the strongest inhibitory activity against the PLpro enzyme. In addition, disubstitutions at the meta and para locations are the only substitutions that may boost the inhibitory action against PLpro. Compound 2 was chosen as a MERS-CoV PLpro inhibitor after passing absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion studies;however, further investigations are required.

2.
Future Med Chem ; 14(2): 61-79, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534390

ABSTRACT

Background: Conserved domains within SARS-CoV-2 nonstructural proteins represent key targets for the design of novel inhibitors. Methods: The authors aimed to identify potential SARS-CoV-2 NSP5 inhibitors using the ZINC database along with structure-based virtual screening and molecular dynamics simulation. Results: Of 13,840 compounds, 353 with robust docking scores were initially chosen, of which ten hit compounds were selected as candidates for detailed analyses. Three compounds were selected as coronavirus NSP5 inhibitors after passing absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity study; root and mean square deviation; and radius of gyration calculations. Conclusion: ZINC000049899562, ZINC000169336666 and ZINC000095542577 are potential NSP5 protease inhibitors that warrant further experimental studies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Drug Discovery , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology
3.
J Mol Liq ; 333: 115934, 2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386336

ABSTRACT

The binding and displacement interaction of colchicine and azithromycin to the model transport protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) was evaluated in this study. Azithromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, has antiviral properties and hence, has been used concomitantly with hydroxychloroquine against SARS-CoV-2. Colchicine, a natural plant product is used to treat and prevent acute gout flares. Some macrolide antibiotics are reported to have fatal drug-drug interactions with colchicine. The displacement interaction between colchicine and azithromycin on binding to BSA was evaluated using spectroscopic techniques, molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulation studies. The binding constant recorded for the binary system BSA-colchicine was 7.44 × 104 whereas, the binding constant for the ternary system BSA-colchicine in presence of azithromycin was 7.38 × 104 and were similar. Azithromycin didn't bind to BSA neither did it interfere in binding of colchicine. The results from molecular docking studies also led to a similar conclusion that azithromycin didn't interfere in the binding of colchicine to BSA. These findings are important since there is possibility of serious adverse event with co-administration of colchicine and azithromycin in patients with underlying gouty arthritis and these patients need to be continuously monitored for colchicine toxicity.

4.
Crystals ; 11(5):471, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1202400

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Globally, this pandemic has affected over 111 million individuals and posed many health and economic challenges. Much research effort is dedicated to discovering new treatments to address the associated challenges and restrict the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Since SARS-CoV-2 is a positive-strand RNA virus, its replication requires the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) enzyme. In this study, we report the discovery of new potential RdRp enzyme inhibitors based on computer modeling and simulation methodologies. The antiviral ZINC database was utilized for covalent docking virtual screening followed by molecular interaction analyses based on reported hot spots within the RdRp binding pocket (PDB: 7BV2). Eleven molecules, ZINC000014944915, ZINC000027556215, ZINC000013556344, ZINC000003589958, ZINC000003833965, ZINC000001642252, ZINC000028525778, ZINC000027557701, ZINC000013781295, ZINC000001651128 and ZINC000013473324, were shown to have the highest binding interactions. These molecules were further assessed by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) studies. The results showed that all 11 molecules except ZINC000027557701 formed stable complexes with the viral RdRp and fell within the accepted ADMET parameters. The identified molecules can be used to design future potential RdRp inhibitors.

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