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Minerva Cardiol Angiol ; 70(3): 303-309, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841790


BACKGROUND: The Lombardy region, in Northern Italy, suffered a major outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at the end of February 2020. The health system was rapidly overwhelmed by the pandemic. It became evident that patients suffering from time-sensitive medical emergencies like stroke, cerebral hemorrhage, trauma and acute myocardial infarction required timely, effective and safe pathways to be treated. The problem was addressed by a regional decree that created a hub-and-spoke system for time-sensitive medical emergencies. METHODS: We report the re-organizational changes adopted at a hub hospital (despite having already destined to COVID-19 patients most resources), and the number of emergent procedures for medical emergencies on the first 30-day of activity. These data were compared with the hospital activity in the same period of the previous year. RESULTS: Organizational changes were implemented in few hours. Dedicated pathways for non-COVID-19 patients affected by a medical emergency were set up in the emergency department, in the labs and in the operating theater. Ten intensive beds were implemented from a high-dependency unit; two operating rooms were reserved 24 h/day to neurosurgical or trauma emergencies. The number of emergent procedures was not different from that of the previous year, no admission refusal, no treatment delay and no viral transmission to the treated patients were recorded. No viral transmission to health care workers was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Re-organization of a hospital in order to adopt a hub-and-spoke model resulted feasible and allowed to face acute coronary syndrome and other time-sensitive medical emergencies timely and safely.

Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergencies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311195


Background: The primary aim of this study was to provide additional data of neuroimaging features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a large-scale population admitted in several northern Italy institutions. The secondary aim was to analyze acute cerebrovascular disease (CVD) prevalence in COVID-19. Methods: A database of confirmed COVID-19 hospitalized patients who developed acute neurological symptoms and underwent any neuroimaging was retrospectively gathered from twelve institutions based in Lombardy from February 21st to July 10th. To assess the prevalence of CVD we conducted a scoping review following the PRISMA extension guidelines for scoping reviews. We searched PubMed/Medline, SCOPUS and EMBASE databases for peer-reviewed in-press or published studies from December to January 2021 reporting CVD in COVID-19 patients. Results: Out of 90 COVID-19 patients who were referred to neuroimaging, 78 (87%) showed CVD, in particular 65 had acute ischemic strokes (AIS), 8 had intracerebral hemorrhages, 2 subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAH) and 3 showed clinical and imaging findings in keeping with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES);6 patients (7%) showed clinical and imaging findings highly suggestive of encephalitis;3 patients (3%) showed demyelinating diseases: 1 case of MS progression, 1 case of newly diagnosed MS and 1 case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM);2 cases (2%) acuity of chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH);1 patient (1%) with Guillain Barré syndrome. In addiction two patients with CVD developed cauda polyradiculitis and tetraparesis. In our scoping review out of 3275 studies, 24 satisfied the inclusion criteria: in a pooled total population of 136198 patients, the pooled prevalence of CVD was 0.9%. In particular 0.8% of AIS and 0.1% of ICH and 0.003% of PRES. Conclusions: Our study shows a high prevalence of CVD among patients who developed acute neurological symptoms, which is in line with papers reporting data comparable to ours. The heterogeneity of clinical reports, however, constitutes a limitation when comparing our findings with those of the clinical papers. Nonetheless, CVD could be a frightening association with COVID-19, particularly in critically ill patients. Healthcare policymakers and clinicians should be prepared to a likely increase in workload and to rearrange the strategy of healthcare delivery.

Neurol Sci ; 42(2): 607-612, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051353


BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the infectious agent responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Respiratory and gastrointestinal manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 are well described, less defined is the clinical neurological spectrum of COVID-19. We reported a case of COVID-19 patient with acute monophasic Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), and a literature review on the SARS-CoV-2 and GBS etiological correlation. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 68 years-old man presented to the emergency department with symptoms of acute progressive symmetric ascending flaccid tetraparesis. Oropharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 tested positive. Neurological examination showed bifacial nerve palsy and distal muscular weakness of lower limbs. The cerebrospinal fluid assessment showed an albuminocytologic dissociation. Electrophysiological studies showed delayed distal latencies and absent F waves in early course. A diagnosis of Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP) subtype of GBS was then made. CONCLUSIONS: Neurological manifestations of COVID-19 are still under study. The case we described of GBS in COVID-19 patient adds to those already reported in the literature, in support of SARS-CoV-2 triggers GBS. COVID-19 associated neurological clinic should probably be seen not as a corollary of classic respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms, but as SARS-CoV-2-related standalone clinical entities. To date, it is essential for all Specialists, clinicians and surgeons, to direct attention towards the study of this virus, to better clarify the spectrum of its neurological manifestations.

COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Quadriplegia/etiology , Acute Disease , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Quadriplegia/diagnosis , Quadriplegia/physiopathology