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Panminerva Med ; 63(4): 529-538, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689607


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has changed bronchoscopy practices worldwide. Bronchoscopy is a high-risk aerosol-generating procedure with a potential for direct SARS-CoV-2 exposure and hospital-acquired infection. Current guidelines about personal protective equipment and environment considerations represent key competencies to minimize droplets dispersion and reduce the risk of transmission. Different measures should be put in field based on setting, patient's clinical characteristics, urgency and indications of bronchoscopy. The use of this technique in SARS-CoV-2 patients is reported primarily for removal of airway plugs and for obtaining microbiological culture samples. In mechanically ventilated patients with SARS-CoV-2, bronchoscopy is commonly used to manage complications such as hemoptysis, atelectasis or lung collapse when prone positioning, physiotherapy or recruitment maneuvers have failed. Further indications are represented by assistance during percutaneous tracheostomy. Continuous positive airway pressure, non-invasive ventilation support and high flow nasal cannula oxygen are frequently used in patient affected by Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): management of patients' airways and ventilation strategies differs from bronchoscopy indications, patient's clinical status and in course or required ventilatory support. Sedation is usually administered by the pulmonologist (performing the bronchoscopy) or by the anesthetist depending on the complexity of the procedure and the level of sedation required. Lastly, elective bronchoscopy for diagnostic indications during COVID-19 pandemic should be carried on respecting rigid standards which allow to minimize potential viral transmission, independently from patient's COVID-19 status. This narrative review aims to evaluate the indications, procedural measures and ventilatory strategies of bronchoscopy performed in different settings during COVID-19 pandemic.

Bronchoscopy/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Tracheostomy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cannula , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
Minerva Med ; 113(1): 158-171, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1552034


INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the newly discovered severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We have plenty of data about the clinical features of the disease's acute phase, while little is known about the long-term consequences on survivors. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We aimed to review systematically emerging evidence about clinical and functional consequences of COVID-19 pneumonia months after hospital discharge. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Current evidence supports the idea that a high proportion of COVID-19 survivors complain of symptoms months after the acute illness phase, being fatigue and reduced tolerance to physical effort the most frequently reported symptom. The strongest association for these symptoms is with the female gender, while disease severity seems less relevant. Respiratory symptoms are associated with a decline in respiratory function and, conversely, seem to be more frequent in those who experienced a more severe acute pneumonia. Current evidence highlighted a persistent motor impairment which is, again, more prevalent among those survivors who experienced a more severe acute phase of the disease. Additionally, the persistence of symptoms is a primary determinant of mental health outcome, with anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, and post-traumatic stress symptoms being commonly reported in COVID-19 survivors. CONCLUSIONS: Current literature highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to Coronavirus Disease 19 since the sequelae appear to involve different organs and systems. Given the pandemic outbreak's size, this is a critical public health issue: a better insight on this topic should inform clinical decisions about the modalities of follow-up for COVID-19 survivors.

COVID-19 , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
Eur J Phys Rehabil Med ; 57(2): 199-207, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224409


BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has been mainly investigated concerning the acute and subacute phase implications and management. Meanwhile, few studies focused on the midterm sequelae, which still remain largely unknown. AIM: To assess the physical performance of COVID-19 survivors at 3 to 6 months from Hospital discharge. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study focused on mid-term functional outcomes evaluation in COVID-19 survivors. SETTING: Outpatients who had been previously hospitalized due to COVID-19 from March to May 2020 at the University Hospital of Novara, Italy. POPULATION: We enrolled 204 patients, of which 60% were men, with the mean age of 57.9 years. METHODS: Patients firstly underwent the short physical performance battery test (SPPB), which is composed of a series of physical tests assessing the lower limb function and the functional status of the subjects. Subsequently, based on SPPB results, patients' cardiorespiratory fitness performance was further investigated. Patients with normal SPPB score (SPPB>10) underwent the 2-minute walking test (2MWT) whereas, in order to safely test the cardiorespiratory function, in patients with abnormal SPPB score (SPPB≤10) the 1-minute sit-to-stand test (1MSTST) was performed. It should be noted that the 1MSTST can be safely performed even by subjects with compromised walking ability. RESULTS: Overall, 66 patients (32% of our sample) showed an impaired physical performance at 3 to 6 months after hospital discharge. In particular, 29 patients presented an SPPB score ≤10, and the 1MSTST confirmed this status in the whole group (100%) compared to the reference values for age and sex. Besides, among patients with a normal SPPB score, 37 showed a lower sex- and age-matched 2MWT score. Finally, a significant association between Intensive Care Unit hospitalization or mechanical ventilation and physical impairment was observed together with a significant association between the walking ability (measured with SPPB and 2MWT) and the number of comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: A residual physical and functional impairment was observed in COVID-19 survivors at mid-term evaluation after hospitalization. CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT: Considering the current COVID-19 epidemiology, we might expect a tremendous burden of disability in the next future. Thus, an appropriate clinical rehabilitation pathway must be implemented.

COVID-19/rehabilitation , Disability Evaluation , Disabled Persons/statistics & numerical data , Physical Functional Performance , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Walk Test , Young Adult
Middle East respiratory syndrome Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 anorexia artificial ventilation bronchoscopy computer assisted tomography coronavirus disease 2019 coughing diagnostic accuracy dyspnea editorial fever hospitalization huma ; 2020(Minerva Pneumologica)
Article in English | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-630094