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1.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 2022 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741055

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the cardiovascular system has been highlighted since the very first weeks after the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 identification. We reviewed the influence of COVID-19 pandemic on cardiac arrest, both considering those occurred out of the hospital (OHCA) and in the hospital (IHCA). RECENT FINDINGS: An increase in OHCA incidence occurred in different countries, especially in those regions most burdened by the COVID-19, as this seems to be bounded to the pandemic trend. A change of OHCA patients' characteristics, with an increase of the OHCA occurred at home, a decrease in bystander cardio-pulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillator use before Emergency Medical Service (EMS) arrival and an increase in non-shockable rhythms, have been highlighted. A dramatic drop in the OHCA patients' survival was pointed out in almost all the countries, regardless of the high or low-incidence of COVID-19 cases. Concerning IHCA, a reduction in survival was highlighted in patients with COVID-19 who sustained a cardiac arrest. SUMMARY: Cardiac arrest occurrence and survival were deeply affected by the pandemic. Informative campaigns to the population to call EMS in case of need and the re-allocation of the prehospital resources basing on the pandemic trend are needed to improve survival.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306199

ABSTRACT

Background: it is unknown if a correlation between the OHCA and COVID-19 daily incidence is present both during the first and second pandemic wave at a provincial level.Methods: We considered all the OHCAs occurred in the provinces of Pavia, Lodi, Cremona, Mantua and Varese, in Lombardy Region (Italy), from 21/02/2020 to 31/12/2020. We divided study period into period 1, the first 157 days after the outbreak and including the first pandemic wave (21/02/2020-26/07/2020) and period 2, the second 158 days including the second pandemic wave (27/07/2020-31/12/2020). We calculated the cumulative, daily and 7-days incidence of OHCA and COVID-19 expressed per 100,000 inhabitants for the whole territory and for each province separately for both periods.Findings: A significant correlation between the daily incidence of COVID-19 and the daily incidence of OHCA was observed both during the first and the second pandemic period in the whole territory (R=0.4, p<0.001 for period 1 and 2) and only in those provinces in which the cumulative incidence of COVID-19 overcame those of the whole territory (period 1: Cremona R=0.3, p=0.001;Lodi R=0.4, p<0.001;Pavia R=0.3;p=0.01;period 2: Varese R=0.4, p<0.001).Interpretation: Our results highlight how the COVID-19 burden in a given area could impact on the OHCAs occurrence. Our results stress the importance of strictly monitoring the pandemic trend to predict which territories will be more likely to experience an OHCA increase. That could serve as a guide to re-consider the pre-hospital resources allocation and tailored information campaigns in the future pandemic waves.Trial Registration: Lombardia Cardiac Arrest Registry (Lombardia CARe: NCT03197142)Funding Statement: Lombardia CARe is partially funded by the Fondazione Banca del Monte di Lombardia. Dr Baldi’s salary was partially funded by grant 733381 from the European Union Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Program of ESCAPE-NETDeclaration of Interests: None to disclose.Ethics Approval Statement: It was approved by the Ethical Committee of the Fondazione IRCSS Policlinico San Matteo (proc. 20140028219), where the registry is hosted, and by all the others involved in the territory.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260275, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526702

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The relationship between COVID-19 and out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) has been shown during different phases of the first pandemic wave, but little is known about how to predict where cardiac arrests will increase in case of a third peak. AIM: To seek for a correlation between the OHCAs and COVID-19 daily incidence both during the two pandemic waves at a provincial level. METHODS: We considered all the OHCAs occurred in the provinces of Pavia, Lodi, Cremona, Mantua and Varese, in Lombardy Region (Italy), from 21/02/2020 to 31/12/2020. We divided the study period into period 1, the first 157 days after the outbreak and including the first pandemic wave and period 2, the second 158 days including the second pandemic wave. We calculated the cumulative and daily incidence of OHCA and COVID-19 for the whole territory and for each province for both periods. RESULTS: A significant correlation between the daily incidence of COVID-19 and the daily incidence of OHCAs was observed both during the first and the second pandemic period in the whole territory (R = 0.4, p<0.001 for period 1 and 2) and only in those provinces with higher COVID-19 cumulative incidence (period 1: Cremona R = 0.3, p = 0.001; Lodi R = 0.4, p<0.001; Pavia R = 0.3; p = 0.01; period 2: Varese R = 0.4, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that strictly monitoring the pandemic trend may help in predict which territories will be more likely to experience an OHCAs' increase. That may also serve as a guide to re-allocate properly health resources in case of further pandemic waves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Epidemiological Monitoring , Female , Humans , Incidence , Italy , Male , Middle Aged
4.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 22(11): 828-831, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406806

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Controversial data have been published regarding the prognostic role of cardiac troponins in patients who need hospitalization because of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of the study was to assess the role of high-sensitivity troponin plasma levels and of respiratory function at admission on all-cause deaths in unselected patients hospitalized because of COVID-19. METHODS: We pooled individual patient data from observational studies that assessed all-cause mortality of unselected patients hospitalized for COVID-19. The individual data of 722 patients were included. The ratio of partial pressure arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) and high-sensitivity troponins was reported at admission in all patients. This meta-analysis was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42020213209). RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 14 days, 180 deaths were observed. At multivariable regression analysis, age [hazard ratio (HR) 1.083, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.061-1.105, P < 0.0001], male sex (HR 2.049, 95% CI 1.319-3.184, P = 0.0014), moderate-severe renal dysfunction (estimated glomerular filtration rate  < 30 mL/min/m2) (HR 2.108, 95% CI 1.237-3.594, P = 0.0061) and lower PaO2/FiO2 (HR 0.901, 95% CI 0.829-0.978, P = 0.0133) were the independent predictors of death. A linear increase in the HR was associated with decreasing values of PaO2/FiO2 below the normality threshold. On the contrary, the HR curve for troponin plasma levels was near-flat with large CI for values above the normality thresholds. CONCLUSION: In unselected patients hospitalized for COVID-19, mortality is mainly driven by male gender, older age and respiratory failure. Elevated plasma levels of high-sensitivity troponins are not an independent predictor of worse survival when respiratory function is accounted for.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oxygen/analysis , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Troponin/blood , Age Factors , Biomarkers/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Gas Analysis/methods , Breath Tests/methods , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Prognosis , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
8.
Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc ; 35: 100824, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267693

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An increase in the time from the symptoms onset to first medical contact and to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) has been observed in countries with high-incidence of COVID-19 cases. We aimed to verify if there was any change in the patient delay and in the EMS response times up to the pPCI for STEMI patients in Swiss Ticino Canton. METHODS: We assessed STEMI management including time from symptoms onset to EMS call, time of EMS response, time to pPCI in Swiss Canton Ticino. Data were retrieved from the Acute-Coronary-Syndrome-Ticino-Registry. We considered the patients included in the registry from March to May 2020 (pandemic period) and then from June to August 2020 (post-pandemic period) in whom a pPCI was performed. We compared these patients to those undergoing a pPCI in the same months in the year 2016-2019. RESULTS: During the pandemic period, the time from symptoms onset to pPCI significantly increased compared to non-pandemic periods. This was due to a significant prolongation of the time from symptoms onset to EMS call, that nearly tripled. In contrast, after the pandemic period, there was a significantly shorter time from symptom onset to EMS call compared to non-pandemic years, whereas all other times remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: Patients delay the call to EMS despite symptoms of myocardial infarction during the COVID-19 pandemic also in a region with a relatively low incidence of COVID-19.

10.
Resuscitation ; 164: 122-129, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219386

ABSTRACT

AIM: To estimate the mortality rate, the rate of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and survival with favorable neurological outcome in patients with COVID-19 after in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) and attempted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, bioRxiv and medRxiv were surveyed up to 8th February 2021 for studies reporting data on mortality of patients with COVID-19 after IHCA. The primary outcome sought was mortality (in-hospital or at 30 days) after IHCA with attempted CPR. Additional outcomes were the overall rate of IHCA, the rate of non-shockable presenting rhythms, the rate of ROSC and the rate of survival with favorable neurological status. RESULTS: Ten articles were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis, for a total of 1179 COVID-19 patients after IHCA with attempted CPR. The estimated overall mortality rate (in-hospital or at 30 days) was 89.9% (95% Predicted Interval [P.I.] 83.1%-94.2%; 1060/1179 patients; I2 = 82%). The estimated rate of non-shockable presenting rhythms was 89% (95% P.I. 82.8%-93.1%; 1022/1205 patients; I2 = 85%), and the estimated rate of ROSC was 32.9% (95% P.I. 26%-40.6%; 365/1205 patients; I2 = 82%). The estimated overall rate of survival with favorable neurological status at 30 days was 6.3% (95% P.I. 4%-9.7%; 50/851 patients; I2 = 48%). Sensitivity analysis showed that COVID-19 patients had higher risk of death after IHCA than non COVID-19 patients (OR 2.34; 95% C.I. 1.37-3.99; number of studies = 3; 1215 patients). CONCLUSIONS: Although one of three COVID-19 patients undergoing IHCA may achieve ROSC, almost 90% may not survive at 30 days or to hospital discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Heart Arrest , Heart Arrest/therapy , Hospitals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Resusc Plus ; 6: 100105, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117614

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Many countries reported an increase of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) and mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, all these data refer to regional settings and national data are still missing. We aimed to assess the OHCA incidence and population mortality during COVID-19 pandemic in whole Switzerland and in the different regions (Cantons) according to the infection rate. METHODS: We considered OHCAs and deaths which occurred in Switzerland after the first diagnosed case of COVID-19 (February 25th) and for the subsequent 65 days and in the same period in 2019. We also compared Cantons with high versus low COVID-19 incidence. RESULTS: A 2.4% reduction in OHCA cases was observed in Switzerland. The reduction was particularly high (-21.4%) in high-incidence COVID-19 cantons, whilst OHCAs increased by 7.7% in low-incidence COVID-19 cantons. Mortality increased by 8.6% in the entire nation: a 27.8% increase in high-incidence cantons and a slight decrease (-0.7%) in low-incidence cantons was observed. The OHCA occurred more frequently at home, CPR and AED use by bystander were less frequent during the pandemic. Conversely, the OHCAs percentage in which a first responder was present, initiated the CPR and used an AED, increased. The outcome of patients in COVID-19 high-incidence cantons was worse compared to low-incidence cantons. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic in Switzerland mortality increased in Cantons with high-incidence of infection, whilst not in the low-incidence ones. OHCA occurrence followed an opposite trend showing how variables related to the health-system and EMS organization deeply influence OHCA occurrence during a pandemic.

15.
Int J Cardiol ; 328: 247-249, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-957115

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Remote monitoring (RM) technology embedded in cardiac rhythm devices permits continuous monitoring of device function, and recording of selected cardiac physiological parameters and cardiac arrhythmias and may be of utmost utility during Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, when in-person office visit for regular follow-up were postponed. However, patients not alredy followed-up via RM represent a challenging group of patients to be managed during the lockdown. METHODS: We reviewed patient files scheduled for an outpatient visit between January 1, 2020 and May 11th, 2020 to assess the proportion of patients in whom RM activation was possible without office visit, and compared them to those scheduled for visit before the lockdown. RESULTS: During COVID-19 pandemic, RM activation was feasible in a minority of patients (7.8% of patients) expected at outpatient clinic for a follow-up visit and device check-up. This was possible in a good proportion of complex implantable devices such as cardiac resynchronization therapy and implantable cardioverter defibrillator but only in a minority of patients with a pacemaker the RM function could be activated during the period of restricted access to hospital. CONCLUSIONS: Our experience strongly suggest to consider the systematic activation of RM function at the time of implantation or - by default programming - in all cardiac rhythm management devices.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Devices/standards , Defibrillators, Implantable/standards , Remote Sensing Technology/standards , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Devices/trends , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Communicable Disease Control/trends , Defibrillators, Implantable/trends , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Remote Sensing Technology/trends
16.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241028, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890185

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: An increase in the incidence of OHCA during the COVID-19 pandemic has been recently demonstrated. However, there are no data about how the COVID-19 epidemic influenced the treatment of OHCA victims. METHODS: We performed an analysis of the Lombardia Cardiac Arrest Registry comparing all the OHCAs occurred in the Provinces of Lodi, Cremona, Pavia and Mantua (northern Italy) in the first 100 days of the epidemic with those occurred in the same period in 2019. RESULTS: The OHCAs occurred were 694 in 2020 and 520 in 2019. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) rate was lower in 2020 (20% vs 31%, p<0.001), whilst the rate of bystander automated external defibrillator (AED) use was similar (2% vs 4%, p = 0.11). Resuscitation was attempted by EMS in 64.5% of patients in 2020 and in 72% in 2019, whereof 45% in 2020 and 64% in 2019 received ALS. At univariable analysis, the presence of suspected/confirmed COVID-19 was not a predictor of resuscitation attempt. Age, unwitnessed status, non-shockable presenting rhythm, absence of bystander CPR and EMS arrival time were independent predictors of ALS attempt. No difference regarding resuscitation duration, epinephrine and amiodarone administration, and mechanical compression device use were highlighted. The return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) rate at hospital admission was lower in the general population in 2020 [11% vs 20%, p = 0.001], but was similar in patients with ALS initiated [19% vs 26%, p = 0.15]. Suspected/confirmed COVID-19 was not a predictor of ROSC at hospital admission. CONCLUSION: Compared to 2019, during the 2020 COVID-19 outbreak we observed a lower attitude of laypeople to start CPR, while resuscitation attempts by BLS and ALS staff were not influenced by suspected/confirmed infection, even at univariable analysis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Amiodarone/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Defibrillators , Epinephrine/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Incidence , Italy , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Vasoconstrictor Agents/administration & dosage , Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage
17.
Intern Emerg Med ; 15(8): 1457-1465, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-778050

ABSTRACT

The correlation between myocardial injury and clinical outcome in COVID-19 patients is gaining attention in the literature. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of cardiac involvement and of respiratory failure in a cohort of COVID-19 patients hospitalized in an academic hospital in Lombardy, one of the most affected Italian (and worldwide) regions by the epidemic. The study included 405 consecutive patients with confirmed COVID-19 admitted to a medical ward from February 25th to March 31st, 2020. Follow-up of surviving patients ended either at hospital discharge or by July 30th, 2020. Myocardial injury was defined on the basis of the presence of blood levels of hs-TnI above the 99th percentile upper reference limit. Respiratory function was assessed as PaO2/FiO2 (P/F) ratio. The primary end-point was death for any cause. During hospitalization, 124 patients died. Death rate increased from 7.9% in patients with normal hs-TnI plasma levels and no cardiac comorbidity to 61.5% in patients with elevated hs-TnI and cardiac involvement (p < 0.001). At multivariable analysis, older age, P/F ratio < 200 (both p < 0.001) and hs-TnI plasma levels were independent predictors of death. However, it must be emphasized that the median values of hs-TnI were within normal range in non-survivors. Cardiac involvement at presentation was associated with poor prognosis in COVID-19 patients, but, even in a population of COVID-19 patients who did not require invasive ventilation at hospital admission, mortality was mainly driven by older age and respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Electrocardiography/methods , Electrocardiography/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Tertiary Care Centers/organization & administration , Tertiary Care Centers/standards , Troponin I/analysis , Troponin I/blood
18.
Am J Emerg Med ; 38(11): 2416-2424, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-754030

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The ongoing pandemic of COVID-19 brought to the fore prone positioning as treatment for patients with acute respiratory failure. With the increasing number of patients in prone position, both spontaneously breathing and mechanically ventilated, cardiac arrest in this position is more likely to occur. This scoping review aimed to summarize the available evidence on cardiopulmonary resuscitation in prone position ('reverse CPR') and knowledge or research gaps to be further evaluated. The protocol of this scoping review was prospectively registered on 10th May 2020 in Open Science Framework (https://osf.io/nfuh9). METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE and pre-print repositories (bioRxiv and medRxiv) for simulation, pre-clinical and clinical studies on reverse CPR until 31st May 2020. RESULTS: We included 1 study on manikins, 31 case reports (29 during surgery requiring prone position) and 2 nonrandomized studies describing reverse CPR. No studies were found regarding reverse CPR in patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Even if the algorithms provided by the guidelines on basic and advanced life support remain valid in cardiac arrest in prone position, differences exist in the methods of performing CPR. There is no clear evidence of superiority in terms of effectiveness of reverse compared to supine CPR in patients with cardiac arrest occurring in prone position. The quality of evidence is low and knowledge gaps (e.g. protocols, training of healthcare personnel, devices for skill acquisition) should be fulfilled by further research. Meanwhile, a case-by-case evaluation of patient and setting characteristics should guide the decision on how to start CPR in such cases.


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Heart Arrest/therapy , Patient Positioning , Prone Position , COVID-19 , Humans
19.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 15(4): e8-e9, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-752624

ABSTRACT

An impressive reduction in emergency department patient attendance was observed during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic coupled with an increase in the burden of patients with respiratory failure compared with the same period in 2019. These data are in line with the reduction in the hospital admissions rate for acute coronary syndrome observed during the COVID-19 outbreak, probably due to the patients' fears of being infected during a hospital stay. All these factors may have contributed to the out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) occurrence increase observed during the same period. The OHCAs rate increase can recognize 2 great sets of causes: the infection-related and the pandemic-related ones. If the first recognizes different underlying mechanisms that can be dealt with more and more effectively as evidence accumulates, we must remember also the latter: the fear of in-hospital contagion and the willingness not to further burden the health system, which can prevent some citizens from the activation of the emergency medical services (EMS) even in the case of symptoms suspected for time-dependent diseases, resulting in at-home deterioration until the OHCA occurrence. Information campaigns during pandemic must focus also on the importance of EMS early activation in case of real need to prevent COVID-19 from being a disease that kills at home.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fear , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Humans
20.
Eur Heart J ; 41(32): 3045-3054, 2020 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-607826

ABSTRACT

AIMS: An increase in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) incidence has been reported in the very early phase of the COVID-19 epidemic, but a clear demonstration of a correlation between the increased incidence of OHCA and COVID-19 is missing so far. We aimed to verify whether there is an association between the OHCA difference compared with 2019 and the COVID-19 epidemic curve. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included all the consecutive OHCAs which occurred in the Provinces of Lodi, Cremona, Pavia, and Mantova in the 2 months following the first documented case of COVID-19 in the Lombardia Region and compared them with those which occurred in the same time frame in 2019. The cumulative incidence of COVID-19 from 21 February to 20 April 2020 in the study territory was 956 COVID-19/100 000 inhabitants and the cumulative incidence of OHCA was 21 cases/100 000 inhabitants, with a 52% increase as compared with 2019 (490 OHCAs in 2020 vs. 321 in 2019). A strong and statistically significant correlation was found between the difference in cumulative incidence of OHCA between 2020 and 2019 per 100 000 inhabitants and the COVID-19 cumulative incidence per 100 000 inhabitants both for the overall territory (ρ 0.87, P < 0.001) and for each province separately (Lodi: ρ 0.98, P < 0.001; Cremona: ρ 0.98, P < 0.001; Pavia: ρ 0.87, P < 0.001; Mantova: ρ 0.81, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The increase in OHCAs in 2020 is significantly correlated to the COVID-19 pandemic and is coupled with a reduction in short-term outcome. Government and local health authorities should seriously consider our results when planning healthcare strategies to face the epidemic, especially considering the expected recurrent outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/etiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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