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J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 10(6): 714-721, 2021 Aug 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358467


BACKGROUND: Children with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) have a milder clinical course than adults. We describe the spectrum of cardiovascular manifestations during a COVID-19 outbreak in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. METHODS: A cross-sectional multicenter study was performed, including all patients diagnosed with Kawasaki disease (KD), myocarditis, and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) from February to April 2020. KD patients were compared with those diagnosed before the epidemic. RESULTS: KD: 8 patients (6/8 boys, all negative for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 [SARS-CoV-2]): complete presentation in 5/8, 7/8 immunoglobulin (IVIG) responders, and 3/8 showed transient coronary lesions (CALs). Myocarditis: one 5-year-old girl negative for SARS-CoV-2 and positive for parvovirus B19. She responded to IVIG. MIS-C: 4 SARS-CoV-2-positive boys (3 patients with positive swab and serology and 1 patient with negative swab and positive serology): 3 presented myocardial dysfunction and pericardial effusion, and 1 developed multicoronary aneurysms and hyperinflammation; all responded to treatment. The fourth boy had mitral and aortic regurgitation that rapidly regressed after steroids. CONCLUSIONS: KD, myocarditis, and MIS-C were distinguishable cardiovascular manifestations. KD did not show a more aggressive form compared with previous years: coronary involvement was frequent but always transient. MIS-C and myocarditis rapidly responded to treatment without cardiac sequelae despite high markers of myocardial injury at the onset, suggesting a myocardial depression due to systemic inflammation rather than focal necrosis. Evidence of actual or previous SARS-CoV-2 infection was documented only in patients with MIS-C.

COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Adolescent , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(1): 761-765, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064346


A 6-year-old African boy with multi-viral infection including parvovirus B19 and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was admitted for persistent fever associated with respiratory distress and myocarditis complicated by cardiogenic shock needing ventilatory and inotropic support. Coronary aneurysms were also documented in the acute phase. Blood tests were suggestive of macrophage activation syndrome. He was treated with intravenous immunoglobulins, aspirin, diuretics, dexamethasone, hydroxychloroquine, and prophylactic low molecular weight heparin. Normalization of cardiac performance and coronary diameters was noticed within the first days. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, performed 20 days after the hospitalization, evidenced mild myocardial interstitial oedema with no focal necrosis, suggesting a mechanism of cardiac stunning related to cytokines storm rather than direct viral injury of cardiomyocytes.

COVID-19/complications , Coronary Aneurysm/etiology , Myocarditis/etiology , Acute Disease , COVID-19/pathology , Child , Coronary Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Aneurysm/pathology , Echocardiography , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed