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1.
Acad Radiol ; 29(8): 1248-1254, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616330

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: The Radiology Research Alliance (RRA) of the Association of University Radiologists (AUR) organized a task force to quantify geographic changes in submissions to and publications within radiology journals over time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty journals were selected: 7 US-based general, 4 European-based general, and 9 subspecialty radiology journals. Journals were solicited for submissions and publications based on country of origin from 2010 -2020. Regression models assessed changes over time across countries, and by continent, with an emphasis on the US and China, for each journal category. RESULTS: There were 104,679 publications and 92,446 submissions from 149 countries. Overall, there were significant increases in numbers of publications from Asia (R2 = 0.66, p <0.01), and specifically, China (R2 = 0.87, p <0.01). For US journals, there were increased numbers of publications from Asia (R2 = 0.72, p <0.01) and China (R2 = 0.98, p <0.01), but decreased numbers from North America (R2 = 0.41, p = 0.03). For European journals, there were increased numbers of publications from Asia (R2 = 0.79, p <0.01), North America (R2 = 0.75, p <0.01), and China (R2 = 0.82, p <0.01). For subspecialty journals, there were increased numbers of publications from North America (R2 = 0.38, p = 0.04) and China (R2 = 0.73, p <0.01). There was an acute COVID spike in submissions during 2020, with a continuous increase most notable in China (R2 = 0.96, p <0.01). CONCLUSION: In the last decade, the numbers of submissions to and publications within general and subspecialty US and European radiology journals have generally increased around the world, with the largest growth in Asia and in particular China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Periodicals as Topic , Radiology , Bibliometrics , Humans , North America , Publications
2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-291182

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Many commonly used mask designs are secured by elastic straps looping around the posterior auricular region. This constant pressure and friction against the skin may contribute to increased wearer pain, irritation, and discomfort. The purpose of this work is to report a modified 3D printed mask extender to alleviate discomfort and increase mask wearability by relieving posterior auricular pressure from isolation masks.Methods : Our institutional review board designated this project as non-human research and exempt. As part of resourcing 3D printing laboratories along with individual 3D printers to provide resources to healthcare workers, mask extenders were printed to relieve posterior auricular pressure from individuals wearing isolation masks. The authors modifed an existing mask extender, increasing its length with accompanying peripheral rungs for isolation mask securement. 3D printing was performed with Ultimaker S5 (Ultimaker B.V.;Geldermalsen, Netherlands) and CR-10 (Creality3D;Shenzhen, China) 3D printers using polylactic acid filaments. The author’s modified extended mask extenders were printed and freely delivered to healthcare workers (physicians, nurses, technologists, and other personnel) at the authors’ institution. Results: The final mask extender design was printed with the two 3D printers with a maximum 7 straps printed simultaneously on each 3D printer. Mean print times ranges from 105 minutes for the Ultimaker S5 printer and 150 minutes for the CR-10. 475 mask extenders were delivered to healthcare workers at the authors’ institution, with the demand far exceeding the available supply. Conclusion: We offer a modification of a 3D printed mask extender design that decreases discomfort and increases the wearability of isolation mask designs with ear loops thought to relieve posterior auricular skin pressure and ability to control strap tension. The design is simple, produced with inexpensive material (polylactic acid), and have been well-received by healthcare providers at our institution

3.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e045557, 2021 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394106

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has precipitated widespread shortages of filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) and the creation and sharing of proposed substitutes (novel designs, repurposed materials) with limited testing against regulatory standards. We aimed to categorically test the efficacy and fit of potential N95 respirator substitutes using protocols that can be replicated in university laboratories. SETTING: Academic medical centre with occupational health-supervised fit testing along with laboratory studies. PARTICIPANTS: Seven adult volunteers who passed quantitative fit testing for small-sized (n=2) and regular-sized (n=5) commercial N95 respirators. METHODS: Five open-source potential N95 respirator substitutes were evaluated and compared with commercial National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-approved N95 respirators as controls. Fit testing using the 7-minute standardised Occupational Safety and Health Administration fit test was performed. In addition, protocols that can be performed in university laboratories for materials testing (filtration efficiency, air resistance and fluid resistance) were developed to evaluate alternate filtration materials. RESULTS: Among five open-source, improvised substitutes evaluated in this study, only one (which included a commercial elastomeric mask and commercial HEPA filter) passed a standard quantitative fit test. The four alternative materials evaluated for filtration efficiency (67%-89%) failed to meet the 95% threshold at a face velocity (7.6 cm/s) equivalent to that of a NIOSH particle filtration test for the control N95 FFR. In addition, for all but one material, the small surface area of two 3D-printed substitutes resulted in air resistance that was above the maximum in the NIOSH standard. CONCLUSIONS: Testing protocols such as those described here are essential to evaluate proposed improvised respiratory protection substitutes, and our testing platform could be replicated by teams with similar cross-disciplinary research capacity. Healthcare professionals should be cautious of claims associated with improvised respirators when suggested as FFR substitutes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Exposure , Respiratory Protective Devices , Adult , Equipment Design , Humans , N95 Respirators , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Ventilators, Mechanical
5.
Acad Radiol ; 28(2): 158-165, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064684

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: Three-dimensional (3D) printing allows innovative solutions for personal protective equipment, particularly in times of crisis. Our goal was to generate an N95-alternative 3D-printed respirator that passed Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)-certified quantitative fit testing during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 3D printed prototypes for N95 solutions were created based on the design of commercial N95 respirators. Computed tomography imaging was performed on an anthropomorphic head phantom wearing a commercially available N95 respirator and these facial contour data was used in mask prototyping. Prototypes were generated using rigid and flexible polymers. According to OSHA standards, prototypes underwent subsequent quantitative respirator fit testing on volunteers who passed fit tests on commercial N95 respirators. RESULTS: A total of 10 prototypes were 3D printed using both rigid (n = 5 designs) and flexible materials (n = 5 designs), Prototypes generated with rigid printing materials (n = 5 designs) did not pass quantitative respirator fit testing. Three of the five prototypes with flexible materials failed quantitative fit testing. The final two prototypes designs passed OSHA-certified quantitative fit tests with an overall mean fit factor of 138 (passing is over 100). CONCLUSION: Through rapid prototyping, 3D printed N95 alternative masks were designed with topographical facial computed tomography data to create mask facial contour and passed OSHA-certified quantitative respiratory testing when flexible polymer was used. This mask design may provide an alternative to disposable N95 respirators in case of pandemic-related shortages. Furthermore, this approach may allow customization for those that would otherwise fail fit testing on standard commercial respirators.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Equipment Design , Humans , Masks , Materials Testing , N95 Respirators , Printing, Three-Dimensional , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
6.
3D Printing in Medicine ; 6(1):27-27, 2020.
Article | BioMed Central | ID: covidwho-806942

ABSTRACT

Purpose Many commonly used mask designs are secured by elastic straps looping around the posterior auricular region. This constant pressure and friction against the skin may contribute to increased wearer pain, irritation, and discomfort. The purpose of this work is to report a modified 3D printed mask extender to alleviate discomfort and increase mask wearability by relieving posterior auricular pressure from isolation masks.Methods Our institutional review board designated this project as non-human research and exempt. As part of resourcing 3D printing laboratories along with individual 3D printers to provide resources to healthcare workers, mask extenders were printed to relieve posterior auricular pressure from individuals wearing isolation masks. The authors modifed an existing mask extender, increasing its length with accompanying peripheral rungs for isolation mask securement. 3D printing was performed with Ultimaker S5 (Ultimaker B.V.;Geldermalsen, Netherlands) and CR-10 (Creality3D;Shenzhen, China) 3D printers using polylactic acid filaments. The author's modified extended mask extenders were printed and freely delivered to healthcare workers (physicians, nurses, technologists, and other personnel) at the authors' institution.Results The final mask extender design was printed with the two 3D printers with a maximum 7 straps printed simultaneously on each 3D printer. Mean print times ranges from 105 minutes for the Ultimaker S5 printer and 150 minutes for the CR-10. 475 mask extenders were delivered to healthcare workers at the authors' institution, with the demand far exceeding the available supply.Conclusion We offer a modification of a 3D printed mask extender design that decreases discomfort and increases the wearability of isolation mask designs with ear loops thought to relieve posterior auricular skin pressure and ability to control strap tension. The design is simple, produced with inexpensive material (polylactic acid), and have been well-received by healthcare providers at our institution

7.
3D Print Med ; 6(1): 27, 2020 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-802427

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Many commonly used mask designs are secured by elastic straps looping around the posterior auricular region. This constant pressure and friction against the skin may contribute to increased wearer pain, irritation, and discomfort. The purpose of this work is to report a modified 3D printed mask extender to alleviate discomfort and increase mask wearability by relieving posterior auricular pressure from isolation masks. METHODS: Our institutional review board designated this project as non-human research and exempt. As part of resourcing 3D printing laboratories along with individual 3D printers to provide resources to healthcare workers, mask extenders were printed to relieve posterior auricular pressure from individuals wearing isolation masks. The authors modifed an existing mask extender, increasing its length with accompanying peripheral rungs for isolation mask securement. 3D printing was performed with Ultimaker S5 (Ultimaker B.V.; Geldermalsen, Netherlands) and CR-10 (Creality3D; Shenzhen, China) 3D printers using polylactic acid filaments. The author's modified extended mask extenders were printed and freely delivered to healthcare workers (physicians, nurses, technologists, and other personnel) at the authors' institution. RESULTS: The final mask extender design was printed with the two 3D printers with a maximum 7 straps printed simultaneously on each 3D printer. Mean print times ranges from 105 min for the Ultimaker S5 printer and 150 min for the CR-10. Four hundred seventy-five mask extenders were delivered to healthcare workers at the authors' institution, with the demand far exceeding the available supply. CONCLUSION: We offer a modification of a 3D printed mask extender design that decreases discomfort and increases the wearability of isolation mask designs with ear loops thought to relieve posterior auricular skin pressure and ability to control strap tension. The design is simple, produced with inexpensive material (polylactic acid), and have been well-received by healthcare providers at our institution.

8.
Curr Probl Diagn Radiol ; 50(5): 607-613, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-628178

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic transformed the personal and professional lives of radiology trainees. The purpose of this study was to broadly summarize the impact of COVID-19 on radiology trainees and their training programs via data collected during the early pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An online survey was distributed to radiology chief residents in residencies throughout North America with responses collected between March 20th, 2020 and May 15th, 2020, which coincided with the development of initial COVID-19 peaks in North America. A subset of COVID-19 pandemic questions included resident wellness, imaging opinions, residency infrastructure change, and opinions regarding the Core Exam delay. RESULTS: One hundred forty chief residents from 86 institutions responded to COVID-19-related questions. Nearly all responding programs (99%; 85/86) reported institutional positive cases of COVID-19. Most residents (94%; 132/140) thought laboratory testing provided more value than imaging. Fifty-seven percent of respondents (80/140) would use COVID-19-related terminology when encountering chest CT findings supportive of viral pneumonia in symptomatic patients. There was little reported change in the number of residents on call (no change reported in >80% of programs). Fifty-nine percent of residents (83/140) reported increased stress related to the COVID-19 pandemic. The majority of programs (93%) had fewer residents on service (80/86 responding programs). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 dramatically affected radiology residencies during the early pandemic period. As we enter future phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, careful thought should also be given to rebuilding the radiology resident experience.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Education, Medical, Graduate , Internship and Residency , Radiology/education , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , North America/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Immunopathologia Persa ; 6(2), 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-611677

ABSTRACT

After weeks of speculation, WHO finally announced a "pandemic level" for COVID-19 distribution. We agree with Watkins, that "catch and isolate" policy is of outmost importance in the current stage but suggest focusing more seriously on preparation and "plan for the worst" part of his suggestions.

10.
Forensic Sci Int ; 314: 110366, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-609580

ABSTRACT

Microbial Forensics is a field that continues to grow in interest and application among the forensic community. This review, divided into two sections, covers several topics associated with this new field. The first section presents a historic overview concerning the use of microorganisms (or its product, i.e. toxins) as harmful biological agents in the context of biological warfare (biowarfare), bioterrorism, and biocrime. Each case is illustrated with the examination of case reports that span from prehistory to the present day. The second part of the manuscript is devoted to the role of MF and highlights the necessity to prepare for the pressing threat of the harmful use of biological agents as weapons. Preventative actions, developments within the field to ensure a timely and effective response and are discussed herein.


Subject(s)
Biological Warfare/history , Bioterrorism/history , Crime/history , Bacterial Infections , Forensic Sciences , HIV Infections , High-Throughput Screening Assays , History, 15th Century , History, 16th Century , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , History, Ancient , History, Medieval , Humans , Machine Learning , Microbiological Techniques , Toxins, Biological/adverse effects
12.
Acad Radiol ; 27(6): 905-906, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-72579
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