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1.
Int J Public Health ; 68: 1605852, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242242

ABSTRACT

Objectives: We compared socio-demographic characteristics, health-related variables, vaccination-related beliefs and attitudes, vaccination acceptance, and personality traits of individuals who vaccinated against COVID-19 and who did not vaccinate by December 2021. Methods: This cross-sectional study used data of 10,642 adult participants from the Corona Immunitas eCohort, an age-stratified random sample of the population of several cantons in Switzerland. We used multivariable logistic regression models to explore associations of vaccination status with socio-demographic, health, and behavioral factors. Results: Non-vaccinated individuals represented 12.4% of the sample. Compared to vaccinated individuals, non-vaccinated individuals were more likely to be younger, healthier, employed, have lower income, not worried about their health, have previously tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection, express lower vaccination acceptance, and/or report higher conscientiousness. Among non-vaccinated individuals, 19.9% and 21.3% had low confidence in the safety and effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, respectively. However, 29.1% and 26.7% of individuals with concerns about vaccine effectiveness and side effects at baseline, respectively vaccinated during the study period. Conclusion: In addition to known socio-demographic and health-related factors, non-vaccination was associated with concerns regarding vaccine safety and effectiveness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Switzerland/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
BMJ ; 381: e074425, 2023 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232870

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate longer term symptoms and health outcomes associated with post-covid-19 condition within a cohort of individuals with a SARS-CoV-2 infection. DESIGN: Population based, longitudinal cohort. SETTING: General population of canton of Zurich, Switzerland. PARTICIPANTS: 1106 adults with a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection who were not vaccinated before infection and 628 adults who did not have an infection. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Trajectories of self-reported health status and covid-19 related symptoms between months six, 12, 18, and 24 after infection and excess risk of symptoms at six months after infection compared with individuals who had no infection. RESULTS: 22.9% (95% confidence interval 20.4% to 25.6%) of individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 did not fully recover by six months. The proportion of individuals who had an infection who reported not having recovered decreased to 18.5% (16.2% to 21.1%) at 12 months and 17.2% (14.0% to 20.8%) at 24 months after infection. When assessing changes in self-reported health status, most participants had continued recovery (68.4% (63.8% to 72.6%)) or had an overall improvement (13.5% (10.6% to 17.2%)) over time. Yet, 5.2% (3.5% to 7.7%) had a worsening in health status and 4.4% (2.9% to 6.7%) had alternating periods of recovery and health impairment. The point prevalence and severity of covid-19 related symptoms also decreased over time, with 18.1% (14.8% to 21.9%) reporting symptoms at 24 months. 8.9% (6.5% to 11.2%) of participants reported symptoms at all four follow-up time points, while in 12.5% (9.8% to 15.9%) symptoms were alternatingly absent and present. Symptom prevalence was higher among individuals who were infected compared with those who were not at six months (adjusted risk difference 17.0% (11.5% to 22.4%)). Excess risk (adjusted risk difference) for individual symptoms among those infected ranged from 2% to 10%, with the highest excess risks observed for altered taste or smell (9.8% (7.7% to 11.8%)), post-exertional malaise (9.4% (6.1% to 12.7%)), fatigue (5.4% (1.2% to 9.5%)), dyspnoea (7.8% (5.2% to 10.4%)), and reduced concentration (8.3% (6.0% to 10.7%)) and memory (5.7% (3.5% to 7.9%)). CONCLUSIONS: Up to 18% of individuals who were not vaccinated before infection had post-covid-19 condition up to two years after infection, with evidence of excess symptom risk compared with controls. Effective interventions are needed to reduce the burden of post-covid-19 condition. Use of multiple outcome measures and consideration of the expected rates of recovery and heterogeneity in symptom trajectories are important in the design and interpretation of clinical trials. REGISTRATIONS: ISRCTN18181860, .


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Longitudinal Studies , Dyspnea , Fatigue
3.
NPJ Vaccines ; 8(1): 61, 2023 Apr 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292745

ABSTRACT

Long-term control of SARS-CoV-2 requires effective vaccination strategies. This has been challenged by public mistrust and the spread of misinformation regarding vaccine safety. Better understanding and communication of the longer-term and comparative experiences of individuals in the general population following vaccination are required. In this population-based longitudinal study, we included 575 adults, randomly selected from all individuals presenting to a Swiss reference vaccination center, for receipt of BNT162b2, mRNA1273, or JNJ-78436735. We assessed the prevalence, onset, duration, and severity of self-reported adverse effects over 12 weeks following vaccination. We additionally evaluated participants' perceptions of vaccines, trust in public health authorities and pharmaceutical companies, and compliance with public health measures. Most participants reported at least one adverse effect within 12 weeks following vaccination. Adverse effects were mostly mild or moderate, resolved within three days, and rarely resulted in anaphylaxis or hospitalizations. Female sex, younger age, higher education, and receipt of mRNA-1273 were associated with reporting adverse effects. Compared to JNJ-78436735 recipients, a higher proportion of mRNA vaccine recipients agreed that vaccination is important, and trusted public health authorities. Our findings provide real-world estimates of the prevalence of adverse effects following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and highlight the importance of transparent communication to ensure the success of current or future vaccination campaigns.

4.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 150: w20457, 2020 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270793

ABSTRACT

In the wake of the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), contact tracing has become a key element of strategies to control the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Given the rapid and intense spread of SARS-CoV-2, digital contact tracing has emerged as a potential complementary tool to support containment and mitigation efforts. Early modelling studies highlighted the potential of digital contact tracing to break transmission chains, and Google and Apple subsequently developed the Exposure Notification (EN) framework, making it available to the vast majority of smartphones. A growing number of governments have launched or announced EN-based contact tracing apps, but their effectiveness remains unknown. Here, we report early findings of the digital contact tracing app deployment in Switzerland. We demonstrate proof-of-principle that digital contact tracing reaches exposed contacts, who then test positive for SARS-CoV-2. This indicates that digital contact tracing is an effective complementary tool for controlling the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Continued technical improvement and international compatibility can further increase the efficacy, particularly also across country borders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Contact Tracing/methods , Disease Notification/methods , Mobile Applications , Smartphone , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Confidentiality , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland/epidemiology , Wireless Technology
5.
Int J Equity Health ; 22(1): 51, 2023 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2283493

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the 2020/2021 winter, the labour market was under the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Changes in socioeconomic resources during this period could have influenced individual mental health. This association may have been mitigated or exacerbated by subjective risk perceptions, such as perceived risk of getting infected with SARS-CoV-2 or perception of the national economic situation. Therefore, we aimed to determine if changes in financial resources and employment situation during and after the second COVID-19 wave were prospectively associated with depression, anxiety and stress, and whether perceptions of the national economic situation and of the risk of getting infected modified this association. METHODS: One thousand seven hundred fifty nine participants from a nation-wide population-based eCohort in Switzerland were followed between November 2020 and September 2021. Financial resources and employment status were assessed twice (Nov2020-Mar2021, May-Jul 2021). Mental health was assessed after the second measurement of financial resources and employment status, using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). We modelled DASS-21 scores with linear regression, adjusting for demographics, health status, social relationships and changes in workload, and tested interactions with subjective risk perceptions. RESULTS: We observed scores above thresholds for normal levels for 16% (95%CI = 15-18) of participants for depression, 8% (95%CI = 7-10) for anxiety, and 10% (95%CI = 9-12) for stress. Compared to continuously comfortable or sufficient financial resources, continuously precarious or insufficient resources were associated with worse scores for all outcomes. Increased financial resources were associated with higher anxiety. In the working-age group, shifting from full to part-time employment was associated with higher stress and anxiety. Perceiving the Swiss economic situation as worrisome was associated with higher anxiety in participants who lost financial resources or had continuously precarious or insufficient resources. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the association of economic stressors and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic and highlights the exacerbating role of subjective risk perception on this association.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Switzerland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Employment , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology
6.
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0281429, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2251060

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Post COVID-19 condition (PCC) is an important complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection, affecting millions worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and severity of post COVID-19 condition (PCC) with novel SARS-CoV-2 variants and after prior vaccination. METHODS: We used pooled data from 1350 SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals from two representative population-based cohorts in Switzerland, diagnosed between Aug 5, 2020, and Feb 25, 2022. We descriptively analysed the prevalence and severity of PCC, defined as the presence and frequency of PCC-related symptoms six months after infection, among vaccinated and non-vaccinated individuals infected with Wildtype, Delta, and Omicron SARS-CoV-2. We used multivariable logistic regression models to assess the association and estimate the risk reduction of PCC after infection with newer variants and prior vaccination. We further assessed associations with the severity of PCC using multinomial logistic regression. To identify groups of individuals with similar symptom patterns and evaluate differences in the presentation of PCC across variants, we performed exploratory hierarchical cluster analyses. RESULTS: We found strong evidence that vaccinated individuals infected with Omicron had reduced odds of developing PCC compared to non-vaccinated Wildtype-infected individuals (odds ratio 0.42, 95% confidence interval 0.24-0.68). The odds among non-vaccinated individuals were similar after infection with Delta or Omicron compared to Wildtype SARS-CoV-2. We found no differences in PCC prevalence with respect to the number of received vaccine doses or timing of last vaccination. The prevalence of PCC-related symptoms among vaccinated, Omicron-infected individuals was lower across severity levels. In cluster analyses, we identified four clusters of diverse systemic, neurocognitive, cardiorespiratory, and musculoskeletal symptoms, with similar patterns across variants. CONCLUSION: The risk of PCC appears to be lowered with infection by the Omicron variant and after prior vaccination. This evidence is crucial to guide future public health measures and vaccination strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Cluster Analysis
7.
iScience ; 26(2): 105928, 2023 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2165434

ABSTRACT

Effective public health measures against SARS-CoV-2 require granular knowledge of population-level immune responses. We developed a Tripartite Automated Blood Immunoassay (TRABI) to assess the IgG response against three SARS-CoV-2 proteins. We used TRABI for continuous seromonitoring of hospital patients and blood donors (n = 72'250) in the canton of Zurich from December 2019 to December 2020 (pre-vaccine period). We found that antibodies waned with a half-life of 75 days, whereas the cumulative incidence rose from 2.3% in June 2020 to 12.2% in mid-December 2020. A follow-up health survey indicated that about 10% of patients infected with wildtype SARS-CoV-2 sustained some symptoms at least twelve months post COVID-19. Crucially, we found no evidence of a difference in long-term complications between those whose infection was symptomatic and those with asymptomatic acute infection. The cohort of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2-infected subjects represents a resource for the study of chronic and possibly unexpected sequelae.

8.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(11): e41004, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065330

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Digital proximity-tracing apps have been deployed in multiple countries to assist with SARS-CoV-2 pandemic mitigation efforts. However, it is unclear how their performance and effectiveness were affected by changing pandemic contexts and new viral variants of concern. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to bridge these knowledge gaps through a countrywide digital proximity-tracing app effectiveness assessment, as guided by the World Health Organization/European Center for Prevention and Disease Control (WHO/ECDC) indicator framework to evaluate the public health effectiveness of digital proximity-tracing solutions. METHODS: We performed a descriptive analysis of the digital proximity-tracing app SwissCovid in Switzerland for 3 different periods where different SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (ie, Alpha, Delta, and Omicron, respectively) were most prevalent. In our study, we refer to the indicator framework for the evaluation of public health effectiveness of digital proximity-tracing apps of the WHO/ECDC. We applied this framework to compare the performance and effectiveness indicators of the SwissCovid app. RESULTS: Average daily registered SARS-CoV-2 case rates during our assessment period from January 25, 2021, to March 19, 2022, were 20 (Alpha), 54 (Delta), and 350 (Omicron) per 100,000 inhabitants. The percentages of overall entered authentication codes from positive tests into the SwissCovid app were 9.9% (20,273/204,741), 3.9% (14,372/365,846), and 4.6% (72,324/1,581,506) during the Alpha, Delta, and Omicron variant phases, respectively. Following receipt of an exposure notification from the SwissCovid app, 58% (37/64, Alpha), 44% (7/16, Delta), and 73% (27/37, Omicron) of app users sought testing or performed self-tests. Test positivity among these exposure-notified individuals was 19% (7/37) in the Alpha variant phase, 29% (2/7) in the Delta variant phase, and 41% (11/27) in the Omicron variant phase compared to 6.1% (228,103/3,755,205), 12% (413,685/3,443,364), and 41.7% (1,784,951/4,285,549) in the general population, respectively. In addition, 31% (20/64, Alpha), 19% (3/16, Delta), and 30% (11/37, Omicron) of exposure-notified app users reported receiving mandatory quarantine orders by manual contact tracing or through a recommendation by a health care professional. CONCLUSIONS: In constantly evolving pandemic contexts, the effectiveness of digital proximity-tracing apps in contributing to mitigating pandemic spread should be reviewed regularly and adapted based on changing requirements. The WHO/ECDC framework allowed us to assess relevant domains of digital proximity tracing in a holistic and systematic approach. Although the Swisscovid app mostly worked, as reasonably expected, our analysis revealed room for optimizations and further performance improvements. Future implementation of digital proximity-tracing apps should place more emphasis on social, psychological, and organizational aspects to reduce bottlenecks and facilitate their use in pandemic contexts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Contact Tracing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Switzerland/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control
9.
JAMA ; 328(16): 1604-1615, 2022 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2058991

ABSTRACT

Importance: Some individuals experience persistent symptoms after initial symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection (often referred to as Long COVID). Objective: To estimate the proportion of males and females with COVID-19, younger or older than 20 years of age, who had Long COVID symptoms in 2020 and 2021 and their Long COVID symptom duration. Design, Setting, and Participants: Bayesian meta-regression and pooling of 54 studies and 2 medical record databases with data for 1.2 million individuals (from 22 countries) who had symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Of the 54 studies, 44 were published and 10 were collaborating cohorts (conducted in Austria, the Faroe Islands, Germany, Iran, Italy, the Netherlands, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, and the US). The participant data were derived from the 44 published studies (10 501 hospitalized individuals and 42 891 nonhospitalized individuals), the 10 collaborating cohort studies (10 526 and 1906), and the 2 US electronic medical record databases (250 928 and 846 046). Data collection spanned March 2020 to January 2022. Exposures: Symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Main Outcomes and Measures: Proportion of individuals with at least 1 of the 3 self-reported Long COVID symptom clusters (persistent fatigue with bodily pain or mood swings; cognitive problems; or ongoing respiratory problems) 3 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection in 2020 and 2021, estimated separately for hospitalized and nonhospitalized individuals aged 20 years or older by sex and for both sexes of nonhospitalized individuals younger than 20 years of age. Results: A total of 1.2 million individuals who had symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection were included (mean age, 4-66 years; males, 26%-88%). In the modeled estimates, 6.2% (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 2.4%-13.3%) of individuals who had symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection experienced at least 1 of the 3 Long COVID symptom clusters in 2020 and 2021, including 3.2% (95% UI, 0.6%-10.0%) for persistent fatigue with bodily pain or mood swings, 3.7% (95% UI, 0.9%-9.6%) for ongoing respiratory problems, and 2.2% (95% UI, 0.3%-7.6%) for cognitive problems after adjusting for health status before COVID-19, comprising an estimated 51.0% (95% UI, 16.9%-92.4%), 60.4% (95% UI, 18.9%-89.1%), and 35.4% (95% UI, 9.4%-75.1%), respectively, of Long COVID cases. The Long COVID symptom clusters were more common in women aged 20 years or older (10.6% [95% UI, 4.3%-22.2%]) 3 months after symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection than in men aged 20 years or older (5.4% [95% UI, 2.2%-11.7%]). Both sexes younger than 20 years of age were estimated to be affected in 2.8% (95% UI, 0.9%-7.0%) of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections. The estimated mean Long COVID symptom cluster duration was 9.0 months (95% UI, 7.0-12.0 months) among hospitalized individuals and 4.0 months (95% UI, 3.6-4.6 months) among nonhospitalized individuals. Among individuals with Long COVID symptoms 3 months after symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, an estimated 15.1% (95% UI, 10.3%-21.1%) continued to experience symptoms at 12 months. Conclusions and Relevance: This study presents modeled estimates of the proportion of individuals with at least 1 of 3 self-reported Long COVID symptom clusters (persistent fatigue with bodily pain or mood swings; cognitive problems; or ongoing respiratory problems) 3 months after symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognition Disorders , Fatigue , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Pain/epidemiology , Pain/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndrome , Cognition Disorders/epidemiology , Cognition Disorders/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Internationality , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Mood Disorders/etiology , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
10.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4855, 2022 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991601

ABSTRACT

To better understand the development of SARS-CoV-2-specific immunity over time, a detailed evaluation of humoral and cellular responses is required. Here, we characterize anti-Spike (S) IgA and IgG in a representative population-based cohort of 431 SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals up to 217 days after diagnosis, demonstrating that 85% develop and maintain anti-S responses. In a subsample of 64 participants, we further assess anti-Nucleocapsid (N) IgG, neutralizing antibody activity, and T cell responses to Membrane (M), N, and S proteins. In contrast to S-specific antibody responses, anti-N IgG levels decline substantially over time and neutralizing activity toward Delta and Omicron variants is low to non-existent within just weeks of Wildtype SARS-CoV-2 infection. Virus-specific T cells are detectable in most participants, albeit more variable than antibody responses. Cluster analyses of the co-evolution of antibody and T cell responses within individuals identify five distinct trajectories characterized by specific immune patterns and clinical factors. These findings demonstrate the relevant heterogeneity in humoral and cellular immunity to SARS-CoV-2 while also identifying consistent patterns where antibody and T cell responses may work in a compensatory manner to provide protection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
11.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(5): e35653, 2022 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817837

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Digital proximity tracing (DPT) aims to complement manual contact tracing (MCT) in identifying exposed contacts and preventing further transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the population. Although several DPT apps, including SwissCovid, have shown to have promising effects on mitigating the pandemic, several challenges have impeded them from fully achieving the desired results. A key question now relates to how the effectiveness of DPT can be improved, which requires a better understanding of factors influencing its processes. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aim to provide a detailed examination of the exposure notification (EN) cascade and to evaluate potential contextual influences for successful receipt of an EN and subsequent actions taken by cases and contacts in different exposure settings. METHODS: We used data from 285 pairs of SARS-CoV-2-infected cases and their contacts within an observational cohort study of cases and contacts identified by MCT and enrolled between August 6, 2020, and January 17, 2021, in the canton of Zurich, Switzerland. We surveyed participants with electronic questionnaires. Data were summarized descriptively and stratified by exposure setting. RESULTS: We found that only 79 (58.5%) of 135 contacts using the SwissCovid app whose corresponding cases reported to have triggered the EN also received one. Of these, 18 (22.8%) received the EN before MCT. Compared to those receiving an EN after MCT (61/79, 77.2%), we observed that a higher proportion of contacts receiving an EN before MCT were exposed in nonhousehold settings (11/18, 61.1%, vs 34/61, 55.7%) and their corresponding cases had more frequently reported mild-to-moderate symptoms (14/18, 77.8%, vs 42/61, 68.9%). Of the 18 contacts receiving an EN before MCT, 14 (77.8%) took recommended measures: 12 (66.7%) were tested for SARS-CoV-2, and 7 (38.9%) called the SwissCovid Infoline. In nonhousehold settings, the proportion of contacts taking preventive actions after receiving an EN was higher compared to same-household settings (82%, vs 67%). In addition, 1 (9%) of 11 ENs received in the nonhousehold setting before MCT led to the identification of a SARS-CoV-2-infected case by prompting the contact to get tested. This corresponds to 1 in 85 exposures of a contact to a case in a nonhousehold setting, in which both were app users and the case triggered the EN. CONCLUSIONS: Our descriptive evaluation of the DPT notification cascade provides further evidence that DPT is an important complementary tool in pandemic mitigation, especially in nonhousehold exposure settings. However, the effect of DPT apps can only be exerted if code generation processes are efficient and exposed contacts are willing to undertake preventive actions. This highlights the need to focus efforts on keeping barriers to efficient code generation as low as possible and promoting not only app adoption but also compliance with the recommended measures upon an EN. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Registry 14990068; https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN14990068.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Contact Tracing/methods , Disease Notification/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Public Health Rev ; 43: 1604501, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753426

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To synthesize existing evidence on prevalence as well as clinical and socio-economic aspects of Long COVID. Methods: An umbrella review of reviews and a targeted evidence synthesis of their primary studies, including searches in four electronic databases, reference lists of included reviews, as well as related article lists of relevant publications. Results: Synthesis included 23 reviews and 102 primary studies. Prevalence estimates ranged from 7.5% to 41% in non-hospitalized adults, 2.3%-53% in mixed adult samples, 37.6% in hospitalized adults, and 2%-3.5% in primarily non-hospitalized children. Preliminary evidence suggests that female sex, age, comorbidities, the severity of acute disease, and obesity are associated with Long COVID. Almost 50% of primary studies reported some degree of Long COVID-related social and family-life impairment, long absence periods off work, adjusted workloads, and loss of employment. Conclusion: Long COVID will likely have a substantial public health impact. Current evidence is still heterogeneous and incomplete. To fully understand Long COVID, well-designed prospective studies with representative samples will be essential.

13.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264655, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745320

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Isolation is an indispensable measure to contain the SARS-CoV-2 virus, but it may have a negative impact on mental health and overall wellbeing. Evidence on the isolation experience, facilitating and complicating factors is needed to mitigate negative effects. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This observational, population-based cohort study enrolled 1547 adults from the general population with SARS-CoV-2 infection reported to authorities between 27 February 2020 and 19 January 2021 in Zurich, Switzerland. We assessed the proportion of individuals reporting symptoms of depression and anxiety before, during and after isolation (by DASS-21), and queried worries, positive experiences, and difficulties. We analyzed the association of these outcomes with socio-demographics using ordinal regression. Additionally, we report free-text statements by participants to capture most important aspects of isolation. The proportion of participants affected by depression or anxiety increased during isolation from 10·0% to 17·1% and 9·1% to 17·6%, respectively. Ordinal regression showed that taking care of children increased the difficulty of isolation (OR 2·10, CI 1·43-3·08) and risk of non-compliance (OR 1·63, CI 1·05-2·53), especially in younger participants. A facilitating factor that individuals commonly expressed was receiving more support during isolation. CONCLUSION: Isolation due to SARS-CoV-2 presents a mental burden, especially for younger individuals and those taking care of children. Public health authorities need to train personnel and draw from community-based resources to provide targeted support, information, and guidance to individuals during isolation. Such efforts could alleviate the negative impact isolation has on the mental and physical health of individuals and ensure compliance of the population with recommendations.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Social Isolation/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Cohort Studies , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Compliance/psychology , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Regression Analysis , Switzerland/epidemiology , Young Adult
14.
PloS one ; 17(3), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1743870

ABSTRACT

Background Isolation is an indispensable measure to contain the SARS-CoV-2 virus, but it may have a negative impact on mental health and overall wellbeing. Evidence on the isolation experience, facilitating and complicating factors is needed to mitigate negative effects. Methods and findings This observational, population-based cohort study enrolled 1547 adults from the general population with SARS-CoV-2 infection reported to authorities between 27 February 2020 and 19 January 2021 in Zurich, Switzerland. We assessed the proportion of individuals reporting symptoms of depression and anxiety before, during and after isolation (by DASS-21), and queried worries, positive experiences, and difficulties. We analyzed the association of these outcomes with socio-demographics using ordinal regression. Additionally, we report free-text statements by participants to capture most important aspects of isolation. The proportion of participants affected by depression or anxiety increased during isolation from 10·0% to 17·1% and 9·1% to 17·6%, respectively. Ordinal regression showed that taking care of children increased the difficulty of isolation (OR 2·10, CI 1·43–3·08) and risk of non-compliance (OR 1·63, CI 1·05–2·53), especially in younger participants. A facilitating factor that individuals commonly expressed was receiving more support during isolation. Conclusion Isolation due to SARS-CoV-2 presents a mental burden, especially for younger individuals and those taking care of children. Public health authorities need to train personnel and draw from community-based resources to provide targeted support, information, and guidance to individuals during isolation. Such efforts could alleviate the negative impact isolation has on the mental and physical health of individuals and ensure compliance of the population with recommendations.

15.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 446, 2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655574

ABSTRACT

Following acute infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) a significant proportion of individuals develop prolonged symptoms, a serious condition termed post-acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) syndrome (PACS) or long COVID. Predictors of PACS are needed. In a prospective multicentric cohort study of 215 individuals, we study COVID-19 patients during primary infection and up to one year later, compared to healthy subjects. We discover an immunoglobulin (Ig) signature, based on total IgM and IgG3 levels, which - combined with age, history of asthma bronchiale, and five symptoms during primary infection - is able to predict the risk of PACS independently of timepoint of blood sampling. We validate the score in an independent cohort of 395 individuals with COVID-19. Our results highlight the benefit of measuring Igs for the early identification of patients at high risk for PACS, which facilitates the study of targeted treatment and pathomechanisms of PACS.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cohort Studies , Cough/blood , Cough/complications , Cough/immunology , Dyspnea/blood , Dyspnea/complications , Dyspnea/immunology , Fatigue/blood , Fatigue/complications , Fatigue/immunology , Female , Fever/blood , Fever/complications , Fever/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
16.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1603992, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533731

ABSTRACT

Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the SwissCovid digital proximity tracing (DPT) app in notifying exposed individuals and prompting them to quarantine earlier compared to individuals notified only by manual contact tracing (MCT). Methods: A population-based sample of cases and close contacts from the Zurich SARS-CoV-2 Cohort was surveyed regarding SwissCovid app use and SARS-CoV-2 exposure. We descriptively analyzed app adherence and effectiveness, and evaluated its effects on the time between exposure and quarantine among contacts using stratified multivariable time-to-event analyses. Results: We included 393 SARS-CoV-2 infected cases and 261 close contacts. 62% of cases reported using SwissCovid and among those, 88% received and uploaded a notification code. 71% of close contacts were app users, of which 38% received a warning. Non-household contacts notified by SwissCovid started quarantine 1 day earlier and were more likely to quarantine earlier than those not warned by the app (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.15-2.03). Conclusion: These findings provide evidence that DPT may reach exposed contacts faster than MCT, with earlier quarantine and potential interruption of SARS-CoV-2 transmission chains.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Mobile Applications , Quarantine , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Contact Tracing/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mobile Applications/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Switzerland/epidemiology , Time Factors
17.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151(35-36)2021 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399511

ABSTRACT

​Digital proximity tracing has been promoted as a major technological innovation for its potential added benefits of greater speed, wider reach and better scalability compared with traditional manual contact tracing. First launched in Switzerland on 25 June 2020, the SwissCovid digital proximity tracing app has now been in use for more than one year. In light of this milestone, we raise the questions: What is currently known about the role of SwissCovid in mitigating the pandemic? Were the expectations fulfilled? ​In this review, we will summarise the current state of the literature from empirical studies on the adoption, performance and effectiveness of SwissCovid. The review consists of three sections. The first section summarizes findings from effectiveness studies, which suggest that SwissCovid exposure notifications contributed to preventive actions in 76% of exposure notification recipients and were associated with a faster quarantine time in some SwissCovid user groups. The second describes the public perception and current state of adoption of SwissCovid in Switzerland in light of prevalent misconceptions and overemphasised expectations. the third places the evidence on SwissCovid in an international context. Specifically, we compare key performance indicators of SwissCovid, which are of similar magnitude as for digital proximity tracing apps from other European countries. Using findings from Switzerland, we subsequently derive a preliminary measure of the population-level effectiveness of digital proximity tracing apps. We estimate that exposure notifications may have contributed to the notification and identification of 500 to 1000 SARS-CoV-2-positive app users per month. We explore why this effectiveness estimation is somewhat lower when compared with Germany or the United Kingdom. ​In light of the presented evidence, we conclude that digital proximity tracing works well in specific contexts, such as in mitigating non-household spread. However, future applications of digital proximity tracing should invest into stakeholder onboarding and increased process automatization - without deviating from the principles of voluntariness and user privacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , Contact Tracing , Humans , Motivation , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 150: w20281, 2020 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348747
19.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254523, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305580

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Longer-term consequences after SARS-CoV-2 infection are becoming an important burden to societies and healthcare systems. Data on post-COVID-19 syndrome in the general population are required for the timely planning of healthcare services and resources. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of impaired health status and physical and mental health symptoms among individuals at least six months after SARS-CoV-2 infection, and to characterize their healthcare utilization. METHODS: This population-based prospective cohort study (Zurich SARS-CoV-2 Cohort) enrolled 431 adults from the general population with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection reported to health authorities between 27 February 2020 and 05 August 2020 in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland. We evaluated the proportion of individuals reporting not to have fully recovered since SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the proportion reporting fatigue (Fatigue Assessment Scale), dyspnea (mMRC dyspnea scale) or depression (DASS-21) at six to eight months after diagnosis. Furthermore, the proportion of individuals with at least one healthcare contact after their acute illness was evaluated. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess factors associated with these main outcomes. RESULTS: Symptoms were present in 385 (89%) participants at diagnosis and 81 (19%) were initially hospitalized. At six to eight months, 111 (26%) reported not having fully recovered. 233 (55%) participants reported symptoms of fatigue, 96 (25%) had at least grade 1 dyspnea, and 111 (26%) had DASS-21 scores indicating symptoms of depression. 170 (40%) participants reported at least one general practitioner visit related to COVID-19 after acute illness, and 10% (8/81) of initially hospitalized individuals were rehospitalized. Individuals that have not fully recovered or suffer from fatigue, dyspnea or depression were more likely to have further healthcare contacts. However, a third of individuals (37/111) that have not fully recovered did not seek further care. CONCLUSIONS: In this population-based study, a relevant proportion of participants suffered from longer-term consequences after SARS-CoV-2 infection. With millions infected across the world, our findings emphasize the need for the timely planning of resources and patient-centered services for post-COVID-19 care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Health Services , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cost of Illness , Depression/epidemiology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quality of Life , Switzerland , Young Adult , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
20.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(1): e25701, 2021 01 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978994

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Digital proximity tracing apps have been released to mitigate the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus known to cause COVID-19. However, it remains unclear how the acceptance and uptake of these apps can be improved. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the coverage of the SwissCovid app and the reasons for its nonuse in Switzerland during a period of increasing incidence of COVID-19 cases. METHODS: We collected data between September 28 and October 8, 2020, via a nationwide online panel survey (COVID-19 Social Monitor, N=1511). We examined sociodemographic and behavioral factors associated with app use by using multivariable logistic regression, whereas reasons for app nonuse were analyzed descriptively. RESULTS: Overall, 46.5% (703/1511) of the survey participants reported they used the SwissCovid app, which was an increase from 43.9% (662/1508) reported in the previous study wave conducted in July 2020. A higher monthly household income (ie, income >CHF 10,000 or >US $11,000 vs income ≤CHF 6000 or

Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Contact Tracing/instrumentation , Mobile Applications/standards , Physical Distancing , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/transmission , Contact Tracing/trends , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mobile Applications/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Switzerland
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