Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 11 de 11
Filter
1.
Pediatr Transplant ; : e14336, 2022 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896026
2.
Pediatrics ; 150(1)2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793440

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections are uncommon in newborn infants. This report describes possible in utero transmission of the B.1.1.7 (alpha) variant in a preterm infant born at 31 weeks' gestational age who presented with severe respiratory disease. The infant was treated with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, antiviral medications, and corticosteroids and transitioned to noninvasive respiratory support on day 33. By day 63, she was off positive pressure support and breathing room air and she was discharged from the hospital on day 70. She demonstrated normal growth and development at a 6-month follow-up visit. Placental histopathology revealed placentitis characterized by loss of intervillous spaces resulting from fibrin deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration. Optimum management strategies for treating infants with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection have yet to be determined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Placenta , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
3.
HIV Med ; 23(8): 849-858, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764940

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) Guidelines were revised in 2021 for the 17th time with updates on all aspects of HIV care. KEY POINTS OF THE GUIDELINES UPDATE: Version 11.0 of the Guidelines recommend six first-line treatment options for antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve adults: tenofovir-based backbone plus an unboosted integrase inhibitor or plus doravirine; abacavir/lamivudine plus dolutegravir; or dual therapy with lamivudine or emtricitabine plus dolutegravir. Recommendations on preferred and alternative first-line combinations from birth to adolescence were included in the new paediatric section made with Penta. Long-acting cabotegravir plus rilpivirine was included as a switch option and, along with fostemsavir, was added to all drug-drug interaction (DDI) tables. Four new DDI tables for anti-tuberculosis drugs, anxiolytics, hormone replacement therapy and COVID-19 therapies were introduced, as well as guidance on screening and management of anxiety disorders, transgender health, sexual health for women and menopause. The sections on frailty, obesity and cancer were expanded, and recommendations for the management of people with diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk were revised extensively. Treatment of recently acquired hepatitis C is recommended with ongoing risk behaviour to reduce transmission. Bulevirtide was included as a treatment option for the hepatitis Delta virus. Drug-resistant tuberculosis guidance was adjusted in accordance with the 2020 World Health Organization recommendations. Finally, there is new guidance on COVID-19 management with a focus on continuance of HIV care. CONCLUSIONS: In 2021, the EACS Guidelines were updated extensively and broadened to include new sections. The recommendations are available as a free app, in interactive web format and as an online pdf.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Anti-HIV Agents , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Child , Female , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Lamivudine/therapeutic use , Lipopeptides
4.
Cardiol Young ; : 1-7, 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565679

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We describe a cohort of children referred with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and compare this cohort with a 2019 cohort of children with Kawasaki disease. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 2019 and 2020 referrals to the inflammatory cardiology service at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children. We compared cardiac and inflammatory parameters of a sub-section of the 2020 cohort who presented with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction with the remainder of the cohort. RESULTS: Referrals significantly increased between February and June 2020 compared to 2019 (19.8/30 days versus 3.9/30 days). Frequency of coronary artery aneurysms (11/79 (13.9%) versus 7/47 (14.9%)) or severe coronary artery aneurysms (6/79 (7.6%) versus 3/47 (6.4%)) was similar between 2020 and 2019, respectively. The 2020 cohort was older (median age 9.07 years versus 2.38 years), more likely to be of Black, Asian, or other minority ethnic group (60/76 (78.9%) versus 25/42 (59.5%)), and more likely to require inotropic support (22 (27.5%) versus 0 (0%)). Even children with significantly reduced left ventricular ejection fraction demonstrated complete recovery of cardiac function within 10 days (mean 5.25 days ± 2.7). DISCUSSION: We observed complete recovery of myocardial dysfunction and an overall low rate of permanent coronary sequelae, indicating that the majority of children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children are unlikely to encounter long-term cardiac morbidity. Although the frequency of myocardial dysfunction and inotropic support requirement is not consistent with a diagnosis of Kawasaki disease, the frequency of coronary artery abnormalities and severe coronary artery abnormalities suggests a degree of phenotypic overlap.

5.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 161-172, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544335

ABSTRACT

Detailed information on intrahost viral evolution in SARS-CoV-2 with and without treatment is limited. Sequential viral loads and deep sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 from the upper respiratory tract of nine hospitalized children, three of whom were treated with remdesivir, revealed that remdesivir treatment suppressed viral load in one patient but not in a second infected with an identical strain without any evidence of drug resistance found. Reduced levels of subgenomic RNA during treatment of the second patient, suggest an additional effect of remdesivir on viral replication. Haplotype reconstruction uncovered persistent SARS-CoV-2 variant genotypes in four patients. These likely arose from within-host evolution, although superinfection cannot be excluded in one case. Although our dataset is small, observed sample-to-sample heterogeneity in variant frequencies across four of nine patients suggests the presence of discrete viral populations in the lung with incomplete population sampling in diagnostic swabs. Such compartmentalization could compromise the penetration of remdesivir into the lung, limiting the drugs in vivo efficacy, as has been observed in other lung infections.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Evolution, Molecular , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Alanine/therapeutic use , Child , Child, Preschool , Drug Resistance, Viral , Female , Haplotypes , Humans , Infant , Lung/virology , Male , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Load , Virus Replication/drug effects
6.
Pediatrics ; 147(5)2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197419

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Remdesivir shortens time to recovery in adults with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but its efficacy and safety in children are unknown. We describe outcomes in children with severe COVID-19 treated with remdesivir. METHODS: Seventy-seven hospitalized patients <18 years old with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection received remdesivir through a compassionate-use program between March 21 and April 22, 2020. The intended remdesivir treatment course was 10 days (200 mg on day 1 and 100 mg daily subsequently for children ≥40 kg and 5 mg/kg on day 1 and 2.5 mg/kg daily subsequently for children <40 kg, given intravenously). Clinical data through 28 days of follow-up were collected. RESULTS: Median age was 14 years (interquartile range 7-16, range <2 months to 17 years). Seventy-nine percent of patients had ≥1 comorbid condition. At baseline, 90% of children required supplemental oxygen and 51% required invasive ventilation. By day 28 of follow-up, 88% of patients had a decreased oxygen-support requirement, 83% recovered, and 73% were discharged. Among children requiring invasive ventilation at baseline, 90% were extubated, 80% recovered, and 67% were discharged. There were 4 deaths, of which 3 were attributed to COVID-19. Remdesivir was well tolerated, with a low incidence of serious adverse events (16%). Most adverse events were related to COVID-19 or comorbid conditions. Laboratory abnormalities, including elevations in transaminase levels, were common; 61% were grades 1 or 2. CONCLUSIONS: Among 77 children treated with remdesivir for severe COVID-19, most recovered and the rate of serious adverse events was low.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Child, Preschool , Compassionate Use Trials , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Male , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
7.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 9(6): 772-776, 2020 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072399

ABSTRACT

We describe the adaptive coping strategies required in the management of a heterogeneous group of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pediatric patients. The diverse range of presentations, presenting in distinct phenotypic waves, exemplified the importance of preparedness for the unknown. Lessons learned will be essential in planning for a likely second wave of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospitals, Pediatric , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitals, Pediatric/organization & administration , Humans , Male , Tertiary Care Centers/organization & administration , United Kingdom/epidemiology
9.
JAMA Neurol ; 77(11): 1440-1445, 2020 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-626377

ABSTRACT

Importance: Neurological manifestations have been reported in adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by the highly pathogenic virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Objective: To report the neurological manifestations of children with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this case-series study, patients younger than 18 years who presented with SARS-CoV-2 infection and neurological symptoms to Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children (London, UK) between March 1, 2020, and May 8, 2020, were included after infection was confirmed by either a quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay by nasopharyngeal swab or a positive test result for IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in serum. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical and paraclinical features were retrieved from electronic patient records. Results: Of the 27 children with COVID-19 pediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome, 4 patients (14.8%) who were previously healthy had new-onset neurological symptoms. Symptoms included encephalopathy, headaches, brainstem and cerebellar signs, muscle weakness, and reduced reflexes. All 4 patients required intensive care unit admission for the treatment of COVID-19 pediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome. Splenium signal changes were seen in all 4 patients on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. In the 2 patients whose cerebrospinal fluid was tested, samples were acellular, with no evidence of infection on polymerase chain reaction or culture (including negative SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction results) and negative oligoclonal band test results. In all 3 patients who underwent electroencephalography, a mild excess of slow activity was found. Tests for N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, and aquaporin-4 autoantibodies had negative results in all patients. In all 3 patients who underwent nerve conduction studies and electromyography, mild myopathic and neuropathic changes were seen. Neurological improvement was seen in all patients, with 2 making a complete recovery by the end of the study. Conclusions and Relevance: In this case-series study, children with COVID-19 presented with new neurological symptoms involving both the central and peripheral nervous systems and splenial changes on imaging, in the absence of respiratory symptoms. Additional research is needed to assess the association of neurological symptoms with immune-mediated changes among children with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Central Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Central Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Corpus Callosum/diagnostic imaging , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Adolescent , Central Nervous System Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Central Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Child , Electroencephalography , Electromyography , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neural Conduction/physiology , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology
10.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-607311

ABSTRACT

We describe an ex-premature infant presenting with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in the fifth week of life. In current reports, researchers indicate that acute symptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection is relatively rare and much less severe than in adults. This case highlights that infection can be associated with life-threatening pulmonary disease in young infants and that infection can follow a similar disease course to that described in adults. We provide first data on the use of the novel antiviral remdesivir in a young child and an innovative approach to expedited approval from a multidisciplinary clinical team and bioethics committee for compassionate access to the drug.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Infant, Premature , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Treatment Outcome
11.
JAMA ; 324(3): 259-269, 2020 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-574774

ABSTRACT

Importance: In communities with high rates of coronavirus disease 2019, reports have emerged of children with an unusual syndrome of fever and inflammation. Objectives: To describe the clinical and laboratory characteristics of hospitalized children who met criteria for the pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (PIMS-TS) and compare these characteristics with other pediatric inflammatory disorders. Design, Setting, and Participants: Case series of 58 children from 8 hospitals in England admitted between March 23 and May 16, 2020, with persistent fever and laboratory evidence of inflammation meeting published definitions for PIMS-TS. The final date of follow-up was May 22, 2020. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were abstracted by medical record review, and were compared with clinical characteristics of patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) (n = 1132), KD shock syndrome (n = 45), and toxic shock syndrome (n = 37) who had been admitted to hospitals in Europe and the US from 2002 to 2019. Exposures: Signs and symptoms and laboratory and imaging findings of children who met definitional criteria for PIMS-TS from the UK, the US, and World Health Organization. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical, laboratory, and imaging characteristics of children meeting definitional criteria for PIMS-TS, and comparison with the characteristics of other pediatric inflammatory disorders. Results: Fifty-eight children (median age, 9 years [interquartile range {IQR}, 5.7-14]; 20 girls [34%]) were identified who met the criteria for PIMS-TS. Results from SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction tests were positive in 15 of 58 patients (26%) and SARS-CoV-2 IgG test results were positive in 40 of 46 (87%). In total, 45 of 58 patients (78%) had evidence of current or prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. All children presented with fever and nonspecific symptoms, including vomiting (26/58 [45%]), abdominal pain (31/58 [53%]), and diarrhea (30/58 [52%]). Rash was present in 30 of 58 (52%), and conjunctival injection in 26 of 58 (45%) cases. Laboratory evaluation was consistent with marked inflammation, for example, C-reactive protein (229 mg/L [IQR, 156-338], assessed in 58 of 58) and ferritin (610 µg/L [IQR, 359-1280], assessed in 53 of 58). Of the 58 children, 29 developed shock (with biochemical evidence of myocardial dysfunction) and required inotropic support and fluid resuscitation (including 23/29 [79%] who received mechanical ventilation); 13 met the American Heart Association definition of KD, and 23 had fever and inflammation without features of shock or KD. Eight patients (14%) developed coronary artery dilatation or aneurysm. Comparison of PIMS-TS with KD and with KD shock syndrome showed differences in clinical and laboratory features, including older age (median age, 9 years [IQR, 5.7-14] vs 2.7 years [IQR, 1.4-4.7] and 3.8 years [IQR, 0.2-18], respectively), and greater elevation of inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (median, 229 mg/L [IQR 156-338] vs 67 mg/L [IQR, 40-150 mg/L] and 193 mg/L [IQR, 83-237], respectively). Conclusions and Relevance: In this case series of hospitalized children who met criteria for PIMS-TS, there was a wide spectrum of presenting signs and symptoms and disease severity, ranging from fever and inflammation to myocardial injury, shock, and development of coronary artery aneurysms. The comparison with patients with KD and KD shock syndrome provides insights into this syndrome, and suggests this disorder differs from other pediatric inflammatory entities.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Symptom Assessment , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , England , Female , Humans , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/physiopathology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL