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1.
New England Journal of Medicine ; 14:14, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028762
2.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S33, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746794

ABSTRACT

Background. Little is known about how race and ethnicity, imperfect (albeit accessible) proxies for structural racism, impact COVID-19 incidence among people with HIV (PWH). We report the cumulative incidence and incidence rate ratios (IRR) for COVID-19 in a long-term multi-site cohort of PWH across the US Figure 1. Cumulative incidence of COVID-19 in the CNICS cohort Methods. We examined COVID-19 cumulative incidence and IRR among PWH in care between 3/1/2020 and 12/31/2020 at seven sites in the CFAR Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (CNICS) cohort. We define COVID-19 incident case as having a laboratory-confirmed (RT-PCR/Ag) SARS-CoV-2 positive result or diagnosis verified by chart review. Reinfections were excluded. Results are presented as monthly and quarterly cumulative incidence and IRR with 95% CI stratified by CD4 count, self-reported race/ethnicity, and site. Follow-up was censored on the earliest of diagnosis of COVID-19 disease, loss to follow up, or 12/31/2020 Results. Among 15,780 PWH in care in the CNICS cohort during the study period, 62% were non-white, with a median (IQR) age of 52 (IQR 40-59), 95% were on antiretroviral therapy, 17% had a CD4 count less than 350, and 6% less than 200. Overall, 651 PWH tested positive for COVID-19 for a cumulative incidence of 4.13%. COVID-19 cumulative incidence increased from 0.77% at the end of the first quarter to 4.12% by the end of December 2020. At the peak of the pandemic in December 2020, the cumulative incidence in Black PWH was 1.68 fold higher than in white PWH (p=.033) and 2.35 fold higher in Hispanics than in whites (P< .0001), figure 1. Similarly, the IRR for COVID-19 was 1.71 (95% CI 1.42-2.07) for Black and 2.40 (95% CI 1.91-3.01) for Hispanic PWH relative to white. Although there was variation across sites, reflecting geographic differences in pandemic waves and access to COVID-19 testing, overall individual trends remained the same. COVID-19 cumulative incidence was similar across CD4 cell count strata Conclusion. Our results suggest effects of structural racial disparities on COVID-19 incidence in this diverse population of PWH across the US, with higher and disproportionate rates of COVID-19 in Black and Hispanic PWH. Incidence estimates are conservative because testing was not uniform, and no systematic testing was conducted.

3.
South African Medical Journal ; 112(2 b), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1706330

ABSTRACT

Sisonke is a multicentre, open-label, single-arm phase 3B vaccine implementation study of healthcare workers (HCWs) in South Africa, with prospective surveillance for 2 years. The primary endpoint is the rate of severe COVID-19, including hospitalisations and deaths. The Sisonke study enrolled and vaccinated participants nationally at potential vaccination roll-out sites between 17 February and 26 May 2021. After May 2021, additional HCWs were vaccinated as part of a sub-study at selected clinical research sites. We discuss 10 lessons learnt to strengthen national and global vaccination strategies: (i) consistently advocate for vaccination to reduce public hesitancy;(ii) an electronic vaccination data system (EVDS) is critical;(iii) facilitate access to a choice of vaccination sites, such as religious and community centres, schools, shopping malls and drive-through centres;(iv) let digitally literate people help elderly and marginalised people to register for vaccination;(v) develop clear 'how to' guides for vaccine storage, pharmacy staff and vaccinators;(vi) leverage instant messaging platforms, such as WhatsApp, for quick communication among staff at vaccination centres;(vii) safety is paramount - rapid health assessments are needed at vaccination centres to identify people at high risk of serious adverse events, including anaphylaxis or thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome. Be transparent about adverse events and contextualise vaccination benefits, while acknowledging the small risks;(viii) provide real-time, responsive support to vaccinees post vaccination and implement an accessible national vaccine adverse events surveillance system;(ix) develop efficient systems to monitor and investigate COVID-19 breakthrough infections;and (x) flexibility and teamwork are essential in vaccination centres across national, provincial and district levels and between public and private sectors.

4.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-327037

ABSTRACT

Following the results of the ENSEMBLE 2 study, which demonstrated improved vaccine efficacy of a two-dose regimen of Ad26.COV.2 vaccine given 2 months apart, we expanded the Sisonke study which had provided single dose Ad26.COV.2 vaccine to almost 500 000 health care workers (HCW) in South Africa to include a booster dose of the Ad26.COV.2. Sisonke 2 enrolled 227 310 HCW from the 8 November to the 17 December 2021. Enrolment commenced before the onset of the Omicron driven fourth wave in South Africa affording us an opportunity to evaluate early VE in preventing hospital admissions of a homologous boost of the Ad26.COV.2 vaccine given 6-9 months after the initial vaccination in HCW. We estimated vaccine effectiveness (VE) of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine booster in 69 092 HCW as compared to unvaccinated individuals enrolled in the same managed care organization using a test negative design. We compared VE against COVID19 admission for omicron during the period 15 November to 20 December 2021. After adjusting for confounders, we observed that VE for hospitalisation increased over time since booster dose, from 63% (95%CI 31-81%);to 84% (95% CI 67-92%) and then 85% (95% CI: 54-95%), 0-13 days, 14-27 days, and 1-2 months post-boost. We provide the first evidence of the effectiveness of a homologous Ad26.COV.2 vaccine boost given 6-9 months after the initial single vaccination series during a period of omicron variant circulation. This data is important given the increased reliance on the Ad26.COV.2 vaccine in Africa.

5.
S Afr Med J ; 112(2b): 13486, 2021 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1678836

ABSTRACT

Sisonke is a multicentre, open-label, single-arm phase 3B vaccine implementation study of healthcare workers (HCWs) in South Africa, with prospective surveillance for 2 years. The primary endpoint is the rate of severe COVID­19, including hospitalisations and deaths. The  Sisonke study enrolled and vaccinated participants nationally at potential vaccination roll-out sites between 17 February and 26 May 2021. After May 2021, additional HCWs were vaccinated as part of a sub-study at selected clinical research sites. We discuss 10 lessons learnt to strengthen national and global vaccination strategies:(i) consistently advocate for vaccination to reduce public hesitancy; (ii) an electronic vaccination data system (EVDS) is critical; (iii) facilitate access to a choice of vaccination sites, such as religious and community centres, schools, shopping malls and drive-through centres; (iv) let digitally literate people help elderly and marginalised people to register for vaccination; (v) develop clear 'how to' guides for vaccine storage, pharmacy staff and vaccinators; (vi) leverage instant messaging platforms, such as WhatsApp, for quick communication among staff at vaccination centres; (vii) safety is paramount - rapid health assessments are needed at vaccination centres to identify people at high risk of serious adverse events, including anaphylaxis or thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome. Be transparent about adverse events and contextualise vaccination benefits, while acknowledging the small risks; (viii) provide real-time, responsive support to vaccinees post vaccination and implement an accessible national vaccine adverse events surveillance system; (ix) develop efficient systems to monitor and investigate COVID­19 breakthrough infections; and (x) flexibility and teamwork are essential in vaccination centres across national, provincial and district levels and between public and private sectors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Mass Vaccination , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa/epidemiology
6.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-296541

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To define the incidence of clinically-detected COVID-19 in people with HIV (PWH) in the US and evaluate how racial and ethnic disparities, comorbidities, and HIV-related factors contribute to risk of COVID-19. Design: Observational study within the CFAR Network of Integrated Clinical Systems cohort in 7 cities during 2020. Methods: We calculated cumulative incidence rates of COVID-19 diagnosis among PWH in routine care by key characteristics including race/ethnicity, current and lowest CD4 count, and geographic area. We evaluated risk factors for COVID-19 among PWH using relative risk regression models adjusted with disease risk scores. Results: Among 16,056 PWH in care, of whom 44.5% were Black, 12.5% were Hispanic, with a median age of 52 years (IQR 40-59), 18% had a current CD4 count < 350, including 7% < 200;95.5% were on antiretroviral therapy, and 85.6% were virologically suppressed. Overall in 2020, 649 PWH were diagnosed with COVID-19 for a rate of 4.94 cases per 100 person-years. The cumulative incidence of COVID-19 was 2.4-fold and 1.7-fold higher in Hispanic and Black PWH respectively, than non-Hispanic White PWH. In adjusted analyses, factors associated with COVID-19 included female sex, Hispanic or Black identity, lowest historical CD4 count <350 (proxy for CD4 nadir), current low CD4/CD8 ratio, diabetes, and obesity. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the presence of structural racial inequities above and beyond medical comorbidities increased the risk of COVID-19 among PWHPWH with immune exhaustion as evidenced by lowest historical CD4 or current low CD4:CD8 ratio had greater risk of COVID-19.

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