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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296823

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The aim of this multinational study was to assess the development of adverse mental health symptoms among individuals diagnosed with COVID-19 in the general population by acute infection severity up to 16 months after diagnosis. METHODS Participants consisted of 247 249 individuals from seven cohorts across six countries (Denmark, Estonia, Iceland, Norway, Scotland, and Sweden) recruited from April 2020 through August 2021. We used multivariable Poisson regression to contrast symptom-prevalence of depression, anxiety, COVID-19 related distress, and poor sleep quality among individuals with and without a diagnosis of COVID-19 at entry to respective cohorts by time (0-16 months) from diagnosis. We also applied generalised estimating equations (GEE) analysis to test differences in repeated measures of mental health symptoms before and after COVID-19 diagnosis among individuals ever diagnosed with COVID-19 over time. FINDINGS A total of 9979 individuals (4%) were diagnosed with COVID-19 during the study period and presented overall with a higher symptom burden of depression (prevalence ratio [PR] 1.18, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.03-1.36) and poorer sleep quality (1.13, 1.03-1.24) but not with higher levels of symptoms of anxiety or COVID-19 related distress compared with individuals without a COVID-19 diagnosis. While the prevalence of depression and COVID-19 related distress attenuated with time, the trajectories varied significantly by COVID-19 acute infection severity. Individuals diagnosed with COVID-19 but never bedridden due to their illness were consistently at lower risks of depression and anxiety (PR 0.83, 95% CI 0.75-0.91 and 0.77, 0.63-0.94, respectively), while patients bedridden for more than 7 days were persistently at higher risks of symptoms of depression and anxiety (PR 1.61, 95% CI 1.27-2.05 and 1.43, 1.26-1.63, respectively) throughout the 16-month study period. CONCLUSION Acute infection severity is a key determinant of long-term mental morbidity among COVID-19 patients.

2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(14)2021 07 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314657

ABSTRACT

The everyday lives of Danish inhabitants have been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, e.g., by social distancing, which was employed by the government in March 2020 to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, the pandemic has entailed economic consequences for many people. This study aims to assess changes in physical and mental health-related quality of life (MCS, PCS), in stress levels, and quality of sleep during the COVID-19 pandemic and to identify factors that impact such changes, using a prospective national cohort study including 26,453 participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study who answered a health questionnaire before the pandemic and during the pandemic. Descriptive statistics, multivariable linear and multinomial logistic regression analyses were applied. A worsening of MCS and quality of sleep was found, and an overall decrease in stress levels was observed. PCS was decreased in men and slightly increased in women. The extent of health changes was mainly affected by changes in job situation, type of job, previous use of anti-depressive medication and the participants' level of personal stamina. Thus, living under the unusual circumstances that persisted during the COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative impact on the health of the general population. This may, in time, constitute a public health problem.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13153, 2021 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281729

ABSTRACT

Reports of persistent symptoms after hospitalization with COVID-19 have raised concern of a "long COVID" syndrome. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of and risk factors for acute and persistent symptoms in non-hospitalized patients with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed COVID-19. We conducted a cohort study of non-hospitalized participants identified via the Danish Civil Registration System with a SARS-CoV-2-positive PCR-test and available biobank samples. Participants received a digital questionnaire on demographics and COVID-19-related symptoms. Persistent symptoms: symptoms > 4 weeks (in sensitivity analyses > 12 weeks). We included 445 participants, of whom 34% were asymptomatic. Most common acute symptoms were fatigue, headache, and sneezing, while fatigue and reduced smell and taste were most severe. Persistent symptoms, most commonly fatigue and memory and concentration difficulties, were reported by 36% of 198 symptomatic participants with follow-up > 4 weeks. Risk factors for persistent symptoms included female sex (women 44% vs. men 24%, odds ratio 2.7, 95% CI 1.4-5.1, p = 0.003) and BMI (odds ratio 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.2, p = 0.001). In conclusion, among non-hospitalized PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients one third were asymptomatic while one third of symptomatic participants had persistent symptoms illustrating the heterogeneity of disease presentation. These findings should be considered in health care planning and policy making related to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Acute Disease , Adult , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
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