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1.
Viruses ; 14(9):1967, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2010313

ABSTRACT

The authors hereby request the inclusion of two authors (Olivia Teixeira and Maria Cristina Nonato) in the recently published article in Viruses entitled 'Nucleocapsid (N) gene mutations of SARS-CoV-2 can affect real-time RT-PCR diagnostic and impact false-negative results';[...]

2.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 07 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917799

ABSTRACT

Our effort in SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance in Brazil has detected the Alpha Variant of Concern with a predominance higher than 75% in the population of Ilhabela island (São Paulo State) at a time when the Gamma VOC was already predominating the mainland raised concerns for closer surveillance on this island. Therefore, we intensified the surveillance for 24 weeks by generating data from 34% of local positive cases. Our data show that the patterns of VOC predominance dynamics and infection rates were in general distinct from the mainland. We report here the first known case of Alpha predominance in a Brazilian population, a delay greater than 3 months for the Gamma to dominate the previous variants compared to the mainland, and a faster dispersion rate of Gamma and Delta VOCs compared to the mainland. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics in Ilhabela were characterized by multiple independent introduction events of Gamma and Delta, with a few events of Alpha introduction, two of them followed by community transmission. This study evidenced the peculiar behavior of SARS-CoV-2 variants in an isolated population and brought to light the importance of specific programs for SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance in isolated populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
3.
Commun Med (Lond) ; 2: 41, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860436

ABSTRACT

Background: The emergence of the Brazilian variant of concern, Gamma lineage (P.1), impacted the epidemiological profile of COVID-19 cases due to its higher transmissibility rate and immune evasion ability. Methods: We sequenced 305 SARS-CoV-2 whole-genomes and performed phylogenetic analyses to identify introduction events and the circulating lineages. Additionally, we use epidemiological data of COVID-19 cases, severe cases, and deaths to measure the impact of vaccination coverage and mortality risk. Results: Here we show that Gamma introduction in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil, was followed by the displacement of seven circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants and a rapid increase in prevalence two months after its first detection in January 2021. Moreover, Gamma variant is associated with increased mortality risk and severity of COVID-19 cases in younger age groups, which corresponds to the unvaccinated population at the time. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the beneficial effects of vaccination indicated by a pronounced reduction of severe cases and deaths in immunized individuals, reinforcing the need for rapid and massive vaccination.

4.
J Med Virol ; 94(7): 3394-3398, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1844084

ABSTRACT

Delta VOC is highly diverse with more than 120 sublineages already described as of November 30, 2021. In this study, through active monitoring of circulating severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants in the state of São Paulo, southeast Brazil, we identified two emerging sublineages from the ancestral AY.43 strain which were classified as AY.43.1 and AY.43.2. These sublineages were defined by the following characteristic nonsynonymous mutations ORF1ab:A4133V and ORF3a:T14I for the AY.43.1 and ORF1ab:G1155C for the AY.43.2 and our analysis reveals that they might have a likely-Brazilian origin. Much is still unknown regarding their dissemination in the state of São Paulo and Brazil as well as their potential impact on the ongoing vaccination process. However, the results obtained in this study reinforce the importance of genomic surveillance activity for timely identification of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants which can impact the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and public health policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Genomics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
6.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572657

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic demands massive testing by Real-time RT-PCR (Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction), which is considered the gold standard diagnostic test for the detection of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. However, the virus continues to evolve with mutations that lead to phenotypic alterations as higher transmissibility, pathogenicity or vaccine evasion. Another big issue are mutations in the annealing sites of primers and probes of RT-PCR diagnostic kits leading to false-negative results. Therefore, here we identify mutations in the N (Nucleocapsid) gene that affects the use of the GeneFinder COVID-19 Plus RealAmp Kit. We sequenced SARS-CoV-2 genomes from 17 positive samples with no N gene detection but with RDRP (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase) and E (Envelope) genes detection, and observed a set of three different mutations affecting the N detection: a deletion of 18 nucleotides (Del28877-28894), a substitution of GGG to AAC (28881-28883) and a frameshift mutation caused by deletion (Del28877-28878). The last one cause a deletion of six AAs (amino acids) located in the central intrinsic disorder region at protein level. We also found this mutation in 99 of the 14,346 sequenced samples by the Sao Paulo state Network for Pandemic Alert of Emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants, demonstrating the circulation of the mutation in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Continuous monitoring and characterization of mutations affecting the annealing sites of primers and probes by genomic surveillance programs are necessary to maintain the effectiveness of the diagnosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , DNA Primers , False Negative Reactions , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Mutation , Phosphoproteins/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293359

ABSTRACT

Delta VOC is highly diverse and more than 120 sublineages have been identified in Pango lineages with the continuous description of emerging ones. Brazil is now one of the most vaccinated countries against SARS-CoV-2 in the world which can enhance the emergence of viral mutations related to improved viral fitness. In this study, we identified two novel sublineages of the AY.43 lineage which were classified as AY.43.1 and AY.43.2 as observed on the specific clustering on the obtained phylogenetic tree. The novel sublineages were defined by the following characteristic nonsynonymous mutations ORF1ab:A4133V and ORF3a:T14I for AY.43.1 and ORF1ab:G1155C for AY.43.2. The majority of the analyzed sequences of both lineages were Brazilian, which shows that probably these two emerging sublineages have Brazilian origin. It is still unknown how these two sublineages are disseminated in São Paulo State and Brazil and their potential impact on the ongoing vaccination process. However, the performed study reinforces the importance of the SARS-CoV-2 genome monitoring for timely identification of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants which can impact the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and public health policies

8.
Virus Res ; 308: 198643, 2022 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537116

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 alpha VOC (also known as lineage B.1.1.7) initially described in the autumn, 2020 in UK, rapidly became the dominant lineage across much of Europe. Despite multiple studies reporting molecular evidence suggestive of its circulation in Brazil, much is still unknown about its genomic diversity in the state of São Paulo, the main Brazilian economic and transportation hub. To get more insight regarding its transmission dynamics into the State we performed phylogenetic analysis on all alpha VOC strains obtained between February and August 2021 from the Sao Paulo state Network for Pandemic Alert of Emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. The performed phylogenetic analysis showed that most of the alpha VOC genomes were interspersed with viral strains sampled from different Brazilian states and other countries suggesting that multiple independent Alpha VOC introductions from Brazil and overseas have occurred in the São Paulo State over time. Nevertheless, large monophyletic clusters were also observed especially from the Central-West part of the São Paulo State (the city of Bauru) and the metropolitan region of the São Paulo city. Our results highlight the Alpha VOC molecular epidemiology in the São Paulo state and reinforce the need for continued genomic surveillance strategies for the real-time monitoring of potential emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants during the ever-growing vaccination process.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Genomics , Humans , World Health Organization
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