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Biosensors (Basel) ; 13(2)2023 Jan 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2215583


The demand for new devices that enable the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) at a relatively low cost and that are fast and feasible to be used as point-of-care is required overtime on a large scale. In this sense, the use of sustainable materials, for example, the bio-based poly (ethylene terephthalate) (Bio-PET) can be an alternative to current standard diagnostics. In this work, we present a flexible disposable printed electrode based on a platinum thin film on Bio-PET as a substrate for the development of a sensor and immunosensor for the monitoring of COVID-19 biomarkers, by the detection of L-cysteine and the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, respectively. The electrode was applied in conjunction with 3D printing technology to generate a portable and easy-to-analyze device with a low sample volume. For the L-cysteine determination, chronoamperometry was used, which achieved two linear dynamic ranges (LDR) of 3.98-39.0 µmol L-1 and 39.0-145 µmol L-1, and a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.70 µmol L-1. The detection of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was achieved by both square wave voltammetry (SWV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) by a label-free immunosensor, using potassium ferro-ferricyanide solution as the electrochemical probe. An LDR of 0.70-7.0 and 1.0-30 pmol L-1, with an LOD of 0.70 and 1.0 pmol L-1 were obtained by SWV and EIS, respectively. As a proof of concept, the immunosensor was successfully applied for the detection of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in enriched synthetic saliva samples, which demonstrates the potential of using the proposed sensor as an alternative platform for the diagnosis of COVID-19 in the future.

Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Platinum , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Cysteine , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Immunoassay/methods
Anal Chim Acta ; 1232: 340442, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104217


In the present work, we report an innovative approach for immunosensors construction. The experimental strategy is based on the anchoring of biological material at screen-printed carbon electrode (SPE) modified with electrodeposited Graphene Quantum Dots (GQD) and polyhydroxybutyric acid (PHB). It was used as functional substract basis for the recognition site receptor-binding domain (RBD) from coronavirus spike protein (SARS-CoV-2), for the detection of Anti-S antibodies (AbS). SEM images and EDS spectra suggest an interaction of the protein with GQD-PHB sites at the electrode surface. Differential pulse voltametric (DPV) measurements were performed before and after incubation, in presence of the target, shown a decrease in voltametric signal of an electrochemical probe ([Fe(CN)6]3/4-). Using the optimal experimental conditions, analytical curves were performed in PBS and human serum spiked with AbS showing a slight matrix effect and a relationship between voltametric signal and AbS concentration in the range of 100 ng mL-1 and 10 µg mL-1. The selectivity of the proposed sensor was tested against yellow fever antibodies (YF) and the selective layer on the electrode surface did not interact with these unspecific antibodies. Eight samples of blood serum were analyzed and 87.5% of these total investigated provided adequate results. In addition, the present approach showed better results against traditional EDC/NHS reaction with enhancements in time and the possibility to develop an immunosensor in a single drop, since the proteins can be anchored prior to the electrode modification step.

Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Graphite , Quantum Dots , Humans , Graphite/chemistry , Quantum Dots/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Limit of Detection , Immunoassay , Electrodes , Carbon/chemistry , Antibodies
ACS Sens ; 7(4): 1122-1131, 2022 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788266


Rapid antigen tests are currently used for population screening of COVID-19. However, they lack sensitivity and utilize antibodies as receptors, which can only function in narrow temperature and pH ranges. Consequently, molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (nanoMIPs) are synthetized with a fast (2 h) and scalable process using merely a tiny SARS-CoV-2 fragment (∼10 amino acids). The nanoMIPs rival the affinity of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies under standard testing conditions and surpass them at elevated temperatures or in acidic media. Therefore, nanoMIP sensors possess clear advantages over antibody-based assays as they can function in various challenging media. A thermal assay is developed with nanoMIPs electrografted onto screen-printed electrodes to accurately quantify SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Heat transfer-based measurements demonstrate superior detection limits compared to commercial rapid antigen tests and most antigen tests from the literature for both the alpha (∼9.9 fg mL-1) and delta (∼6.1 fg mL-1) variants of the spike protein. A prototype assay is developed, which can rapidly (∼15 min) validate clinical patient samples with excellent sensitivity and specificity. The straightforward epitope imprinting method and high robustness of nanoMIPs produce a SARS-CoV-2 sensor with significant commercial potential for population screening, in addition to the possibility of measurements in diagnostically challenging environments.

COVID-19 , Molecular Imprinting , Nanoparticles , Antibodies , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Molecularly Imprinted Polymers , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Point-of-Care Systems , SARS-CoV-2