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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e065453, 2022 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038322

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is critical to control the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, but despite the availability of safe and effective vaccine in children over 5 years, vaccination rates remain low. There is paucity of data about vaccine acceptance and factors influencing parents' hesitancy about the COVID-19 vaccine for young children. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To estimate vaccine acceptance by parents of children 6 months through 4 years, and to evaluate the factors influencing vaccine hesitancy. METHODS: Electronic survey was sent to parents of children 6 months through 4 years through an online portal account at Mayo Clinic Health System, Northwest-Wisconsin. Data were captured via Research Electronic Data Capture secured data collection software. Bivariate and multivariate regression was used to determine most pertinent factors influencing parents' decisions against the outcome, 'Intent to Vaccinate'. RESULTS: 39.7% of the parents were 'very likely' or 'somewhat likely' to vaccinate their children once the vaccine became available, while 49.8% were not likely or highly unlikely to vaccinate. Routine childhood vaccination, receiving seasonal influenza vaccine, parents' perception of COVID-19 severity in children and safety and effectiveness of the vaccine were all associated with more vaccine acceptance. 71.4% of parents who will likely not vaccinate their children indicated that they are unlikely to change their decision. The need for more research on the vaccine and more information from the PCP office were the most common reasons behind the vaccine decision-making. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccine hesitancy remains a major issue regarding uptake of the upcoming COVID-19 vaccine. Strong and clear evidence-based recommendations from primary care provider and more information from trusted websites such as Centers for Disease Control and Prevention can decrease vaccine hesitancy in parents. Further research targeted at understanding beliefs and perspectives of parents from different demographics can assist policy-makers in implementing measures to improve vaccination rates in children and tailor our dialogue to match the needs of our patients and families.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics , Parents , Wisconsin
2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(9)2022 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010335

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection in the pediatric population usually leads to a mild illness; however, a rare but serious complication of MIS-C has been seen in children. MIS-C usually presents 2-4 weeks after COVID-19 infection or exposure, and rare reports have been documented in neonates. Vaccinations for COVID-19 have been approved for children aged 6 months and above in the United States, and recent reports suggest significantly low prevalence and risk of complications of Multi-organ Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS-C) in vaccinated children compared to unvaccinated children. Vaccinations for COVID-19 are safe and recommended during pregnancy and prevent severe maternal morbidity and adverse birth outcomes. Evidence from other vaccine-preventable diseases suggests that through passive transplacental antibody transfer, maternal vaccinations are protective against infections in infants during the first 6 months of life. Various studies have demonstrated that maternal COVID-19 vaccination is associated with the presence of anti-spike protein antibodies in infants, persisting even at 6 months of age. Further, completion of a 2-dose primary mRNA COVID-19 vaccination series during pregnancy is associated with reduced risk for COVID-19-associated hospitalization among infants aged 6 months or less. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that maternal COVID-19 vaccination can reduce the risk of and severity of MIS-C in infants. In this article, we review the literature to support this hypothesis.

3.
ARP Rheumatol ; 1(1): 100-101, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1870620

ABSTRACT

Infections including COVID-19 infection are associated with immune overactivation and hyperinflammation, and cases of incident inflammatory arthritis after COVID-19 and other respiratory viral infections have been reported. Theoretical concerns of autoimmunity due to molecular mimicry exist with vaccines including vaccines for COVID-19, and rare cases of flares of underlying chronic inflammatory disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus have been reported after COVID-19 vaccination. Here we present the case of a patient with a 7-year history of well-controlled palindromic rheumatism who developed rheumatoid arthritis 2 weeks after vaccination for COVID-19. This is the first such case to our knowledge, and further studies can elaborate on the risk of autoimmunity due to COVID-19 vaccines if one exists. Given the overall safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines, the proven benefits of vaccinating vulnerable patients with autoimmune disorders outweigh this potential theoretical risk of autoimmune disease flare, and vaccinations in this at-risk population shall be strongly encouraged.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Vaccines , Autoimmune Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Vaccination/adverse effects
4.
Ann Med ; 54(1): 775-789, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730419

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Colchicine, because of its anti-inflammatory and possible anti-viral properties, has been proposed as potential therapeutic option for COVID-19. The role of colchicine to mitigate "cytokine storm" and to decrease the severity and mortality associated with COVID-19 has been evaluated in many studies. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of colchicine on morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This systematic review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA recommendations. The literature search was conducted in 6 medical databases from inception to February 17, 2021 to identify studies evaluating colchicine as a therapeutic agent in COVID-19. All included studies were evaluated for risk of bias (ROB) using the Revised Cochrane ROB tool for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for case-control and cohort studies. RESULTS: Four RCTs and four observational studies were included in the final analysis. One study evaluated colchicine in outpatients, while all others evaluated inpatient use of colchicine. There was significant variability in treatment protocols for colchicine and standard of care in all studies. A statistically significant decrease in all-cause mortality was observed in three observational studies. The risk of mechanical ventilation was significantly reduced only in one observational study. Length of hospitalisation was significantly reduced in two RCTs. Risk for hospitalisation was not significantly decreased in the study evaluating colchicine in outpatients. Very few studies had low risk of bias. CONCLUSION: Based on the available data, colchicine shall not be recommended to treat COVID-19. Further high-quality and multi-center RCTs are required to assess the meaningful impact of this drug in COVID-19.KEY MESSAGESColchicine, an anti-inflammatory agent has demonstrated anti-viral properties in in-vitro studies by degrading the microtubules, as well as by inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines.Colchicine has been studied as a potential therapeutic option for COVID-19, with variable results.Until further research can establish the efficacy of colchicine in COVID-19, the use of colchicine in COVID-19 shall be restricted to clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Humans , Morbidity , Observational Studies as Topic , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Clin Med Insights Circ Respir Pulm Med ; 15: 11795484211047432, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450691

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In the unprecedented era of COVID-19, ongoing research and evolution of evidence has led to ever-changing guidelines for clinical monitoring and therapeutic options. Formulating treatment protocols requires the understanding and application of the evolving research. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study is to present a systematic evidence-based approach to synthesize the necessary data in order to optimize the management of COVID-19. METHODS: At Mayo Clinic Florida, we developed a multidisciplinary centralized COVID Treatment Review Panel (TRP) of expert pulmonologists, intensivists, infectious disease specialists, anesthesiologists, hematologists, rheumatologists, and hospitalists that in real-time reviews the latest evidence in peer-reviewed journals, the available clinical trials, and help guide the rapid application of therapeutics or interventions to the patient and the bedside provider. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: The multi-disciplinary team approach of synthesizing clinical data and coordinating care is effective in responding to rapidly evolving and changing evidence. Systematic data collection and evidence-based treatment algorithms enable physicians to rapidly translate the current literature to clinical practice, and improve care and outcomes of patients.

7.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 335-336, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1137896
10.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 117-134, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889359

ABSTRACT

Hydroxychloroquine, initially used as an antimalarial, is used as an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory agent for the management of autoimmune and rheumatic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Lately, there has been interest in its potential efficacy against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, with several speculated mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to elaborate on the mechanisms surrounding hydroxychloroquine. The review is an in-depth analysis of the antimalarial, immunomodulatory, and antiviral mechanisms of hydroxychloroquine, with detailed and novel pictorial explanations. The mechanisms of hydroxychloroquine are related to potential cardiotoxic manifestations and demonstrate potential adverse effects when used for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Finally, current literature associated with hydroxychloroquine and COVID-19 has been analyzed to interrelate the mechanisms, adverse effects, and use of hydroxychloroquine in the current pandemic. Currently, there is insufficient evidence about the efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19. KEY MESSAGES HCQ, initially an antimalarial agent, is used as an immunomodulatory agent for managing several autoimmune diseases, for which its efficacy is linked to inhibiting lysosomal antigen processing, MHC-II antigen presentation, and TLR functions. HCQ is generally well-tolerated although severe life-threatening adverse effects including cardiomyopathy and conduction defects have been reported. HCQ use in COVID-19 should be discouraged outside clinical trials under strict medical supervision.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Cardiotoxicity/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Antimalarials/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Pandemics
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