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1.
Journal International Medical Sciences Academy ; 35(1):62-66, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880921

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In order to halt the progression of COVID-19, governments of many countries including India implemented national lockdown. In view of the sudden closure of educational institutions, remote teaching was implemented with the help of online learning or E-learning. Thus, the aim of the study was assessing the attitudes and perceptions of MBBS students regarding the effectiveness of e-learning and the impact of COVID-19 on the student’s mental wellbeing and learning. Methods: The survey instrument was a self-administered questionnaire consisting of 17 close ended questions and 3 open ended question. It has 3 sociodemographic questions, 13 questions assessing their attitudes and perceptions regarding the effectiveness of e-learning and 4 questions investigating the impact of COVID-19 on the student’s mental wellbeing and learning. The data obtained was analyzed using SPSS (version 20). Results: A total of 404 undergraduate students studying in FMHS, SGT University, Gurugram participated in the survey. A major part of the students (57.1%) was using their Mobile phones for e-learning followed by 24.6% using their Personal computer or Laptop, 12% were using combination of these devices and 6.3% using tablets. Due to inconsistent internet connection, most of the students (71.5%) were facing challenges. 64.9% of the respondents faced distraction during the class such as lack of audio clarity, internet connection problems, lack of environment, concentration issues, notifications and social media, student teacher interactions, practical aspect not covered and lack of physical interaction with the teacher. The continuous screen time posed a major problem for students who suffered from strain in the eyes (58.3%), headache (18.7%), neck pain (8.8%), back pain (6.3%) or all of the above problems (7.7%). Thus, 84.1% of the undergraduate students preferred conventional Classroom learning to e-learning. Conclusions: Implementation of strict social distancing and lockdown in COVID-19 era, has mandated the pedagogy of remote learning which remains the only viable option for teaching and learning in these difficult times. The students should be advised to follow good ergonomic practices to maintain their ocular health and should be motivated to enhance their mental well-being and learning amid COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205:2, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1880474
3.
1st International Conference on Technologies for Smart Green Connected Society 2021, ICTSGS 2021 ; 107:5945-5951, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1874791

ABSTRACT

Comparative study of High Resolution Computer Tomography (HRCT) Thorax of 153 COVID-19 patients (includes unvaccinated as well as vaccinated patients) have been reported to check the severity level of the COVID-19 Pulmonary infection. Investigation included only those patients those who had tested positive for the virus on RT-PCR. All patients underwent HRCT Thorax using radiation optimizing protocol. The present study indicates that COVID-19 pulmonary infection is still seen in the vaccinated patients. However, the severity in the vaccinated patients is less than the unvaccinated patients. © The Electrochemical Society

4.
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology ; 12:S40-S41, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1859849

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory system trophic disease. Liver involvement is emerging from recent data. Studies describing liver function test (LFT) abnormalities are sparse from our population. Aims: We studied LFT abnormalities in different categories of COVID-19 and its significance in relation to primary outcomes of in-hospital mortality. Methods: It was a retrospective study from a single center of a metropolitan city. All consecutive patients with proven COVID19 by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction from 23rd March 2020 till 31stOctober 2020 were enrolled. Of 3280 case records profiled, 1474 cases were included in the study. Clinical characteristics, biochemical parameters and outcomes were recorded. Results: Deranged LFTs were present in 681/1474 (46%) patients. Hepatocellular type of injury was most common (93%). Patients with deranged LFTs had more probability of developing severe disease (P<0.001) and mortality (P<0.001). Higher mean age (P<0.001), male gender (P<0.001), diabetes mellitus (P<0.001), chronic kidney disease (P<0.02) cirrhosis (P<0.001), lower oxygen saturation (SpO2) levels at admission (P<0.001), higher serum creatinine (P value<0.001), D-dimer levels (P<0.001) and positive radiological findings on Chest X-ray (P<0.001) were associated with deranged LFTs. Acute liver injury was seen in 65 (4.33%) cases on admission and 57(3.5%) cases during hospital stay. On admission, raised serum bilirubin, aspartate and alanine transaminases, international normalized ratio and low serum albumin were found to be significant. However, on multivariate analysis for predicting mortality, age, serum creatinine, and PaO2/FiO2 ratio only were found to be significant (P<0.001). Conclusion: In COVID-19, LFT abnormalities are common and multifactorial. As severity of disease progresses, derangement in LFT’s increase. However, it is not associated with in- hospital mortality.

5.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-337432

ABSTRACT

Since the outset of the COVID-19 pandemic, substantial public attention has focused on the role of seasonality in suppressing transmission. Misconceptions have relied on seasonal mediation of respiratory diseases driven solely by environmental variables. However, seasonality is expected to be driven by host social behavior, particularly in highly susceptible populations. A key gap in understanding the role of social behavior in respiratory disease seasonality is our incomplete understanding of the seasonality of indoor human activity. We leverage a novel data stream on human mobility to characterize activity in indoor versus outdoor environments in the United States. We use a mobile app-based location dataset encompassing over 5 million locations nationally. We classify locations as primarily indoor (e.g. stores, offices) or outdoor (e.g. playgrounds, farmers markets), disentangling location-specific visitor counts into indoor and outdoor, to arrive at a fine-scale measure of indoor to outdoor human activity across time and space. We find the proportion of indoor to outdoor activity during a baseline year is seasonal, peaking in winter months. The measure displays a latitudinal gradient with stronger seasonality at northern latitudes and an additional summer peak in southern latitudes. We statistically fit this baseline indoor-outdoor activity measure to inform incorporation of this complex empirical pattern into infectious disease dynamic models. However, we find that the disruption of the COVID-19 pandemic caused these patterns to shift significantly from baseline, and the empirical patterns are necessary to predict spatio-temporal heterogeneity in disease dynamics. Our work empirically characterizes, for the first time, the seasonality of human social behavior at a large-scale with high spatio-temporal resolution, and provides a parsimonious parameterization of seasonal behavior that can be included in infectious disease dynamics models. We provide critical evidence and methods necessary to inform the public health of seasonal and pandemic respiratory pathogens and improve our understanding of the relationship between the physical environment and infection risk in the context of global ecological change.

6.
Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation ; 41(4):S134-S134, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1848351
8.
Texila International Journal of Public Health ; 9(4), 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1841775

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 caused by novel single-stranded RNA enveloped severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2) first appeared in Wuhan, China. A lot of focus has been given to pulmonary complications. According to several case reports, cardiovascular associated clinical manifestations include myocarditis, arrhythmias, veno-thromboembolic events, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and pericarditis. Different modalities in diagnosis like 2D, doppler can help in the early diagnosis of right ventricular function. This study evaluates the cardiac changes in recovered COVID-19 positive patients by 2D echocardiogram and other modalities. In this prospective observational study, 139 participants recently recovered from COVID-19 illness were identified and recruited after obtaining the Informed concerned form (ICF). The patients once enrolled were subjected to 2D echo and ECG as part of routine clinical practice. Out of 139 patients, 89 (64.03%) were males, and the rest were females. Based on the severity scale, 13 (9.35%) participants had suffered a severe form of COVID-19 infection. Right ventricular functional assessment, right ventricular global strain (RVGLS) was abnormal in 72 (51.80%) participants. Arrhythmias were reported in 31 (22.30%) participants;among them, 30 participants had sinus bradycardia. Our study demonstrates the association between COVID-19 and cardiac changes/ incidence of cardiovascular complications in recovered COVID-19 patients. This study provides first-hand evidence of the incidence of abnormal LVGLS and RVGLS in COVID-19 recovered patients. In addition, there was a higher incidence of arrythmias.

9.
International Management Conference, IMC 2021 ; : 329-339, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1826324

ABSTRACT

Almost all types of businesses are facing the challenge of global spread COVID-19 outbreak, but the food and beverage industry (including both offline and online meal chains) has been severely affected by this pandemic effect. This world-class issue has brought down the GDP and economic growth of the country. The pandemic issue has increased the restaurant’s expenses by creating pressure to expend more over the sanitation and hygiene factors. So, all these problems that the food and beverage industry are facing nowadays due to the corona pandemic inspired the researcher to work on this topic. The researcher has collected the data from particularly Delhi-NCR region by taking four constraints—consumer behavior, hygiene and safety measures, customer satisfaction. To test the hypothetical assumption of this descriptive study, the researcher has implied chi-square test, KMO test and Bartlett’s test, etc. The data analysis results showed that customer satisfaction is affected by all the variables used in this study and also identified that almost all of the customers considered hygiene as a vital variable out of all, which affects their dining choices and preferences. So, the rationale of this study can help the restaurants in adopting suitable safety measures to attract and satisfy their customers again. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

10.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333601

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Eliminating disparities in the burden of COVID-19 requires equitable access to control measures across socio-economic groups. Limited research on socio-economic differences in mobility hampers our ability to understand whether inequalities in social distancing are occurring during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To assess how mobility patterns have varied across the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic, and identify associations with socio-economic factors of populations. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We used anonymized mobility data from tens of millions of devices to measure the speed and depth of social distancing at the county level between February and May 2020. Using linear mixed models, we assessed the associations between social distancing and socio-economic variables, including the proportion of people below the poverty level, the proportion of Black people, the proportion of essential workers, and the population density. MAIN OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: We find that the speed, depth, and duration of social distancing in the United States is heterogeneous. We particularly show that social distancing is slower and less intense in counties with higher proportions of people below the poverty level and essential workers;and in contrast, that social distancing is intense in counties with higher population densities and larger Black populations. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Socio-economic inequalities appear to be associated with the levels of adoption of social distancing, potentially resulting in wide-ranging differences in the impact of COVID-19 in communities across the United States. This is likely to amplify existing health disparities, and needs to be addressed to ensure the success of ongoing pandemic mitigation efforts.

11.
Indian Journal of Transplantation ; 16(1):8-16, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1798829

ABSTRACT

COVID has drastically impacted organ donation across the world, leading to untold misery for thousands of patients who have been waiting for organs. Early rules on the use of organs from COVID positive or affected donors were stringent due to the fear of spread of disease or thrombotic complications in patients who received these organs. However much has changed in the past two years. Most of our adult population has either been infected with COVID, or has received two doses of vaccine, or both. The current variant, despite being more infective, is associated with mild disease, especially in those who have been vaccinated Our armamentarium against severe COVID has improved dramatically in the past year- we have effective vaccines, monoclonal antibodies for treatment of mild COVID in high risk patients and post exposure and antiviral prophylaxis and treatment which can substantially reduce the risk of severe COVID requiring ICU admission. The risk of transmission of COVID infection has to be balanced against the risk of patients dying with end organ disease. We will have to learn to live with COVID- this also means investigating whether organs from donors who are, or have been COVID positive can be used with acceptable risk -benefit in selected patients with end stage organ failure. This document is a summary of evidence and information regarding donor screening for SARS-CoV-2 and considerations for organ acceptance from donors with a history of COVID-19.

12.
Journal of Heart & Lung Transplantation ; 41(4):S134-S134, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1783355

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), in lung transplant recipients (LTxR) under immunosuppression carries higher risk with 14-39% mortality. Immune responses of LTxR under immunosuppression following SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination remains unknown. Our goal is to determine the humoral and cellular immunity to SARS-CoV-2 in LTxR with infection and following vaccination. We performed a single center analysis to determine immune responses of LTxR with infection and following BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination. The results were compared with controls (non-transplant individuals). ELISA was developed to determine the antibody (Ab) concentration (IgG) to SARS-CoV-2 spike (CSP) and nucleocapsid (CNP) antigens. PBMCs from LTxR were isolated by ficoll-hypaque centrifugation to determining the frequency of cells secreting IFNγ and TNFα to CSP and CNP by ELISpot. Concentration of Abs developed and T-cell frequencies secreting TNFα and IFNγ against CSP and CNP in LTxR and controls are given in Table 1. Infected LTxR and controls developed Abs to both CSP and CNP. In contrast, vaccinated LTxR induced 10 fold less Abs to CSP in comparison to control. Frequencies of cells secreting TNFα for both CSP and CNP were significantly reduced in LTxR with infection. However, vaccination of both LTxR and control induced similar levels of TNFα secreting cells upon stimulation with both CSP and CNP. It is of interest that frequency of IFNγ producing cells against both CSP and CNP were significantly higher in LTxR in comparison to control. Infection with SARS-CoV-2 in LTxR and controls produced comparable levels of Abs both against CSP and CNP. However, vaccinated LTxR didn't induce significant levels of Abs against CSP. Frequency of T-cells, secreting IFNγ were significantly increased by vaccination in LTxR and in controls suggesting that T cell responses against SARS-CoV-2 has been induced in LTxR by mRNA vaccine. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Heart & Lung Transplantation is the property of Elsevier B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

13.
Journal of Heart & Lung Transplantation ; 41(4):S134-S134, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1783354

ABSTRACT

Exosomes are nanosized vesicles released by cells into body fluids. We have demonstrated the presence of circulating exosomes containing viral antigens in lung transplant recipients (LTxR) undergoing rejection. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), an important risk factor for LTxR undergoing immunosuppression. Our goal is to determine whether exosomes with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein are induced in LTxR with SARS-CoV-2 infection and exosomes are immunogenic in mice, inducing immune responses to the spike protein We analyzed 67 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection for the induction of circulating exosomes with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Exosomes were isolated from plasma by an exosome precipitation protocol followed by 0.2 micron filtration and size determination by NanoSight300. Exosomes were first analyzed by western blot with specific antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 spike and its nucleoprotein. Eluted proteins from the gel were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Exosomes were subjected to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to detect spike and nucleocapsid antigens. To determine the immunogenicity of isolated exosomes, C57BL/6 mice were immunized with exosomes carrying SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Exosomes from SARS-CoV-2 infected LTxR expressed SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S2 and increased levels of RNA related to SARS-CoV-2. Peptides specific for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in exosomes were confirmed by mass spectroscopy. TEM also revealed the expression of spike protein and nucleocapsid antigens on the exosome surface. Mice immunized with exosomes carrying the spike protein, developed antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 spike antigens. Severe inflammation and lesions were also demonstrated in the lungs of mice immunized with exosomes carrying SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Splenic lymphocytes from mice immunized with exosomes carrying SARS-CoV-2 spike antigen also demonstrated increased frequency of T-cells which are spike protein antigen specific and secreting IFN-γ and TNF-α. SARS-CoV-2 infected LTxR induce circulating exosomes with spike protein and nucleic acids related to SARS-CoV-2. Since the induced exosomes are highly immunogenic, we propose that the exosomes induced by SARS-CoV-2 will have immunological consequences relevant to the COVID19 disease process. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Heart & Lung Transplantation is the property of Elsevier B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

14.
10th International Conference on System Modeling and Advancement in Research Trends, SMART 2021 ; : 651-655, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1722938

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 outbreak has been faced by every country across the globe. Its affects transmit through direct or indirect contact of infected person with a healthy person. So, isolation is one of the mechanism for prevention from it. Now a day's advancement in technology is playing a great role in fighting against COVID-19. Uses of drone is one of them. Drones can offer a large number of services in this era. Drone or UAV's not only minimizes the risk of contact, they had been used for aerial monitoring of containment or curfews areas, for evaluation of post-massive epidemic contagious diseases, for reaching inaccessible areas and many mores. This study, presents the utilization of drones in various areas in fighting against COVID-19 pandemic and various technologies that assists these drones. Various challenges in the implementation of contactless deliveries using drones have been presented. © 2021 IEEE.

15.
European Respiratory Journal ; 58:2, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1703606
16.
CHEST ; 161(1):A103-A103, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1625850
17.
18.
CHEST ; 161(1):A403-A403, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1625505
20.
New Microbes New Infect ; 45: 100949, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611936

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus -2 (SARS-CoV-2) has posed as a major health concern for people all across the globe. Along with the increasing confirmed patients being readmitted with complaints for fever, cough, cold, the effective monitoring of 'relapse' of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in the previously discharged patients have become the next area of focus. However, availability of limited data on reactivation of SARS-CoV-2 makes the disease prognosis as well as the effective control of re-infection an immense challenge. Prompted by these challenges, we assessed the possibility of re-infection in discharged patients and the risk of the transmission, proficiency of RT-PCR results and approximate period required for the quarantine, and the real challenges for the development of vaccine. In the present review, the published literature on all the possible cases of re-infection from February to July were reported, thereby selected 142 studies from a hub of overall 669 studies after full text screening. The incomplete virus clearance, poor sensitivity of the present diagnostic testing, emergence of mutant strains, insufficient mucus collection from the throat swab etc., are some of the possible causes of re-infection. The new protocols for management of COVID-19 discharged patients should be revised in the guidelines.

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