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1.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2198992

ABSTRACT

Background: The Omicron variant is characterized by striking infectivity and antibody evasion. The analysis of Omicron variant BA.2 infection risk factors is limited among geriatric individuals and understanding these risk factors would promote improvement in the public health system and reduction in mortality. Therefore, our research investigated BA.2 infection risk factors for discriminating severe/critical from mild/moderate geriatric patients. Methods: Baseline characteristics of enrolled geriatric patients (aged over 60 years) with Omicron infections were analyzed. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate factors correlated with severe/critical patients. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed for predicting variables to discriminate mild/moderate patients from severe/critical patients. Results: A total of 595 geriatric patients older than 60 years were enrolled in this study. Lymphocyte subset levels were significantly decreased, and white blood cells (WBCs) and D-dimer levels were significantly increased with disease progression from a mild/moderate state to a severe/critical state. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses identified a panel of WBCs, CD4+ T cell, and D-dimer values that were correlated with good diagnostic accuracy for discriminating mild/moderate patients from severe/critical patients with an area under the curve of 0.962. Conclusion: Some key baseline laboratory indicators change with disease development. A panel was identified for discriminating mild/moderate patients from severe/critical patients, suggesting that the panel could serve as a potential biomarker to enable physicians to provide timely medical services in clinical practice.

2.
Plant Biotechnology Journal ; 18:18, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2193087

ABSTRACT

Although plant secondary metabolites are important source of new drugs, obtaining these compounds is challenging due to their high structural diversity and low abundance. The roots of Astragalus membranaceus are a popular herbal medicine worldwide. It contains a series of cycloartane-type saponins (astragalosides) as hepatoprotective and antivirus components. However, astragalosides exhibit complex sugar substitution patterns which hindered their purification and bioactivity investigation. In this work, glycosyltransferases (GT) from A. membranaceus were studied to synthesize structurally diverse astragalosides. Three new GTs, AmGT1/5 and AmGT9, were characterized as 3-O-glycosyltransferase and 25-O-glycosyltransferase of cycloastragenol respectively. AmGT1G146V/I variants were obtained as specific 3-O-xylosyltransferases by sequence alignment, molecular modelling and site-directed mutagenesis. A combinatorial synthesis system was established using AmGT1/5/9, AmGT1G146V/S and the reported AmGT8 and AmGT8A394F . The system allowed the synthesis of 13 astragalosides in Astragalus root with conversion rates from 22.6% to 98.7%, covering most of the sugar-substitution patterns for astragalosides. In addition, AmGT1 exhibited remarkable sugar donor promiscuity to use 10 different donors, and was used to synthesize three novel astragalosides and ginsenosides. Glycosylation remarkably improved the hepatoprotective and SARS-CoV-2 inhibition activities for triterpenoids. This is one of the first attempts to produce a series of herbal constituents via combinatorial synthesis. The results provided new biocatalytic tools for saponin biosynthesis.

3.
Journal of Technology and Chinese Language Teaching ; 13(2):39-63, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2167668

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, remote synchronous teaching became the mainstream form of online instruction. However, reducing transactional distance – the psychological and communicational distance between instructors and students is one of the main challenges. Drawing from the Theory of Transactional Distance (TTD), this study describes the design and implementation of a remote synchronous class with high structure, high dialogue, and high autonomy for a second-year Chinese course at the post-secondary level. High structure is reflected in the organization of teaching content as well as the content delivery methods. High dialogue denotes a high degree of learner-content, learner-instructor, and learner-learner interaction within the course. Additionally, learner autonomy is increased through the presence of reflection tasks. Findings from surveys show students' high level of satisfaction with this design. However, due to the nature of language courses and the alienation caused by distance learning, most students still prefer face-to-face or hybrid courses. We hope this case study can shed light on how to integrate the strengths of synchronous and asynchronous teaching in future course design. © 2022 The Authors. Compilation © 2022 Journal of Technology and Chinese Language Teaching.

4.
Front Public Health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2163184

ABSTRACT

Uncertainty is mushrooming throughout COVID-19, and intolerance of uncertainty (IoU) nudges people into mental health difficulties involving fear, depression, and anxiety. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of depression and fear of COVID-19 (FoC) in the association between IoU and future career anxiety (FCA) among Chinese university students during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study involved 1,919 Chinese undergraduate students from 11 universities in eight Chinese cities with an online self-administered survey that included demographic information, IoU, FoC, depression, and FCA completed by all participants. Our study demonstrated a positive relationship between IoU and FCA and the chain mediation effect of FoC and depression. Thus, understanding how FoC affects FCA not only informs university career professionals and assists students in preparing for employment, but also motivates schools to offer career opportunities workshops and, most importantly, provides mental health support to help students effectively cope with uncertainty and overcome COVID-19-related stress.

5.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; 28(19):34-41, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2056461

ABSTRACT

Objective:To determine the therapeutic effect of Gegentang granules on a disease-syndrome mouse model combining human coronavirus 229E(hCoV-229E)pneumonia with Hanshi Yidu Xifei syndrome in vivo. Method: Mice were randomly divided into normal group,infection group,cold-dampness group,model group,chloroquine phosphate group(0.18 g·kg-1),interferon-α2b(IFN-α2b)group(1.83×106 U·kg-1), Gegentang granules high-dose and low-dose groups(6.6,3.3 g·kg-1)with 10 mice in each group. Cold-dampness environment and hCoV-229E infection were used for modeling,and the general status and lung index of mice in each group were observed. The viral load in lung tissue was detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction(Real-time PCR),the pathological changes in lung tissue were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin(HE)staining,the levels of serum gastrointestinal hormones and inflammatory factors in lung tissue were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA),and the percentage of peripheral blood lymphocytes was detected by flow cytometry. Result:Comparing with model group,Gegentang granules could significantly alleviate the physical signs of Hanshi Yidu Xifei syndrome,including listlessness,weakness of limbs,sticky stool,etc. Comparing with model group,Gegentang granules high-dose group significantly reduced lung index,histopathological score of interstitial lung and bronchus,and the level of serum motilin(P< 0.05,P<0.01),two doses of Gegentang granules could significantly increase the level of serum gastrin(P< 0.05,P<0.01),the percentage of CD4+ ,CD8+ T lymphocytes in peripheral blood(P<0.05,P<0.01),and the level of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α)in lung tissue was significantly decreased(P<0.01),and the level of interleukin-6(IL-6)showed decreasing tendency. Conclusion: Gegentang granules has therapeutic effect on model mice. It can improve the appearance and behavior characterization,regulate the level of gastrointestinal hormones,decrease lung index and histopathological score,and possibly play an immunomodulatory role by inhibiting the expression of inflammatory cytokines in lung tissue and restoring the percentage of peripheral blood lymphocytes. © 2022, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Institute of Chinese Materia Medica. All rights reserved.

6.
Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; 36(24):1913-1917, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1765983

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2) infection has broken out worldwide, causing enormous social and economic burdens. Sudden exacerbations in SARS - CoV -2 infected people may be caused by infection - related cytokine storms. The basic state of the body and the strength of the immune response determine the prognosis of SARS-CoV-2. The interaction between proinflammatory factors and anti - inflammatory factors, and continued proinflammatory response cause lung edema, exudation, progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome involving the lung tissues and organs, multi - organ failure, and even death. The efficacy of antiviral therapy alone for immune complications like cytokine storm during viral infection is not ideal, and the targeted therapy of cytokines has become a potentially popular therapeutic strategy. Early identification and appropriate treatment of immune complications contribute to reduce the morbidity and mortality of severe viral infections. © 2021 Heilongjiang Institute of Science and Technology Information. All rights reserved.

7.
2021 IEEE International Conference on Engineering, Technology and Education, TALE 2021 ; : 42-47, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1741274

ABSTRACT

Domain-Specific Architectures (DSAs) and hardware-software co-design are greatly emphasized in the CS community, which demands a significant number of participants with Computer System (CSys) capabilities and skills. Conventional CSys courses in a lecture-lab format are limited in physical resources and inherently difficult to cultivate talents at a large scale. Online teaching is a potential alternative to instantly enlarge the face-to-face class size. Unfortunately, simply putting the lecture contents in CSys courses online lacks 1) personal attention, 2) learner-instructor interactions, and 3) real-hardware experimental environments. To tackle the above challenges, we introduce a four phase online CSys course program and the related teaching methods for a cloud-based teaching platform. The four-phase course program included two basic/required stages and two advanced/optional stages to promote students' knowledge and skill level with appropriate personal attention. We studied if online interaction methods, such as in-class chat and one-on-one online grading interview, can strengthen the connections between teachers and students in both lectures and labs. We created a heterogeneous cloud platform to enable students nationwide to reliably conduct labs or projects on remote programmable hardware. We believe that our proposed course design methodology is beneficial to other CScourses in the post-COVID-19-era. © 2021 IEEE.

8.
J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect ; 11(6): 733-739, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517743

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has altered innumerable lives. Although recent mass vaccinations offer a glimmer of hope, the rising death toll and new variants continue to dominate the current scenario. As we begin to understand more about SARS-CoV-2 infections, the territory of reinfections with COVID-19 remains unexplored. In this review, we will discuss several aspects of reinfection: (a) How is COVID-19 reinfection characterized? (b) Does prior literature differentiate between reinfection and reactivation? (c) What SARS-CoV-2 strains do the vaccines target and can they protect against new strains? Larger and longer timeline studies are needed to understand reinfection risks. With the ongoing distribution of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccines to provide protection, the understanding of the possibility for SARS-CoV-2 reinfection remains critical. Abbreviations CDC: Centers for Disease ControlSARS-CoV-2: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2COVID-19: Coronavirus disease 2019RT-PCR: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain ReactionPASC: Post-Acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

9.
Cornell Hospitality Quarterly ; : 28, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1496093

ABSTRACT

Integrating two theoretical frameworks, the product level theory and the experience economy model, this research analyzed and compared robotic technology applications and customer experiences in selected case robot restaurants in the United States and China. Guided by the product level theory, we first analyzed in which product/service levels were robots applied in each case restaurant in Study 1. Then in study 2, guided by the experience economy model, we further explored customers' dining experiences and compared if customers' experience differs due to variations in product/service levels that robot applied. The study first contributes to the product level theory by extending its application to the context of robotic restaurants. It also contributes to the experience economy literature, and in particularly, whether applications of robotic technologies at different product levels matter in customers' dining experience. The study included case restaurants both from the United States and China, presenting findings with cultural implications. Given the challenges presented by COVID-19 and the industry is exploring alternative ways for service delivery and food production, such a study is particularly meaningful.

10.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology ; 32:106-107, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1489297

ABSTRACT

Background: Kidney transplant recipient's response rate to COVID-19 vaccination is reportedly less than 54% after the 2nd dose, significantly lower than general population and dialysis patients, reported as between 85-90% and 95-100%, respectively. Methods: We studied SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike IgG levels in our kidney transplant recipients after their COVID-19 vaccination using the OrthoV IgG platform. Results: 69 kidney transplant recipients received a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (47 Pfizer, 20 Moderna and 2 Johnson and Johnson) at a median 36 months after transplantation (range, 3 months to 22 years). 61% were male, 39% Black, 29% Hispanic with a median age of 60 (range 22-82). 72% were deceased-donor kidney transplant recipients. 23 patients had previous history of COVID-19 diagnosed by SARS-CoV-2 PCR and/or antinucleocapsid antibody and 21 of those patients (91%) developed anti-spike IgG after 1st or 2nd dose with a median level of 13.2 (11.2-16.2). 46 patients without history of previous COVID-19, 17 (37%) developed anti-spike IgG at a median of 28 days (range 10-72) after the second vaccine dose with a median level of 5.7 (1.22-15.4). Patients who didn't develop anti-spike IgG tended to be older, of African-American descent, on MMF > 1 g/day, have lower CD3 and CD4 counts. Conclusions: In summary, most kidney transplant recipients without history of COVID-19 did not produce anti-spike IgG after being fully vaccinated and it is associated with augmented immunosuppression, lower T cell counts, African-American race and older age.

11.
Proceedings of 2020 China Marketing International Conference ; : 928-929, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1371124
12.
54th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, HICSS 2021 ; 2020-January:1139-1148, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1283189

ABSTRACT

Online learning has been expanding for some time but the forced move to it due to the outbreak of COVID-19 has created new issues. This study set out to investigate the impact mechanism of online learning user satisfaction from the perspective of cognitive load in the era of COVID-19 and explore ways to optimize cognitive load in teaching practice. Semi-structured interviews were conducted for the empirical analysis. The coding process of the interviews yielded several antecedents of cognitive load in the online learning process. We also proposed a theoretical model based on the literature review and data analysis. Findings of the qualitative analysis indicate that the antecedents of cognitive load are multi-dimensional and the user's satisfaction with the online learning platform mainly consists of the expected confirmation of the information system and the perceived usefulness. These findings can help us think backward about optimizing user satisfaction with online learning in the context of COVID-19 breakout. © 2021 IEEE Computer Society. All rights reserved.

13.
Journal of China Pharmaceutical University ; 51(6):635-645, 2020.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1184051

ABSTRACT

The corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has spread rapidly around the world, posing a serious threat to the public's health. As of September 30, 2020, the number of infected people in the world has reached 33 million, causing more than 1 million deaths. Normalized nucleic acid detection methods based on lab have long turnaround time and high cost. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a convenient method to detect SARS-CoV-2, so as to achieve rapid testing and timely control of the epidemic when resources are limited. This review summarizes the point-of-care testing (POCT) methods developed for SARS-CoV-2 in terms of extraction, amplification and detection, and briefly introduces commercial POCT instruments that integrate these three steps, in order to provide references for emergency response and rapid deployment of COVID-19 and other emerging infectious diseases. © 2020 China Pharmaceutical University. All rights reserved.

14.
China Nonprofit Review ; 12(2):233-256, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1133397

ABSTRACT

Joint actions of social organizations have been frequently seen and continuously optimized since the outbreak of the COVID-19. This article is aimed to identify and explore the typical forms and development trends of collaborative networks of social organizations. Given the case studies on joint actions of social organizations, it builds an analysis framework based on actor-network theory (ANT). Research findings are as follows. First, there are, among social organizations in their joint actions against COVID-19, “loose”, “vertical”, “decentralized” and other typical forms of collaborative network, with “decentralized” collaboration showing quite a high degree of initiative. Second, “complex needs” and “political opportunities” that emerge in times of emergency response, “social entrepreneurship” and “bridging connective social capital” that accumulate in normal times, among other factors, have combined to drive vertical collaborative networks towards decentralization. The above three forms of collaboration, each with irreplaceable functions, together comprise an ecosystem of joint actions of social organizations. This article calls the landscape of dynamic practice of joint actions of social organizations a “ladder of collaboration”. © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2021

15.
Acta Medica Mediterranea ; 36(6):3711-3717, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-994826

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 has become a global pandemic and impacts the mental and physical health of all people in the world. In China, the community workers played an important role in the combat against COVID-19. This study aimed to investigate the self-rated physical and mental health of community workers during the COVID-19 outbreak in China, and identify factors associated with differences in self-rated health. Materials and methods: From February 29 to March 27, 2020, an online questionnaire of 12 items Short Form Health Survey was used to investigate the physical and mental health of 702 community workers from Jiangsu Province. The data on working characteristics, social support, Stress Appraisal Measure and socio-demographic variables were collected as well. Multiple linear regression models were fitted to identify predictors of self-rated health among the community workers. Results: The community workers had poorer self-rated physical health, but better self-rated mental health compared to the residents of other places in China. The participants with higher level of education, working in a community with more population, having thought of seeking for help, having more working pressure sources, and having higher Stress Appraisal Measure scores had worse self-rated physical health, while the participants being community work administrators, wearing not disposable protective equipment, having thought of seeking for help, reporting more total working hours since COVID-19 outbreak, reporting more working pressure sources, and having higher Stress Appraisal Measure score had worse self-rated mental health. Conclusion: COVID-19 had great impact on community workers' physical health, but limited on mental health. The associated factors of physical and mental health may have practical implications for public health emergency-associated physical and mental health services planning and implementation.

16.
Journal of Bio-X Research ; 3(1):1-2, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-835210
17.
Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; 35(15):1121-1124, 2020.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-824929

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) reported in the United States and European countries is a disease with multi-organ involved symptoms related with 2019 Novel Coronavirus infection, which has never been reported in China. Although its symptoms are similar to Kawasaki disease, MIS-C has characteristics of higher frequency in older children and adolescents, gastrointestinal symptoms, haemodynamic instability, myocarditis and elevated inflammatory markers. Most of the children need intensive care. The pathogenesis and long-term prognosis of the disease need further study. Copyright © 2020 by the Chinese Medical Association.

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