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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e055137, 2022 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714413

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine the temporal patterns of patient characteristics, treatments used and outcomes associated with COVID-19 in patients who were hospitalised for the disease between January and 15 November 2020. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: COVID-19 subset of the Optum deidentified electronic health records, including more than 1.8 million patients from across the USA. PARTICIPANTS: There were 51 510 hospitalised patients who met the COVID-19 definition, with 37 617 in the laboratory positive cohort and 13 893 in the clinical cohort. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Incident acute clinical outcomes, including in-hospital all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Respectively, 48% and 49% of the laboratory positive and clinical cohorts were women. The 50- 65 age group was the median age group for both cohorts. The use of antivirals and dexamethasone increased over time, fivefold and twofold, respectively, while the use of hydroxychloroquine declined by 98%. Among adult patients in the laboratory positive cohort, absolute age/sex standardised incidence proportion for in-hospital death changed by -0.036 per month (95% CI -0.042 to -0.031) from March to June 2020, but remained fairly flat from June to November, 2020 (0.001 (95% CI -0.001 to 0.003), 17.5% (660 deaths /3986 persons) in March and 10.2% (580/5137) in October); in the clinical cohort, the corresponding changes were -0.024 (95% CI -0.032 to -0.015) and 0.011 (95% CI 0.007 0.014), respectively (14.8% (175/1252) in March, 15.3% (189/1203) in October). Declines in the cumulative incidence of most acute clinical outcomes were observed in the laboratory positive cohort, but not for the clinical cohort. CONCLUSION: The incidence of adverse clinical outcomes remains high among COVID-19 patients with clinical diagnosis only. Patients with COVID-19 entering the hospital are at elevated risk of adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
2.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261707, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623660

ABSTRACT

The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to describe pre-treatment characteristics, treatment patterns, health resource use, and clinical outcomes among adults hospitalized with COVID-19 in the United States (US) who initiated common treatments for COVID-19. The Optum® COVID-19 electronic health records database was used to identify patients >18 years, diagnosed with COVID-19, who were admitted to an inpatient setting and received treatments of interest for COVID-19 between September 2020 and January 2021. Patients were stratified into cohorts based on index treatment use. Patient demographics, medical history, care setting, medical procedures, subsequent treatment use, patient disposition, clinical improvement, and outcomes were summarized descriptively. Among a total of 26,192 patients identified, the most prevalent treatments initiated were dexamethasone (35.4%) and dexamethasone + remdesivir (14.9%), and dexamethasone was the most common subsequent treatment. At day 14 post-index, <10% of patients received any treatments of interest. Mean (standard deviation [SD]) patient age was 65.6 (15.6) years, and the most prevalent comorbidities included hypertension (44.8%), obesity (35.4%), and diabetes (25.7%). At the end of follow-up, patients had a mean (SD) 8.1 (6.6) inpatient days and 1.4 (4.1) days with ICU care. Oxygen supplementation, non-invasive, or invasive ventilation was required by 4.5%, 3.0%, and 3.1% of patients, respectively. At the end of follow-up, 84.2% of patients had evidence of clinical improvement, 3.1% remained hospitalized, 83.8% were discharged, 4% died in hospital, and 9.1% died after discharge. Although the majority of patients were discharged alive, no treatments appeared to alleviate the inpatient morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19. This highlights an unmet need for effective treatment options for patients hospitalized with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Hypertension/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alanine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(17): 2048-2053, 2021 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360369

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the ongoing worldwide coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, an increasing number of viral variants are being identified, which poses a challenge for nucleic acid-based diagnostic tests. Rapid tests, such as real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), play an important role in monitoring COVID-19 infection and controlling its spread. However, the changes in the genotypes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants may result in decreased sensitivity of the rRT-PCR assay and it is necessary to monitor the mutations in primers and probes of SARS-CoV-2 detection over time. METHODS: We developed two rRT-PCR assays to detect the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and nucleocapsid (N) genes of SARS-CoV-2. We evaluated these assays together with our previously published assays targeting the ORF1ab and N genes for the detection and confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants of concern (VOCs). In addition, we also developed two rRT-PCR assays (S484K and S501Y) targeting the spike gene, which when combined with the open reading frames (ORF)1ab assay, respectively, to form duplex rRT-PCR assays, were able to detect SARS-CoV-2 VOCs (lineages B.1.351 and B.1.1.7). RESULTS: Using a SARS-CoV-2 stock with predetermined genomic copies as a standard, the detection limit of both assays targeting RdRp and N was five copies/reaction. Furthermore, no cross-reactions with six others human CoVs (229E, OC43, NL63, HKU1, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus) were observed using these assays. In addition, the S484K and S501Y assays were combined with the ORF1ab assay, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Four rRT-PCR assays (RdRp, N, S484K, and S501Y) were used to detect SARS-CoV-2 variants, and these assays were shown to be effective in screening for multiple virus strains.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e051588, 2021 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346067

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine age, gender, and temporal differences in baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes of adult patients hospitalised with COVID-19. DESIGN: A cohort study using deidentified electronic medical records from a Global Research Network. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: 67 456 adult patients hospitalised with COVID-19 from the USA; 7306 from Europe, Latin America and Asia-Pacific between February 2020 and January 2021. RESULTS: In the US cohort, compared with patients 18-34 years old, patients ≥65 had a greater risk of intensive care unit (ICU) admission (adjusted HR (aHR) 1.73, 95% CI 1.58 to 1.90), acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS)/respiratory failure (aHR 1.86, 95% CI 1.76 to 1.96), invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV, aHR 1.93, 95% CI, 1.73 to 2.15), and all-cause mortality (aHR 5.6, 95% CI 4.36 to 7.18). Men appeared to be at a greater risk for ICU admission (aHR 1.34, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.39), ARDS/respiratory failure (aHR 1.24, 95% CI1.21 to 1.27), IMV (aHR 1.38, 95% CI 1.32 to 1.45), and all-cause mortality (aHR 1.16, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.24) compared with women. Moreover, we observed a greater risk of adverse outcomes during the early pandemic (ie, February-April 2020) compared with later periods. In the ex-US cohort, the age and gender trends were similar; for the temporal trend, the highest proportion of patients with all-cause mortality were also in February-April 2020; however, the highest percentages of patients with IMV and ARDS/respiratory failure were in August-October 2020 followed by February-April 2020. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided valuable information on the temporal trends of characteristics and outcomes of hospitalised adult COVID-19 patients in both USA and ex-USA. It also described the population at a potentially greater risk for worse clinical outcomes by identifying the age and gender differences. Together, the information could inform the prevention and treatment strategies of COVID-19. Furthermore, it can be used to raise public awareness of COVID-19's impact on vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Cohort Studies , Female , Global Health , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
6.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(11): 1289-1298, 2021 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343718

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The significant morbidity and mortality resulted from the infection of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) call for urgent development of effective and safe vaccines. We report the immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, KCONVAC, in healthy adults. METHODS: Phase 1 and phase 2 randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trials of KCONVAC were conducted in healthy Chinese adults aged 18 to 59 years. The participants in the phase 1 trial were randomized to receive two doses, one each on Days 0 and 14, of either KCONVAC (5 or 10 µg/dose) or placebo. The participants in the phase 2 trial were randomized to receive either KCONVAC (at 5 or 10 µg/dose) or placebo on Days 0 and 14 (0/14 regimen) or Days 0 and 28 (0/28 regimen). In the phase 1 trial, the primary safety endpoint was the proportion of participants experiencing adverse reactions/events within 28 days following the administration of each dose. In the phase 2 trial, the primary immunogenicity endpoints were neutralization antibody seroconversion and titer and anti-receptor-binding domain immunoglobulin G seroconversion at 28 days after the second dose. RESULTS: In the phase 1 trial, 60 participants were enrolled and received at least one dose of 5-µg vaccine (n = 24), 10-µg vaccine (n = 24), or placebo (n = 12). In the phase 2 trial, 500 participants were enrolled and received at least one dose of 5-µg vaccine (n = 100 for 0/14 or 0/28 regimens), 10-µg vaccine (n = 100 for each regimen), or placebo (n = 50 for each regimen). In the phase 1 trial, 13 (54%), 11 (46%), and seven (7/12) participants reported at least one adverse event (AE) after receiving 5-, 10-µg vaccine, or placebo, respectively. In the phase 2 trial, 16 (16%), 19 (19%), and nine (18%) 0/14-regimen participants reported at least one AE after receiving 5-, 10-µg vaccine, or placebo, respectively. Similar AE incidences were observed in the three 0/28-regimen treatment groups. No AEs with an intensity of grade 3+ were reported, expect for one vaccine-unrelated serious AE (foot fracture) reported in the phase 1 trial. KCONVAC induced significant antibody responses; 0/28 regimen showed a higher immune responses than that did 0/14 regimen after receiving two vaccine doses. CONCLUSIONS: Both doses of KCONVAC are well tolerated and able to induce robust immune responses in healthy adults. These results support testing 5-µg vaccine in the 0/28 regimen in an upcoming phase 3 efficacy trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: http://www.chictr.org.cn/index.aspx (No. ChiCTR2000038804, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=62350; No. ChiCTR2000039462, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=63353).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
7.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21253850

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe significant morbidity and mortality resulted from the infection of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) call for urgent development of effective and safe vaccines. We report the immunogenicity and safety of a SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine, KCONVAC, in healthy adults. MethodsTwo phase 1 and phase 2 randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trials of KCONVAC were conducted in Chinese healthy adults aged 18 through 59 years. The phase 1 trial was conducted in a manner of dosage escalation. The first 30 participants were randomized in a ratio of 4:1 to receive two doses of either KCONVAC at 5 g per dose or placebo on Day 0 and Day 14, and the second 30 participants were randomized to receive either KCONVAC at 10 g per dose or placebo following the same procedures. The participants in the phase 2 trial were randomized in a ratio of 2:2:1 to receive either KCONVAC at 5 g or 10 g per dose, or placebo on Day 0 and Day 14, or Day 0 and Day 28. In the phase 1 trial, the primary safety endpoint was the proportion of participants experiencing adverse reactions/events within 28 days following each vaccination. Antibody response and cellular response were assayed in the phase 1 trial. In the phase 2 trial, the primary immunogenicity endpoint was the seroconversion and titre of neutralization antibody, and the seroconversion of receptor binding domain (RBD)-IgG 28 days after the second dose. FindingsIn the phase 1 trial, 60 participants were enrolled and received at least one dose of 5-g vaccine (N=24), 10-g vaccine (N=24), or placebo (N=12). In the phase 2 trial, 500 participants were enrolled and received at least one dose of 5-g vaccine (N=100 for 0/14 or 0/28 regimens), 10-g vaccine (N=100 for each regimen), or placebo (N=50 for each regimen). In the phase 1 trial, 13 (54%), 11(46%), and 7 (58%) participants reported at least one adverse event (AE), of whom 10 (42%), 6 (25%), and 6 (50%) participants reported at least one vaccination-related AE after receiving 5-g vaccine, 10-g vaccine, or placebo, respectively. In the phase 2 trial, 16 (16%), 19 (19%), and 9 (18%) participants reported at least one AE, of whom 13 (13%), 17 (17%), and 6 (12%) participants reported at least one vaccination-related AE after receiving 5-g vaccine, 10-g vaccine, or placebo at the regimen of Day 0/14, respectively. Similar results were observed in the three treatment groups of Day 0/28 regimen. All the AEs were grade 1 or 2 in intensity. No AE of grade 3 or more was reported. One SAE (foot fracture) was reported in the phase 1 trial. KCONVAC induced significant antibody response. 87{middle dot}5% (21/24) to 100% (24/24) of participants in the phase 1 trial and 83{middle dot}0% (83/100) to 100% (99/99) of participants in the phase 2 trial seroconverted for neutralising antibody to live virus, neutralising antibody to pseudovirus, and RBD-IgG after receiving two doses. Across the treatment groups in the two trials, the geometric mean titres (GMTs) of neutralising antibody to live virus ranged from 29{middle dot}3 to 49{middle dot}1 at Day 0/14 regimen and from 100{middle dot}2 to 131{middle dot}7 at Day 0/28 regimen, neutralising antibody to pseudovirus ranged from 69{middle dot}4 to 118{middle dot}7 at Day 0/14 regimen and from 153{middle dot}6 to 276{middle dot}6 at Day 0/28 regimen, and RBD-IgG ranged from 605{middle dot}3 to 1169{middle dot}8 at Day 0/14 regimen and from 1496{middle dot}8 to 2485{middle dot}5 at Day 0/28 regimen. RBD-IgG subtyping assay showed that a significant part of RBD-IgG was IgG1. The vaccine induced obvious T-cell response with 56{middle dot}5% (13/23) and 62{middle dot}5% (15/24) of participants in 5-g and 10-g vaccine groups showed positive interferon-{gamma} enzyme-linked immunospot responses 14 days after the second dose in the phase 1 trial, respectively. InterpretationKCONVAC is well tolerated and able to induce robust antibody response and cellular response in adults aged 18 to 59 years, which warrants further evaluation with this vaccine in the upcoming phase 3 efficacy trial. FundingGuandong Emergency Program for Prevention and Control of COVID-19 (2020A1111340002) and Shenzhen Key Research Project for Prevention and Control of COVID-19.

8.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2105-2113, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-913100

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disaster for human society. A convenient and reliable neutralization assay is very important for the development of vaccines and novel drugs. In this study, a G protein-deficient vesicular stomatitis virus (VSVdG) bearing a truncated spike protein (S with C-terminal 18 amino acid truncation) was compared to that bearing the full-length spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 and showed much higher efficiency. A neutralization assay was established based on VSV-SARS-CoV-2-Sdel18 pseudovirus and hACE2-overexpressing BHK21 cells (BHK21-hACE2 cells). The experimental results can be obtained by automatically counting the number of EGFP-positive cells at 12 h after infection, making the assay convenient and high-throughput. The serum neutralizing titer measured by the VSV-SARS-CoV-2-Sdel18 pseudovirus assay has a good correlation with that measured by the wild type SARS-CoV-2 assay. Seven neutralizing monoclonal antibodies targeting the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein were obtained. This efficient and reliable pseudovirus assay model could facilitate the development of new drugs and vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Neutralization Tests/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vero Cells , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/genetics , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/immunology
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