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PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268528, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910646


There is growing evidence that racial and ethnic minorities bear a disproportionate burden from COVID-19. Temporal changes in the pandemic epidemiology and diversity in the clinical course require careful study to identify determinants of poor outcomes. We analyzed 6255 hospitalized individuals with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from one of 5 hospitals in the University of Pennsylvania Health System between March 2020 and March 2021, using electronic health records to assess risk factors and outcomes through 8 weeks post-admission. Discharge, readmission and mortality outcomes were analyzed in a multi-state model with multivariable Cox models for each transition. Mortality varied markedly over time, with cumulative incidence (95% CI) 30 days post-admission of 19.1% (16.9, 21.3) in March-April 2020, 5.7% (4.2, 7.5) in July-October 2020 and 10.5% (9.1,12.0) in January-March 2021; 26% of deaths occurred after discharge. Average age (SD) at admission varied from 62.7 (17.6) to 54.8 (19.9) to 60.5 (18.1); mechanical ventilation use declined from 21.3% to 9-11%. Compared to Caucasian, Black race was associated with more severe disease at admission, higher rates of co-morbidities and residing in a low-income zip code. Between-race risk differences in mortality risk diminished in multivariable models; while admitting hospital, increasing age, admission early in the pandemic, and severe disease and low blood pressure at admission were associated with increased mortality hazard. Hispanic ethnicity was associated with fewer baseline co-morbidities and lower mortality hazard (0.57, 95% CI: 0.37, .087). Multi-state modeling allows for a unified framework to analyze multiple outcomes throughout the disease course. Morbidity and mortality for hospitalized COVID-19 patients varied over time but post-discharge mortality remained non-trivial. Black race was associated with more risk factors for morbidity and with treatment at hospitals with lower mortality. Multivariable models suggest there are not between-race differences in outcomes. Future work is needed to better understand the identified between-hospital differences in mortality.

COVID-19 , Aftercare , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitals , Humans , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2