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1.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(9): 2454-2458, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269390

ABSTRACT

Not all persons recovering from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection develop SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. We show that nonseroconversion is associated with younger age and higher reverse transcription PCR cycle threshold values and identify SARS-CoV-2 viral loads in the nasopharynx as a major correlate of the systemic antibody response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Humans , Nasopharynx , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroconversion
2.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(11): 100811, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2150820

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent plasma (CCP), a passive polyclonal antibody therapeutic agent, has had mixed clinical results. Although antibody neutralization is the predominant approach to benchmarking CCP efficacy, CCP may also influence the evolution of the endogenous antibody response. Using systems serology to comprehensively profile severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) functional antibodies of hospitalized people with COVID-19 enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of CCP (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04397757), we find that the clinical benefits of CCP are associated with a shift toward reduced inflammatory Spike (S) responses and enhanced nucleocapsid (N) humoral responses. We find that CCP has the greatest clinical benefit in participants with low pre-existing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody function and that CCP-induced immunomodulatory Fc glycan profiles and N immunodominant profiles persist for at least 2 months. We highlight a potential mechanism of action of CCP associated with durable immunomodulation, outline optimal patient characteristics for CCP treatment, and provide guidance for development of a different class of COVID-19 hyperinflammation-targeting antibody therapeutic agents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunization, Passive/methods , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Nucleocapsid , COVID-19 Serotherapy
3.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(10): 1444-1454, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915194

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is an unmet need for COVID-19 prevention in patient populations who have not mounted or are not expected to mount an adequate immune response to complete COVID-19 vaccination. We previously reported that a single subcutaneous 1200 mg dose of the monoclonal antibody combination casirivimab and imdevimab (CAS + IMD) prevented symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections by 81·4% in generally healthy household contacts of SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals over a 1-month efficacy assessment period. Here we present additional results, including the 7-month follow-up period (months 2-8), providing additional insights about the potential for efficacy in pre-exposure prophylaxis settings. METHODS: This was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial done in the USA, Romania, and Moldova in 2020-2021, before the emergence of omicron (B.1.1.529) and omicron-lineage variants. Uninfected and unvaccinated household contacts of infected individuals, judged by the investigator to be in good health, were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 1200 mg CAS + IMD or placebo by subcutaneous injection according to a central randomisation scheme provided by an interactive web response system; randomisation was stratified per site by the test results of a local diagnostic assay for SARS-CoV-2 and age group at baseline. COVID-19 vaccines were prohibited before randomisation, but participants were allowed to receive COVID-19 vaccination during the follow-up period. Participants who developed COVID-19 symptoms during the follow-up period underwent RT-PCR testing. Prespecified endpoints included the proportion of previously uninfected and baseline-seronegative participants (seronegative-modified full analysis set) who had RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 in the follow-up period (post-hoc for the timepoints of months 2-5 and 6-8 only) and underwent seroconversion (ie, became seropositive, considered a proxy for any SARS-CoV-2 infections [symptomatic and asymptomatic]; prespecified up to day 57, post-hoc for all timepoints thereafter). We also assessed the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04452318. FINDINGS: From July 13, 2020, to Oct 4, 2021, 2317 participants who were RT-PCR-negative for SARS-CoV-2 were randomly assigned, of whom 1683 (841 assigned to CAS + IMD and 842 assigned to placebo) were seronegative at baseline. During the entirety of the 8-month study, CAS + IMD reduced the risk of COVID-19 by 81·2% (nominal p<0·0001) versus placebo (prespecified analysis). During the 7-month follow-up period, protection was greatest during months 2-5, with a 100% relative risk reduction in COVID-19 (nominal p<0·0001; post-hoc analysis). Efficacy waned during months 6-8 (post-hoc analysis). Seroconversion occurred in 38 (4·5%) of 841 participants in the CAS + IMD group and in 181 (21·5%) of 842 in the placebo group during the 8-month study (79·0% relative risk reduction vs placebo; nominal p<0·0001). Six participants in the placebo group were hospitalised due to COVID-19 versus none who received CAS + IMD. Serious treatment-emergent adverse events (including COVID-19) were reported in 24 (1·7%) of 1439 participants receiving CAS + IMD and in 23 (1·6%) of 1428 receiving placebo. Five deaths were reported, none of which were due to COVID-19 or related to the study drugs. INTERPRETATION: CAS + IMD is not authorised in any US region as of Jan 24, 2022, because data show that CAS + IMD is not active against omicron-lineage variants. In this study, done before the emergence of omicron-lineage variants, a single subcutaneous 1200 mg dose of CAS + IMD protected against COVID-19 for up to 5 months of community exposure to susceptible strains of SARS-CoV-2 in the pre-exposure prophylaxis setting, in addition to the post-exposure prophylaxis setting that was previously shown. FUNDING: Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, F Hoffmann-La Roche, US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, US National Institutes of Health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev ; 26: 266-278, 2022 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914874

ABSTRACT

Although several therapeutics are used to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, there is still no definitive metabolic marker to evaluate disease severity and recovery or a quantitative test to end quarantine. Because severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infects human cells via the angiotensin-converting-enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and COVID-19 is associated with renin-angiotensin system dysregulation, we evaluated soluble ACE2 (sACE2) activity in the plasma/saliva of 80 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and 27 non-COVID-19 volunteers, and levels of ACE2/Ang (1-7) in plasma or membrane (mACE2) in lung autopsy samples. sACE2 activity was markedly reduced (p < 0.0001) in COVID-19 plasma (n = 59) compared with controls (n = 27). Nadir sACE2 activity in early hospitalization was restored during disease recovery, irrespective of patient age, demographic variations, or comorbidity; in convalescent plasma-administered patients (n = 45), restoration was statistically higher than matched controls (n = 22, p = 0.0021). ACE2 activity was also substantially reduced in the saliva of COVID-19 patients compared with controls (p = 0.0065). There is a strong inverse correlation between sACE2 concentration and sACE2 activity and Ang (1-7) levels in participant plasmas. However, there were no difference in membrane ACE2 levels in lungs of autopsy tissues of COVID-19 (n = 800) versus other conditions (n = 300). These clinical observations suggest sACE2 activity as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for COVID-19.

5.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268528, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910646

ABSTRACT

There is growing evidence that racial and ethnic minorities bear a disproportionate burden from COVID-19. Temporal changes in the pandemic epidemiology and diversity in the clinical course require careful study to identify determinants of poor outcomes. We analyzed 6255 hospitalized individuals with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from one of 5 hospitals in the University of Pennsylvania Health System between March 2020 and March 2021, using electronic health records to assess risk factors and outcomes through 8 weeks post-admission. Discharge, readmission and mortality outcomes were analyzed in a multi-state model with multivariable Cox models for each transition. Mortality varied markedly over time, with cumulative incidence (95% CI) 30 days post-admission of 19.1% (16.9, 21.3) in March-April 2020, 5.7% (4.2, 7.5) in July-October 2020 and 10.5% (9.1,12.0) in January-March 2021; 26% of deaths occurred after discharge. Average age (SD) at admission varied from 62.7 (17.6) to 54.8 (19.9) to 60.5 (18.1); mechanical ventilation use declined from 21.3% to 9-11%. Compared to Caucasian, Black race was associated with more severe disease at admission, higher rates of co-morbidities and residing in a low-income zip code. Between-race risk differences in mortality risk diminished in multivariable models; while admitting hospital, increasing age, admission early in the pandemic, and severe disease and low blood pressure at admission were associated with increased mortality hazard. Hispanic ethnicity was associated with fewer baseline co-morbidities and lower mortality hazard (0.57, 95% CI: 0.37, .087). Multi-state modeling allows for a unified framework to analyze multiple outcomes throughout the disease course. Morbidity and mortality for hospitalized COVID-19 patients varied over time but post-discharge mortality remained non-trivial. Black race was associated with more risk factors for morbidity and with treatment at hospitals with lower mortality. Multivariable models suggest there are not between-race differences in outcomes. Future work is needed to better understand the identified between-hospital differences in mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aftercare , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitals , Humans , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2147375, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648976

ABSTRACT

Importance: Identifying which patients with COVID-19 are likely to benefit from COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) treatment may have a large public health impact. Objective: To develop an index for predicting the expected relative treatment benefit from CCP compared with treatment without CCP for patients hospitalized for COVID-19 using patients' baseline characteristics. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prognostic study used data from the COMPILE study, ie, a meta-analysis of pooled individual patient data from 8 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating CCP vs control in adults hospitalized for COVID-19 who were not receiving mechanical ventilation at randomization. A combination of baseline characteristics, termed the treatment benefit index (TBI), was developed based on 2287 patients in COMPILE using a proportional odds model, with baseline characteristics selected via cross-validation. The TBI was externally validated on 4 external data sets: the Expanded Access Program (1896 participants), a study conducted under Emergency Use Authorization (210 participants), and 2 RCTs (with 80 and 309 participants). Exposure: Receipt of CCP. Main Outcomes and Measures: World Health Organization (WHO) 11-point ordinal COVID-19 clinical status scale and 2 derivatives of it (ie, WHO score of 7-10, indicating mechanical ventilation to death, and WHO score of 10, indicating death) at day 14 and day 28 after randomization. Day 14 WHO 11-point ordinal scale was used as the primary outcome to develop the TBI. Results: A total of 2287 patients were included in the derivation cohort, with a mean (SD) age of 60.3 (15.2) years and 815 (35.6%) women. The TBI provided a continuous gradation of benefit, and, for clinical utility, it was operationalized into groups of expected large clinical benefit (B1; 629 participants in the derivation cohort [27.5%]), moderate benefit (B2; 953 [41.7%]), and potential harm or no benefit (B3; 705 [30.8%]). Patients with preexisting conditions (diabetes, cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases), with blood type A or AB, and at an early COVID-19 stage (low baseline WHO scores) were expected to benefit most, while those without preexisting conditions and at more advanced stages of COVID-19 could potentially be harmed. In the derivation cohort, odds ratios for worse outcome, where smaller odds ratios indicate larger benefit from CCP, were 0.69 (95% credible interval [CrI], 0.48-1.06) for B1, 0.82 (95% CrI, 0.61-1.11) for B2, and 1.58 (95% CrI, 1.14-2.17) for B3. Testing on 4 external datasets supported the validation of the derived TBIs. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that the CCP TBI is a simple tool that can quantify the relative benefit from CCP treatment for an individual patient hospitalized with COVID-19 that can be used to guide treatment recommendations. The TBI precision medicine approach could be especially helpful in a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization , Patient Selection , Plasma , Therapeutic Index , Aged , Blood Grouping and Crossmatching , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , World Health Organization , COVID-19 Serotherapy
7.
J Clin Invest ; 131(24)2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591538

ABSTRACT

BackgroundAntibody-based strategies for COVID-19 have shown promise in prevention and treatment of early disease. COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) has been widely used but results from randomized trials supporting its benefit in hospitalized patients with pneumonia are limited. Here, we assess the efficacy of CCP in severely ill, hospitalized adults with COVID-19 pneumonia.MethodsWe performed a randomized control trial (PennCCP2), with 80 adults hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia, comparing up to 2 units of locally sourced CCP plus standard care versus standard care alone. The primary efficacy endpoint was comparison of a clinical severity score. Key secondary outcomes include 14- and 28-day mortality, 14- and 28-day maximum 8-point WHO ordinal score (WHO8) score, duration of supplemental oxygenation or mechanical ventilation, respiratory SARS-CoV-2 RNA, and anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.ResultsEighty hospitalized adults with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia were enrolled at median day 6 of symptoms and day 1 of hospitalization; 60% were anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody seronegative. Participants had a median of 3 comorbidities, including risk factors for severe COVID-19 and immunosuppression. CCP treatment was safe and conferred significant benefit by clinical severity score (median [MED] and interquartile range [IQR] 10 [5.5-30] vs. 7 [2.75-12.25], P = 0.037) and 28-day mortality (n = 10, 26% vs. n = 2, 5%; P = 0.013). All other prespecified outcome measures showed weak evidence toward benefit of CCP.ConclusionTwo units of locally sourced CCP administered early in hospitalization to majority seronegative participants conferred a significant benefit in clinical severity score and 28-day mortality. Results suggest CCP may benefit select populations, especially those with comorbidities who are treated early.Trial RegistrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT04397757.FundingUniversity of Pennsylvania.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immune Tolerance , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunosuppression Therapy , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/therapeutic use , RNA, Viral , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , COVID-19 Serotherapy
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6853, 2021 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537313

ABSTRACT

Transfer of convalescent plasma (CP) had been proposed early during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic as an accessible therapy, yet trial results worldwide have been mixed, potentially due to the heterogeneous nature of CP. Here we perform deep profiling of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody titer, Fc-receptor binding, and Fc-mediated functional assays in CP units, as well as in plasma from hospitalized COVID-19 patients before and after CP administration. The profiling results show that, although all recipients exhibit expanded SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral immune responses, CP units contain more functional antibodies than recipient plasma. Meanwhile, CP functional profiles influence the evolution of recipient humoral immunity in conjuncture with the recipient's pre-existing SARS-CoV2-specific antibody titers: CP-derived SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid-specific antibody functions are associated with muted humoral immune evolution in patients with high titer anti-spike IgG. Our data thus provide insights into the unexpected impact of CP-derived functional anti-spike and anti-nucleocapsid antibodies on the evolution of SARS-CoV-2-specific response following severe infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Immunity , Immunization, Passive/methods , Plasma/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Blood Donors , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Nucleocapsid/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 Serotherapy
9.
American Heart Journal ; 242:172-173, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1487572

ABSTRACT

Background In a Phase 3 prevention trial, the monoclonal antibody combination casirivimab and imdevimab (REGEN-COVTM) administered subcutaneously (SC) prevented symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in asymptomatic adults/adolescents living in the same household as a SARS-CoV-2-infected individual (index case). Individuals with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and/or diabetes are at increased risk of moderate/severe COVID-19. Methods Uninfected individuals ≥12 years, identified ≤96 hours of index case being diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 positive, were randomized 1:1 to REGEN-COV 1200mg SC or placebo. The primary endpoint was the proportion of participants who developed symptomatic infection (COVID-19) during the 28-day efficacy assessment period among those who were SARS-CoV-2 RT-qPCR negative and without evidence of immunity (seronegative) at baseline. A post-hoc analysis assessed efficacy in participants with CVD (including hypertension) and/or diabetes. Overall safety is reported. Results The study included SARS-CoV-2 RT-qPCR negative participants at baseline (n=2067). There was an 81.4% relative risk reduction (RRR) of symptomatic infection with REGEN-COV in the overall seronegative population (n=1505;Figure 1;Table 1). In participants with CVD (n=332) or diabetes (n=103), the RRRs of developing symptomatic infection with REGEN-COV versus placebo were 54.9% and 69.0%, respectively. Similar results were observed when analyses were performed regardless of baseline serology status. Treatment-emergent adverse events occurring at ≥2% included COVID-19, asymptomatic COVID-19, headache, and injection-site reaction (Table 2). Conclusions In study participants with CVD and/or diabetes, who are known to be at increased risk of severe disease if infected, treatment with REGEN-COV SC reduced the risk of developing symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, consistent with the overall study results..

10.
N Engl J Med ; 385(13): 1184-1195, 2021 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341035

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: REGEN-COV (previously known as REGN-COV2), a combination of the monoclonal antibodies casirivimab and imdevimab, has been shown to markedly reduce the risk of hospitalization or death among high-risk persons with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). Whether subcutaneous REGEN-COV prevents severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and subsequent Covid-19 in persons at high risk for infection because of household exposure to a person with SARS-CoV-2 infection is unknown. METHODS: We randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, participants (≥12 years of age) who were enrolled within 96 hours after a household contact received a diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection to receive a total dose of 1200 mg of REGEN-COV or matching placebo administered by means of subcutaneous injection. At the time of randomization, participants were stratified according to the results of the local diagnostic assay for SARS-CoV-2 and according to age. The primary efficacy end point was the development of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection through day 28 in participants who did not have SARS-CoV-2 infection (as measured by reverse-transcriptase-quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction assay) or previous immunity (seronegativity). RESULTS: Symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection developed in 11 of 753 participants in the REGEN-COV group (1.5%) and in 59 of 752 participants in the placebo group (7.8%) (relative risk reduction [1 minus the relative risk], 81.4%; P<0.001). In weeks 2 to 4, a total of 2 of 753 participants in the REGEN-COV group (0.3%) and 27 of 752 participants in the placebo group (3.6%) had symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection (relative risk reduction, 92.6%). REGEN-COV also prevented symptomatic and asymptomatic infections overall (relative risk reduction, 66.4%). Among symptomatic infected participants, the median time to resolution of symptoms was 2 weeks shorter with REGEN-COV than with placebo (1.2 weeks and 3.2 weeks, respectively), and the duration of a high viral load (>104 copies per milliliter) was shorter (0.4 weeks and 1.3 weeks, respectively). No dose-limiting toxic effects of REGEN-COV were noted. CONCLUSIONS: Subcutaneous REGEN-COV prevented symptomatic Covid-19 and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in previously uninfected household contacts of infected persons. Among the participants who became infected, REGEN-COV reduced the duration of symptomatic disease and the duration of a high viral load. (Funded by Regeneron Pharmaceuticals and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04452318.).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19/virology , Child , Double-Blind Method , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Incidence , Injections, Subcutaneous , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Viral Load , Young Adult , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
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