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1.
Clin Exp Neuroimmunol ; 2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819880

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was identified in Wuhan, China, in late 2019 and caused coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is still a global pandemic. In most infected people, SARS-CoV-2 can only cause moderate symptoms, while in other patients, it leads to severe illness and eventually death. Although the main clinical manifestation of COVID-19 is often seen in the lungs, this disease affects almost all body organs. The excessive and prolonged release of inflammatory cytokines that may occur in COVID-19 patients, known as cytokine storms, stimulates undesired immune responses and can cause various tissues damage. In the current review article, we focus on the potential advantages of the intrinsic cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) as the efferent arm of inflammatory reflex in COVID-19 management. Considering this endogenous protective mechanism against chronic inflammation, we focused on the effects of SARS-CoV-2 in the destruction of this anti-inflammatory system. Several studies indicated the interaction of SARS-CoV-2 with the alpha7 subtype of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor as the effector molecule of the inflammatory reflex. On the other hand, neurological manifestations have increasingly been identified as significant extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19. The rational connection between these findings and COVID-19 pathogenesis may be an important issue in both our understanding and dealing with this disease. COVID-19 is deeply rooted in our daily life and requires an urgent need for the establishment of effective therapeutic options, and all the possible treatments must be considered for the control of such inflammatory conditions.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321019

ABSTRACT

Background: The nCoV-2019 is a cause of COVID-19 disease. The surface spike glycoprotein (S), which is necessary for virus entry through the intervention of the host receptor and it mediates virus-host membrane fusion, is the primary coronavirus antigen (Ag). The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is reported to be the effective human receptor for SARS-CoVs 2. ACE2 receptor can be prevented by neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) such as CR3022 targeting the virus receptor-binding site. Considering the importance of computational docking, and affinity maturation we aimed to find the important amino acids of the CR3022 antibody (Ab). These amino acids were then replaced by other amino acids to improve Ab-binding affinity to a receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the 2019-nCoV spike protein. Finally, we measured the binding affinity of Ab variants to the Ag. Result: Our findings disclosed that several variant mutations could successfully improve the characteristics of the Ab binding compared to the normal antibodies. Conclusion: The modified antibodies may be possible candidates for stronger affinity binding to Ags which in turn can affect the specificity and sensitivity of antibodies.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313801

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is an ongoing global health emergence, but the pathogenesis remains unclear. Here, we applied weighted gene co-expression network analysis to comprehensively characterize transcriptional changes in bronchial epithelium cells (NHBE and A549 cells) during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our analysis identified a network highly correlated to COVID-19 pathogenicity based on MX1 , IFIT1 , ISG15 , IFI6 , DDX60 , IRF9 , PARP9 , PGLYRP4 , IL36G , SAA2 and IL-8 hub genes. The results also indicated a unique transcriptional signatures of infected cells including IFI6 and IRF9 as novel gene candidates and suggested their prospective mechanism in COVID-19 pathogenesis. The result of hub genes enrichment showed that the most correlation topic in biological process and KEGG were type I interferon signaling pathway, IL-17 signaling pathway, cytokine mediated signaling pathway, and defense response to virus categories which all play significant roles in restricting viral infection. Also according to the drug-target network, we recognized 54 FDA-approved drug candidates for other indications could potentially use for the treatment of COVID-19 patients through regulation of six hub genes of the co-expression network. Our findings also showed that the 19 experimentally validated miRNAs regulated the co-expression network through 5 hub genes ( SLC19A3 , FAM13A , PLA2G16 , and HRASLS5 ). In conclusion, these hub genes had potential roles in the translational medicine and might become promising therapeutic targets further in vitro and in vivo experimental studies are needed to evaluate the role of above mentioned genes in COVID-19.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311063

ABSTRACT

Background: Within six months of the COVID-19 outbreak, 350279 people were infected, and 20125 people died of COVID-19 in Iran. There is an urgent need to find the most accurate effective indicators on this disease's outbreak in order to control and predict. Methods: : We examined the effect of 36 demographic, economic, environmental, health infrastructure, social, and topographic independent variables on the COVID-19 infection and mortality rates using the ordinary least squares (OLS) model in ArcGIS 10.5. Regarding adjusted R-squared>0/7, we selected 20 variables for COVID-19 infection rate and 16 variables for the mortality rate. The collinearity problem between the selected variables resolved after using the variance inflation factor (VIF). Then, we performed the OLS and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models in ArcGIS 10.5. Results: : Having a large number of men, having a large population, lack of specialist doctors, lack of hospital, having a large urban population, having a large number of people aged 65 and over or older individuals, and high natural mortality rate had the most prominent impact on the COVID-19 infection increasing rate. Also, lack of ICU beds, low number of insured people, lack of subspecialist physicians, and lack of hospital beds had the most prominent impact on increasing of COVID-19 mortality. Then the variables with VIF above 7.5 were removed and finally, high incoming immigrants rate and lack of nurses were identified as two independent variables to predict COVID-19 infection rate. In addition, high incoming immigrants rate and high number of doctor consultation were recognized as two variables to predict mortality rate due to COVID-19. The results of the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and adj.R2 showed that both models were appropriate for these analyses. Conclusions: : Based on our results, there would be a considerable increase in COVID-19 infection in Kerman, Esfahan, and Kermanshah provinces. In addition, there would be a remarkable decrease in COVID-19 infection in Khuzestan, Lorestan, Azarbayjan Shargi, and Tehran provinces. Regarding COVID-19 mortality, there would be a substantial rise in Fars and Khorasan Razavi provinces. Moreover, our analyses predicted a considerable diminish in COVID-19 mortality in Tehran, Ardebil, Zanjan, Gilan, Golestan, Lorestan, Khuzestan, Bushehr, and Hormozgan provinces.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310211

ABSTRACT

Background: Risk scores are urgently needed to assist clinicians in predicting the risk of death in severe patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection in the context of millions of people infected, rapid disease progression, and shortage of medical resources. Method: A total of 139 severe patients with SARS-CoV-2 from China and Iran were included. Using data from China (training dataset, n = 96), prediction models were developed based on logistic regression models, nomogram and risk scoring system for simplification. Leave-one-out cross validation was used for internal validation and data from Iran (test dataset, n = 43) for external validation. Results: . The NSL model (Area under the curve (AUC) 0.932) and NL model (AUC 0.903) were developed based on neutrophil percentage (NE), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) with or without oxygen saturation (SaO 2 ) using the training dataset. Compared with the training dataset, the predictability of NSL model (AUC 0.910) and NL model (AUC 0.871) were similar in the test dataset. The risk scoring systems corresponding to these two models were established for clinical application. The AUCs of the NSL and NL scores were 0.928 and 0.901 in the training dataset, respectively. At the optimal cut-off value of NSL score, the sensitivity was 94% and specificity was 82%. In addition, for NL score, the sensitivity and specificity were 94% and 75%, respectively. Conclusion: NSL and NL score are straightforward means for clinicians to predict the risk of death in severe patients. NL score could be used in selected regions where patients’ SaO 2 cannot be tested.

7.
Trends Analyt Chem ; 145: 116460, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475093

ABSTRACT

Viruses are responsible for multiple infections in humans that impose huge health burdens on individuals and populations worldwide. Therefore, numerous diagnostic methods and strategies have been developed for prevention, management, and decreasing the burden of viral diseases, each having its advantages and limitations. Viral infections are commonly detected using serological and nucleic acid-based methods. However, these conventional and clinical approaches have some limitations that can be resolved by implementing other detector devices. Therefore, the search for sensitive, selective, portable, and costless approaches as efficient alternative clinical methods for point of care testing (POCT) analysis has gained much attention in recent years. POCT is one of the ultimate goals in virus detection, and thus, the tests need to be rapid, specific, sensitive, accessible, and user-friendly. In this review, after a brief overview of viruses and their characteristics, the conventional viral detection methods, the clinical approaches, and their advantages and shortcomings are firstly explained. Then, LFA systems working principles, benefits, classification are discussed. Furthermore, the studies regarding designing and employing LFAs in diagnosing different types of viruses, especially SARS-CoV-2 as a main concern worldwide and innovations in the LFAs' approaches and designs, are comprehensively discussed here. Furthermore, several strategies addressed in some studies for overcoming LFA limitations like low sensitivity are reviewed. Numerous techniques are adopted to increase sensitivity and perform quantitative detection. Employing several visualization methods, using different labeling reporters, integrating LFAs with other detection methods to benefit from both LFA and the integrated detection device advantages, and designing unique membranes to increase reagent reactivity, are some of the approaches that are highlighted.

8.
J Clin Med ; 10(16)2021 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355000

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused an enormous loss of lives. Various clinical trials of vaccines and drugs are being conducted worldwide; nevertheless, as of today, no effective drug exists for COVID-19. The identification of key genes and pathways in this disease may lead to finding potential drug targets and biomarkers. Here, we applied weighted gene co-expression network analysis and LIME as an explainable artificial intelligence algorithm to comprehensively characterize transcriptional changes in bronchial epithelium cells (primary human lung epithelium (NHBE) and transformed lung alveolar (A549) cells) during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Our study detected a network that significantly correlated to the pathogenicity of COVID-19 infection based on identified hub genes in each cell line separately. The novel hub gene signature that was detected in our study, including PGLYRP4 and HEPHL1, may shed light on the pathogenesis of COVID-19, holding promise for future prognostic and therapeutic approaches. The enrichment analysis of hub genes showed that the most relevant biological process and KEGG pathways were the type I interferon signaling pathway, IL-17 signaling pathway, cytokine-mediated signaling pathway, and defense response to virus categories, all of which play significant roles in restricting viral infection. Moreover, according to the drug-target network, we identified 17 novel FDA-approved candidate drugs, which could potentially be used to treat COVID-19 patients through the regulation of four hub genes of the co-expression network. In conclusion, the aforementioned hub genes might play potential roles in translational medicine and might become promising therapeutic targets. Further in vitro and in vivo experimental studies are needed to evaluate the role of these hub genes in COVID-19.

9.
Infection ; 49(6): 1133-1147, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279505

ABSTRACT

The escalating prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide, with an increased rate of morbidity and mortality, highlights an urgent need to develop more effective therapeutic interventions. Despite the authorized treatment against COVID-19 by the European Union (EU), the safety and effectiveness of this therapeutic strategy for a wide variety of patients have remained a significant challenge. In this respect, micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals, as essential factors, can be considered for improving the function of the immune system and accelerating the treatment procedure. Dietary supplements can attenuate vascular and inflammatory manifestations related to infectious diseases in large part due to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Recently, it has been revealed that poor nutritional status may be one of the notable risk factors in severe COVID-19 infections. In the current review, we focus on the micronutrient therapy of COVID-19 patients and provide a comprehensive insight into the essential vitamins/minerals and their role in controlling the severity of the COVID-19 infection. We also discuss the recent advancements, challenges, negative and positive outcomes in relevance to this approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Micronutrients , Dietary Supplements , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamins/therapeutic use
10.
Health Promot Perspect ; 11(2): 119-136, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273803

ABSTRACT

Background: The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is considered as the most life-threatening pandemic disease during the last decade. The individual nutritional status, though usually ignored in the management of COVID-19, plays a critical role in the immune function and pathogenesis of infection. Accordingly, the present review article aimed to report the effects of nutrients and nutraceuticals on respiratory viral infections including COVID-19, with a focus on their mechanisms of action. Methods: Studies were identified via systematic searches of the databases including PubMed/ MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Google Scholar from 2000 until April 2020, using keywords. All relevant clinical and experimental studies published in English were included. Results: Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is common in severe respiratory infections and should be considered in the management of COVID-19 patients. On the other hand, obesity can be accompanied by decreasing the host immunity. Therefore, increasing physical activity at home and a slight caloric restriction with adequate intake of micronutrients and nutraceuticals are simple aids to boost host immunity and decrease the clinical manifestations of COVID-19. Conclusion: The most important nutrients which can be considered for COVID-19 management are vitamin D, vitamin C, vitamin A, folate, zinc, and probiotics. Their adequacy should be provided through dietary intake or appropriate supplementation. Moreover, adequate intake of some other dietary agents including vitamin E, magnesium, selenium, alpha linolenic acid and phytochemicals are required to maintain the host immunity.

11.
Front Oncol ; 10: 572329, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264350

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China, which spread to the rest of the world, led the World Health Organization to classify it as a global pandemic. COVID-19 belongs to the Bettacoronavirus genus of the Coronaviridae family, and it mainly spreads through the respiratory tract. Studies have now confirmed a human-to-human transmission as the primary pathway of spread. COVID-19 patients with a history of diseases such as respiratory system diseases, immune deficiency, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer are prone to adverse events (admission to the intensive care unit requiring invasive ventilation or even death). The current focus has been on the development of novel therapeutics, including antivirals, monoclonal antibodies, and vaccines. However, although there is undoubtedly an urgent need to identify effective treatment options against infection with COVID-19, it is equally important to clarify management protocols for the other significant diseases from which these patients may suffer, including cancer. This review summarizes the current evidence regarding the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and management of patients with COVID-19. It also aims to provide the reader with insights into COVID-19 in pregnant patients and those with cancer, outlining necessary precautions relevant to cancer patients. Finally, we provide the available evidence on the latest potent antiviral drugs and vaccines of COVID-19 and the ongoing drug trials.

12.
Virol J ; 18(1): 67, 2021 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166917

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Risk scores are needed to predict the risk of death in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in the context of rapid disease progression. METHODS: Using data from China (training dataset, n = 96), prediction models were developed by logistic regression and then risk scores were established. Leave-one-out cross validation was used for internal validation and data from Iran (test dataset, n = 43) was used for external validation. RESULTS: A NSL model (area under the curve (AUC) 0.932) and a NL model (AUC 0.903) were developed based on neutrophil percentage and lactate dehydrogenase with and without oxygen saturation (SaO2) using the training dataset. AUCs of the NSL and NL models in the test dataset were 0.910 and 0.871, respectively. The risk scoring systems corresponding to these two models were established. The AUCs of the NSL and NL scores in the training dataset were 0.928 and 0.901, respectively. At the optimal cut-off value of NSL score, the sensitivity and specificity were 94% and 82%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of NL score were 94% and 75%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These scores may be used to predict the risk of death in severe COVID-19 patients and the NL score could be used in regions where patients' SaO2 cannot be tested.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Models, Theoretical , Neutrophils/cytology , Oxygen/blood , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , China , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Iran , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment
13.
J Clin Med ; 10(5)2021 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1124853

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been declared a global pandemic. It is well-established that SARS-CoV-2 infection can lead to dysregulated immune responses. Arginase-1 (Arg1), which has a pivotal role in immune cells, can be expressed in most of the myeloid cells, e.g., neutrophils and macrophages. Arg1 has been associated with the suppression of antiviral immune responses. METHODS: Whole blood was taken from 21 COVID-19 patients and 21 healthy individuals, and after RNA extraction and complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesis, gene expression of Arg1 was measured by real-time PCR. RESULTS: The qPCR results showed that the expression of Arg1 was significantly increased in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy individuals (p < 0.01). The relative expression analysis demonstrated there were approximately 2.3 times increased Arg1 expression in the whole blood of COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed a considerable diagnostic value for Arg1 expression in COVID-19 (p = 0.0002 and AUC = 0.8401). CONCLUSION: Arg1 might be a promising marker in the pathogenesis of the disease, and it could be a valuable diagnostic tool.

14.
Arch Virol ; 166(3): 675-696, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064514

ABSTRACT

The number of descriptions of emerging viruses has grown at an unprecedented rate since the beginning of the 21st century. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is the third highly pathogenic coronavirus that has introduced itself into the human population in the current era, after SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Molecular and cellular studies of the pathogenesis of this novel coronavirus are still in the early stages of research; however, based on similarities of SARS-CoV-2 to other coronaviruses, it can be hypothesized that the NF-κB, cytokine regulation, ERK, and TNF-α signaling pathways are the likely causes of inflammation at the onset of COVID-19. Several drugs have been prescribed and used to alleviate the adverse effects of these inflammatory cellular signaling pathways, and these might be beneficial for developing novel therapeutic modalities against COVID-19. In this review, we briefly summarize alterations of cellular signaling pathways that are associated with coronavirus infection, particularly SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, and tabulate the therapeutic agents that are currently approved for treating other human diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokines/metabolism , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , NF-kappa B/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 165(Pt A): 18-43, 2020 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023591

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the global pandemic caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus has motivated scientists to find a definitive treatment or a vaccine against it in the shortest possible time. Current efforts towards this goal remain fruitless without a full understanding of the behavior of the virus and its adaptor proteins. This review provides an overview of the biological properties, functional mechanisms, and molecular components of SARS-CoV-2, along with investigational therapeutic and preventive approaches for this virus. Since the proteolytic cleavage of the S protein is critical for virus penetration into cells, a set of drugs, such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, camostat mesylate have been tested in clinical trials to suppress this event. In addition to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, the role of CD147 in the viral entrance has also been proposed. Mepolizumab has shown to be effective in blocking the virus's cellular entrance. Antiviral drugs, such as remdesivir, ritonavir, oseltamivir, darunavir, lopinavir, zanamivir, peramivir, and oseltamivir, have also been tested as treatments for COVID-19. Regarding preventive vaccines, the whole virus, vectors, nucleic acids, and structural subunits have been suggested for vaccine development. Mesenchymal stem cells and natural killer cells could also be used against SARS-CoV-2. All the above-mentioned strategies, as well as the role of nanomedicine for the diagnosis and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection, have been discussed in this review.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Vaccines/immunology
16.
Nanomicro Lett ; 13(1): 18, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-911984

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus of zoonotic origin (SARS-CoV-2) has recently been recognized in patients with acute respiratory disease. COVID-19 causative agent is structurally and genetically similar to SARS and bat SARS-like coronaviruses. The drastic increase in the number of coronavirus and its genome sequence have given us an unprecedented opportunity to perform bioinformatics and genomics analysis on this class of viruses. Clinical tests like PCR and ELISA for rapid detection of this virus are urgently needed for early identification of infected patients. However, these techniques are expensive and not readily available for point-of-care (POC) applications. Currently, lack of any rapid, available, and reliable POC detection method gives rise to the progression of COVID-19 as a horrible global problem. To solve the negative features of clinical investigation, we provide a brief introduction of the general features of coronaviruses and describe various amplification assays, sensing, biosensing, immunosensing, and aptasensing for the determination of various groups of coronaviruses applied as a template for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. All sensing and biosensing techniques developed for the determination of various classes of coronaviruses are useful to recognize the newly immerged coronavirus, i.e., SARS-CoV-2. Also, the introduction of sensing and biosensing methods sheds light on the way of designing a proper screening system to detect the virus at the early stage of infection to tranquilize the speed and vastity of spreading. Among other approaches investigated among molecular approaches and PCR or recognition of viral diseases, LAMP-based methods and LFAs are of great importance for their numerous benefits, which can be helpful to design a universal platform for detection of future emerging pathogenic viruses.

18.
Immunol Invest ; 51(2): 246-265, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-799529

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a serious threat to public health. There is an urgent need for discovery methods for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 infection. Understanding immunogenicity together with immune responses are expected to provide further information about this virus. We hope that this narrative review article may create new insights for researchers to take great strides toward designing vaccines and novel therapies in the near future. The functional properties of the immune system in COVID-19 infection is not exactly clarified yet. This is compounded by the many gaps in our understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 immunogenicity properties. Possible immune responses according to current literature are discussed as the first line of defense and acquired immunity. Here, we focus on proposed modern preventive immunotherapy methods in COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adaptive Immunity , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Microb Pathog ; 147: 104390, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-650874

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In the current time where we face a COVID-19 pandemic, there is no vaccine or effective treatment at this time. Therefore, the prevention of COVID-19 and the rapid diagnosis of infected patients is crucial. METHOD: We searched all relevant literature published up to February 28, 2020. We used Random-effect models to analyze the appropriateness of the pooled results. RESULT: Eighty studies were included in the meta-analysis, including 61,742 patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection. 62.5% (95% CI 54.5-79, p < 0.001) of patients had a history of recent travel endemic area or contact with them. The most common symptoms among COVID-19 infected patients were fever 87% (95% CI 73-93, p < 0.001), and cough 68% (95% CI 55.5-74, p < 0.001)), respectively. The laboratory analysis showed that thrombocytosis was present in 61% (95% CI 41-78, p < 0.001) CRP was elevated in 79% (95% CI 65-91, p < 0.001), and lymphopenia in 57.5% (95% CI 42-79, p < 0.001). The most common radiographic signs were bilateral involvement in 81% (95% CI 62.5-87, p < 0.001), consolidation in 73.5% (95% CI 50.5-91, p < 0.001), and ground-glass opacity 73.5% (95% CI 40-90, p < 0.001) of patients. Case fatality rate (CFR) in <15 years old was 0.6%, in >50 years old was 39.5%, and in all range group was 6%. CONCLUSIONS: Fever and cough are the most common symptoms of COVID-19 infection in the literature published to date. Thombocytosis, lymphopenia, and increased CRP were common lab findings although most patients included in the overall analysis did not have laboratory values reported. Among Chinese patients with COVID-19, rates of hospitalization, critical condition, and hospitalization were high in this study, but these findings may be biased by reporting only confirmed cases.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cough/virology , Fever/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel
20.
Front Genet ; 11: 641, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-615473

ABSTRACT

The latest member of the Coronaviridae family, called SARS-CoV-2, causes the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The disease has caused a pandemic and is threatening global health. Similar to SARS-CoV, this new virus can potentially infect lower respiratory tract cells and can go on to cause severe acute respiratory tract syndrome, followed by pneumonia and even death in many nations. The molecular mechanism of the disease has not yet been evaluated until now. We analyzed the GSE1739 microarray dataset including 10 SARS-positive PBMC and four normal PBMC. Co-expression network analysis by WGCNA suggested that highly preserved 833 turquoise module with genes were significantly related to SARS-CoV infection. ELANE, ORM2, RETN, BPI, ARG1, DEFA4, CXCL1, and CAMP were the most important genes involved in this disease according to GEO2R analysis as well. The GO analysis demonstrated that neutrophil activation and neutrophil degranulation are the most activated biological processes in the SARS infection as well as the neutrophilia, basophilia, and lymphopenia predicted by deconvolution analysis of samples. Thus, using Serpins and Arginase inhibitors during SARS-CoV infection may be beneficial for increasing the survival of SARS-positive patients. Regarding the high similarity of SARS-CoV-2 to SARS-CoV, the use of such inhibitors might be beneficial for COVID-19 patients.

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