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BMC Public Health ; 22, 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-2009375


Background: COVID-19 related stigma has been identified as a critical issue since the beginning of the pandemic. We developed a valid and reliable questionnaire to measure COVID-19 related enacted stigma, inflicted by the non-infected general population. We applied the questionnaire to measure COVID-19 related enacted stigma among Tehran citizens from 27 to 30 September 2020. Methods: A preliminary questionnaire with 18 items was developed. The total score ranged from 18 to 54;a higher score indicated a higher level of COVID-19 related stigma. An expert panel assessed the face and content validity. Of 1637 randomly recruited Tehran citizens without a history of COVID-19 infection, 1064 participants consented and were interviewed by trained interviewers by phone. Results: Item content validity index (I-CVI), Item content validity ratio (I-CVR), and Item face validity index (I-FVI) were higher than 0.78 for all 18 items. The content and face validity were established with a scale content validity index (S-CVI) of 0.90 and a scale face validity index (S-CVI) of 93.9%, respectively. Internal consistency of the questionnaire with 18 items was confirmed with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.625. Exploratory factor analysis revealed five latent variables, including “blaming”, “social discrimination”, “dishonor label”, “interpersonal contact”, and “retribution and requital attitude”. The median of the stigma score was 24 [25th percentile: 22, 75the percentile: 28]. A large majority (86.8%) of participants reported a low level of stigma with a score below 31. None of the participants showed a high level of stigma with a score above 43. We found that the higher the educational level the lower the participant’s stigma score. Conclusion: We found a low level of stigmatizing thoughts and behavior among the non-infected general population in Tehran, which may be due to the social desirability effect, to the widespread nature of COVID-19, or to the adaptation to sociocultural diversity of the large city.

Journal of School of Public Health & Institute of Public Health Research ; 19(4):413-422, 2022.
Article in Persian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1957775


Background and Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the seroepidemiological history of SARS-CoV-2 infection among asymptomatic children in Tehran. Materials and Methods: Blood samples of children younger than 14 years old were collected during the period autumn-winter 2020 and spring 2021 and tested for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody using the EUROIMMUN ELISA kit. In addition, questionnaires were used to collect demographic and infection status information in the participants. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software.