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Clin Transl Sci ; 15(9): 2159-2171, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891527


Ribavirin is an inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitor. Studies suggest ribavirin aerosol could be a safe and efficacious treatment option in the fight against coronaviruses. However, current treatment is long (12-18 h per day, 3-7 days), limiting clinical utility. A reduction in treatment time would reduce treatment burden. We aimed to evaluate safety and pharmacokinetics (PK) of four, single-dose regimens of ribavirin aerosol in healthy volunteers. Thirty-two subjects were randomized, to four cohorts of aerosolized ribavirin (active) or placebo. Cohort 1 received 50 mg/ml ribavirin/placebo (10 ml total volume); cohort 2, 50 mg/ml ribavirin/placebo (20 ml total volume); cohort 3, 100 mg/ml ribavirin/placebo (10 ml total volume); and cohort 4, 100 mg/ml ribavirin/placebo (20 ml total volume). Intense safety monitoring and PK sampling took place on days 1, 2, 3, and 40. Subjects were (mean ± SD, active vs. placebo) aged 57 ± 4.5 vs. 60 ± 2.5 years; 83% vs. 88% were female; and 75% vs. 50% were Caucasian. Some 12.5% (3/24) and 25% (2/8) experienced at least one treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE) (two moderate; five mild) in the active and placebo groups, respectively. No clinically significant safety concerns were reported. Mean maximum observed concentration (Cmax ) and area under the curve (AUC) values were higher in cohort 4, whereas cohorts 2 and 3 showed similar PK values. Ribavirin absorption reached Cmax within 2 h across cohorts. Four single-dose regimens of ribavirin aerosol demonstrated systemic exposure with minimal systemic effects. Results support continued clinical development of ribavirin aerosol as a treatment option in patients with coronaviruses.

Ribavirin , Area Under Curve , Cohort Studies , Double-Blind Method , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Male , Ribavirin/adverse effects
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(4): 2791-2804, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1321899


Ribavirin is an inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitor with demonstrated activity against coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2. Five hospitalized patients with COVID-19 (confirmed by positive tests for SARS-CoV-2) received treatment with ribavirin for inhalation solution (ribavirin aerosol) as part of a compassionate use program. Patients included four men and one woman, with an age range of 29-72 years. Patients were managed according to international and Italian treatment guidelines for COVID-19. In addition, therapy with ribavirin aerosol 100 mg/mL was administered for 30 min twice daily for 6 days (i.e., 12 doses) in all patients. In order to address concerns about a possible increase in viral dispersal with the use of a nebulizer, healthcare providers remained outside the patient room during ribavirin aerosol administration. Pretreatment chest computed tomography (CT) scans showed pseudonodular areas of parenchymal thickening in the upper right lobe with associated ground glass opacities, multiple areas of parenchymal consolidation in both lower lobes with associated ground glass opacities, bilateral parenchymal thickening and multiple associated ground glass areas, or focal ground glass areas in the upper lobes bilaterally, which were almost completely resolved (three patients) or moderately cleared (one patient) on imaging at the end of ribavirin treatment. For a fifth patient, CT scans showed a stable pulmonary picture at the end of ribavirin treatment. No adverse reactions to ribavirin treatment were observed in any of the five patients. All patients recovered fully, and nasopharyngeal swabs obtained after hospital discharge tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. Ribavirin aerosol appears to be efficacious in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. A controlled trial of ribavirin aerosol is ongoing and will provide additional data across a broader patient population.