Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 61
Filter
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(3): e232774, 2023 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2278281

ABSTRACT

Importance: People experiencing homelessness are at high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Incident infection rates have yet to be established in these communities and are needed to inform infection prevention guidance and related interventions. Objective: To quantify the SARS-CoV-2 incident infection rate among people experiencing homelessness in Toronto, Canada, in 2021 and 2022 and to assess factors associated with incident infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study was conducted among individuals aged 16 years and older who were randomly selected between June and September 2021 from 61 homeless shelters, temporary distancing hotels, and encampments in Toronto, Canada. Exposures: Self-reported housing characteristics, such as number sharing living space. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection in summer 2021, defined as self-reported or polymerase chain reaction (PCR)- or serology-confirmed evidence of infection at or before the baseline interview, and SARS-CoV-2 incident infection, defined as self-reported or PCR- or serology-confirmed infection among participants without history of infection at baseline. Factors associated with infection were assessed using modified Poisson regression with generalized estimating equations. Results: The 736 participants (415 of whom did not have SARS-CoV-2 infection at baseline and were included in the primary analysis) had a mean (SD) age of 46.1 (14.6) years; 486 (66.0%) self-identified as male. Of these, 224 (30.4% [95% CI, 27.4%-34.0%]) had a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection by summer 2021. Of the remaining 415 participants with follow-up, 124 experienced infection within 6 months, representing an incident infection rate of 29.9% (95% CI, 25.7%-34.4%), or 5.8% (95% CI, 4.8%-6.8%) per person-month. Report after onset of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant was associated with incident infection, with an adjusted rate ratio (aRR) of 6.28 (95% CI, 3.94-9.99). Other factors associated with incident infection included recent immigration to Canada (aRR, 2.74 [95% CI, 1.64-4.58]) and alcohol consumption over the past interval (aRR, 1.67 [95% CI, 1.12-2.48]). Self-reported housing characteristics were not significantly associated with incident infection. Conclusions and Relevance: In this longitudinal study of people experiencing homelessness in Toronto, SARS-CoV-2 incident infection rates were high in 2021 and 2022, particularly once the Omicron variant became dominant in the region. Increased focus on homelessness prevention is needed to more effectively and equitably protect these communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ill-Housed Persons , Male , Humans , Incidence , Longitudinal Studies , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Canada/epidemiology
3.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 26(2): e26063, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282667

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In 2016, South Africa (SA) initiated a national programme to scale-up pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among female sex workers (FSWs), with ∼20,000 PrEP initiations among FSWs (∼14% of FSW) by 2020. We evaluated the impact and cost-effectiveness of this programme, including future scale-up scenarios and the potential detrimental impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A compartmental HIV transmission model for SA was adapted to include PrEP. Using estimates on self-reported PrEP adherence from a national study of FSW (67.7%) and the Treatment and Prevention for FSWs (TAPS) PrEP demonstration study in SA (80.8%), we down-adjusted TAPS estimates for the proportion of FSWs with detectable drug levels (adjusted range: 38.0-70.4%). The model stratified FSW by low (undetectable drug; 0% efficacy) and high adherence (detectable drug; 79.9%; 95% CI: 67.2-87.6% efficacy). FSWs can transition between adherence levels, with lower loss-to-follow-up among highly adherent FSWs (aHR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.40-0.85; TAPS data). The model was calibrated to monthly data on the national scale-up of PrEP among FSWs over 2016-2020, including reductions in PrEP initiations during 2020. The model projected the impact of the current programme (2016-2020) and the future impact (2021-2040) at current coverage or if initiation and/or retention are doubled. Using published cost data, we assessed the cost-effectiveness (healthcare provider perspective; 3% discount rate; time horizon 2016-2040) of the current PrEP provision. RESULTS: Calibrated to national data, model projections suggest that 2.1% of HIV-negative FSWs were currently on PrEP in 2020, with PrEP preventing 0.45% (95% credibility interval, 0.35-0.57%) of HIV infections among FSWs over 2016-2020 or 605 (444-840) infections overall. Reductions in PrEP initiations in 2020 possibly reduced infections averted by 18.57% (13.99-23.29). PrEP is cost-saving, with $1.42 (1.03-1.99) of ART costs saved per dollar spent on PrEP. Going forward, existing coverage of PrEP will avert 5,635 (3,572-9,036) infections by 2040. However, if PrEP initiation and retention doubles, then PrEP coverage increases to 9.9% (8.7-11.6%) and impact increases 4.3 times with 24,114 (15,308-38,107) infections averted by 2040. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings advocate for the expansion of PrEP to FSWs throughout SA to maximize its impact. This should include strategies to optimize retention and should target women in contact with FSW services.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Sex Workers , Humans , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , South Africa , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Pandemics , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use
4.
Glob Public Health ; 18(1): 2185800, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269556

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACTScant studies have explored COVID-19 vaccine acceptability among refugees. However, contexts of forced migration may elevate COVID-19 vulnerabilities, and suboptimal refugee immunisation rates are reported for other vaccine-preventable diseases. We conducted a multi-methods study to describe COVID-19 vaccine acceptability among urban refugee youth in Kampala, Uganda. This study uses cross-sectional survey data from a cohort study with refugees aged 16-24 in Kampala to examine socio-demographic factors associated with vaccine acceptability. A purposively sampled cohort subset (n = 24) participated in semi-structured in-depth individual interviews, as did key informants (n = 6), to explore COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. Among 326 survey participants (mean age: 19.9; standard deviation 2.4; 50.0% cisgender women), vaccine acceptance was low (18.1% reported they were very likely to accept an effective COVID-19 vaccine). In multivariable models, vaccine acceptance likelihood was significantly associated with age and country of origin. Qualitative findings highlighted COVID-19 vaccine acceptability barriers and facilitators spanning social-ecological levels, including fear of side effects and mistrust (individual level), misinformed healthcare, community and family attitudes (community level), tailored COVID-19 services for refugees (organisational and practice setting), and political support for vaccines (policy environment). These data signal the urgent need to address social-ecological factors shaping COVID-19 vaccine acceptability among Kampala's young urban refugees.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04631367.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Refugees , Adolescent , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Uganda , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286068

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social determinants of health (SDOH) have been associated with COVID-19 outcomes. We examined differential patterns in COVID-19-related mortality by SDOH accounting for confounders and compared these patterns to those for non-COVID-19 mortality. METHODS: Residents of Ontario, Canada aged ≥20 years were followed from March-01-2020 to March-02-2021. COVID-19-related death was defined as death within [-7,30] days of a positive COVID-19 test. Area-level SDOH from 2016 Census included: median household income; proportion with diploma or higher educational-attainment; proportion essential workers, racially-minoritised groups, recent immigrants, apartment buildings, and high-density housing; and average household size. We examined associations between SDOH and COVID-19-related mortality using cause-specific hazard models, treating non-COVID-19 mortality as competing risks, and vice-versa. RESULTS: Of 11,810,255 individuals, we observed 3,880(0.03%) COVID-19-related deaths and 88,107(0.75%) non-COVID-19 deaths. After accounting for individual-level demographics, baseline health, and other area-level SDOH, the following area-level SDOH were associated with increased hazards of COVID-19-related death (hazard ratios[95% confidence intervals]: lower income (1.30[1.04-1.62]), lower educational-attainment (1.27[1.07-1.52]), higher proportions essential workers (1.28[1.05-1.57]), racially-minoritised groups (1.42[1.08-1.87]), apartment buildings (1.25[1.07-1.46]), and large vs. medium household size (1.30[1.12-1.50]). In comparison, areas with higher proportion racially-minoritised groups were associated with a lower hazard of non-COVID-19 mortality (0.88[0.84-0.92]). CONCLUSIONS: Area-level SDOH are associated with COVID-19-related mortality after accounting for demographic and clinical factors. COVID-19 has reversed patterns of lower non-COVID-19 mortality among racially-minoritised groups vs. their counterparts. Pandemic responses should include strategies (e.g., 'hotspot' and risk-group tailored vaccination) to address disproportionate risks and inequitable reach of, and access to, preventive interventions associated with SDOH.

6.
Ann Epidemiol ; 2022 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237635

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: People experiencing homelessness (PEH) are at increased risk of respiratory infections and associated morbidity and mortality. To characterize optimal intervention strategies, we completed a systematic review of mitigation strategies for PEH to minimize the spread and impact of respiratory infectious disease outbreaks, including COVID-19. METHODS: The study protocol was registered in PROSPERO (#2020 CRD42020208964) and was consistent with the preferred reporting in systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. A search algorithm containing keywords that were synonymous to the terms "Homeless" and "Respiratory Illness" was applied to the six databases. The search concluded on September 22, 2020. Quality assessment was performed at the study level. Steps were conducted by two independent team members. RESULTS: A total of 4468 unique titles were retrieved with 21 meeting criteria for inclusion. Interventions included testing, tracking, screening, infection prevention and control, isolation support, and education. Historically, there has been limited study of intervention strategies specifically for PEH across the world. CONCLUSIONS: Staff and organizations providing services for people experiencing homelessness face specific challenges in adhering to public health guidelines such as physical distancing, isolation, and routine hygiene practices. There is a discrepancy between the burden of infectious diseases among PEH and specific research characterizing optimal intervention strategies to mitigate transmission in the context of shelters. Improving health for people experiencing homelessness necessitates investment in programs scaling existing interventions and research to study new approaches.

7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2022 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237096

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We examined the incremental protection and durability of infection-acquired immunity against Omicron infection in individuals with hybrid immunity in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We followed up six million Individuals with at least one RT-PCR test before November 21, 2021 until an Omicron infection. Protection via infection-acquired immunity was assessed by comparing Omicron infection risk between previously infected individuals and those without documented infection under different vaccination scenarios and stratified by time since last infection or vaccination. RESULTS: A prior infection was associated with 68% (95%CI 61-73) and 43% (95%CI 27-56) increased protection against Omicron infection in individuals with two and three doses, respectively. Among individuals with two-dose vaccination, the incremental protection of infection-induced immunity decreased from 79% (95%CI 75-81) within 3 months after vaccination or infection to 27% (95%CI 14-37) at 9-11 months. In individuals with three-dose vaccination, it decreased from 57% (95%CI 50-63) within 3 months to 37% (95%CI 19-51) at 3-5 months after vaccination or infection. CONCLUSION: Previous SARS-CovV-2 infections provide added cross-variant immunity to vaccination. Given the limited durability of infection-acquired protection in individuals with hybrid immunity, its influence on shield-effects at population level and reinfection risks at individual level may be limited.

8.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 10(1): ofac690, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2222682

ABSTRACT

Person-level surveillance (N = 14 million) and neighborhood-level income data were used to explore magnitude of inequalities in COVID-19 hospitalizations and deaths over 5 waves in Ontario, Canada. Despite attempts at equity-informed policies alongside fluctuating levels of public health measures, the magnitude of inequalities in hospitalizations and deaths remained unchanged across waves.

9.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(10): e34927, 2022 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198020

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disproportionate risks of COVID-19 in congregate care facilities including long-term care homes, retirement homes, and shelters both affect and are affected by SARS-CoV-2 infections among facility staff. In cities across Canada, there has been a consistent trend of geographic clustering of COVID-19 cases. However, there is limited information on how COVID-19 among facility staff reflects urban neighborhood disparities, particularly when stratified by the social and structural determinants of community-level transmission. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the concentration of cumulative cases by geography and social and structural determinants across 3 mutually exclusive subgroups in the Greater Toronto Area (population: 7.1 million): community, facility staff, and health care workers (HCWs) in other settings. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, observational study using surveillance data on laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases (January 23 to December 13, 2020; prior to vaccination rollout). We derived neighborhood-level social and structural determinants from census data and generated Lorenz curves, Gini coefficients, and the Hoover index to visualize and quantify inequalities in cases. RESULTS: The hardest-hit neighborhoods (comprising 20% of the population) accounted for 53.87% (44,937/83,419) of community cases, 48.59% (2356/4849) of facility staff cases, and 42.34% (1669/3942) of other HCW cases. Compared with other HCWs, cases among facility staff reflected the distribution of community cases more closely. Cases among facility staff reflected greater social and structural inequalities (larger Gini coefficients) than those of other HCWs across all determinants. Facility staff cases were also more likely than community cases to be concentrated in lower-income neighborhoods (Gini 0.24, 95% CI 0.15-0.38 vs 0.14, 95% CI 0.08-0.21) with a higher household density (Gini 0.23, 95% CI 0.17-0.29 vs 0.17, 95% CI 0.12-0.22) and with a greater proportion working in other essential services (Gini 0.29, 95% CI 0.21-0.40 vs 0.22, 95% CI 0.17-0.28). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 cases among facility staff largely reflect neighborhood-level heterogeneity and disparities, even more so than cases among other HCWs. The findings signal the importance of interventions prioritized and tailored to the home geographies of facility staff in addition to workplace measures, including prioritization and reach of vaccination at home (neighborhood level) and at work.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Residence Characteristics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Med Ethics ; 2022 Dec 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2161962

ABSTRACT

In 2022, students at North American universities with third-dose COVID-19 vaccine mandates risk disenrolment if unvaccinated. To assess the appropriateness of booster mandates in this age group, we combine empirical risk-benefit assessment and ethical analysis. To prevent one COVID-19 hospitalisation over a 6-month period, we estimate that 31 207-42 836 young adults aged 18-29 years must receive a third mRNA vaccine. Booster mandates in young adults are expected to cause a net harm: per COVID-19 hospitalisation prevented, we anticipate at least 18.5 serious adverse events from mRNA vaccines, including 1.5-4.6 booster-associated myopericarditis cases in males (typically requiring hospitalisation). We also anticipate 1430-4626 cases of grade ≥3 reactogenicity interfering with daily activities (although typically not requiring hospitalisation). University booster mandates are unethical because they: (1) are not based on an updated (Omicron era) stratified risk-benefit assessment for this age group; (2) may result in a net harm to healthy young adults; (3) are not proportionate: expected harms are not outweighed by public health benefits given modest and transient effectiveness of vaccines against transmission; (4) violate the reciprocity principle because serious vaccine-related harms are not reliably compensated due to gaps in vaccine injury schemes; and (5) may result in wider social harms. We consider counterarguments including efforts to increase safety on campus but find these are fraught with limitations and little scientific support. Finally, we discuss the policy relevance of our analysis for primary series COVID-19 vaccine mandates.

11.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0248793, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065106

ABSTRACT

Systematic approaches to epidemiologic data collection are critical for informing pandemic responses, providing information for the targeting and timing of mitigations, for judging the efficacy and efficiency of alternative response strategies, and for conducting real-world impact assessments. Here, we report on a scoping study to assess the completeness of epidemiological data available for COVID-19 pandemic management in the United States, enumerating authoritative US government estimates of parameters of infectious transmission, infection severity, and disease burden and characterizing the extent and scope of US public health affiliated epidemiological investigations published through November 2021. While we found authoritative estimates for most expected transmission and disease severity parameters, some were lacking, and others had significant uncertainties. Moreover, most transmission parameters were not validated domestically or re-assessed over the course of the pandemic. Publicly available disease surveillance measures did grow appreciably in scope and resolution over time; however, their resolution with regards to specific populations and exposure settings remained limited. We identified 283 published epidemiological reports authored by investigators affiliated with U.S. governmental public health entities. Most reported on descriptive studies. Published analytic studies did not appear to fully respond to knowledge gaps or to provide systematic evidence to support, evaluate or tailor community mitigation strategies. The existence of epidemiological data gaps 18 months after the declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic underscores the need for more timely standardization of data collection practices and for anticipatory research priorities and protocols for emerging infectious disease epidemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Government , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
12.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0273389, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has rapidly emerged as a global public health threat with infections recorded in nearly every country. Responses to COVID-19 have varied in intensity and breadth, but generally have included domestic and international travel limitations, closure of non-essential businesses, and repurposing of health services. While these interventions have focused on testing, treatment, and mitigation of COVID-19, there have been reports of interruptions to diagnostic, prevention, and treatment services for other public health threats. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a scoping review to characterize the early impact of COVID-19 on HIV, tuberculosis, malaria, sexual and reproductive health, and malnutrition. METHODS: A scoping literature review was completed using searches of PubMed and preprint servers (medRxiv/bioRxiv) from November 1st, 2019 to October 31st, 2020, using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms related to SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19 and HIV, tuberculosis, malaria, sexual and reproductive health, and malnutrition. Empiric studies reporting original data collection or mathematical models were included, and available data synthesized by region. Studies were excluded if they were not written in English. RESULTS: A total of 1604 published papers and 205 preprints were retrieved in the search. Overall, 8.0% (129/1604) of published studies and 10.2% (21/205) of preprints met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review: 7.3% (68/931) on HIV, 7.1% (24/339) on tuberculosis, 11.6% (26/224) on malaria, 7.8% (19/183) on sexual and reproductive health, and 9.8% (13/132) on malnutrition. Thematic results were similar across competing health risks, with substantial indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and response on diagnostic, prevention, and treatment services for HIV, tuberculosis, malaria, sexual and reproductive health, and malnutrition. DISCUSSION: COVID-19 emerged in the context of existing public health threats that result in millions of deaths every year. Thus, effectively responding to COVID-19 while minimizing the negative impacts of COVID-19 necessitates innovation and integration of existing programs that are often siloed across health systems. Inequities have been a consistent driver of existing health threats; COVID-19 has worsened disparities, reinforcing the need for programs that address structural risks. The data reviewed here suggest that effective strengthening of health systems should include investment and planning focused on ensuring the continuity of care for both rapidly emergent and existing public health threats.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Malaria , Malnutrition , Tuberculosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Malaria/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Am J Public Health ; 112(10): 1399-1403, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993619

ABSTRACT

Rural communities are often underserved by public health testing initiatives in Alabama. As part of the National Institutes of Health's Rapid Acceleration of Diagnostics‒Underserved Populations initiative, the University of Alabama at Birmingham, along with community partners, sought to address this inequity in COVID-19 testing. We describe the participatory assessment, selection, and implementation phases of this project, which administered more than 23 000 COVID-19 tests throughout the state, including nearly 4000 tests among incarcerated populations. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(10):1399-1403. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.306985).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rural Population , Alabama , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Vulnerable Populations
14.
BMJ open ; 12(8), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1989972

ABSTRACT

Introduction Initial reports suggest people experiencing homelessness (PEH) are at high risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated morbidity and mortality. However, there have been few longitudinal evaluations of the spread and impact of COVID-19 among PEH. This study will estimate the prevalence and incidence of COVID-19 infections in a cohort of PEH followed prospectively in Toronto, Canada. It will also examine associations between individual-level and shelter-level characteristics with COVID-19 infection, adverse health outcomes related to infection and vaccination. Finally, the data will be used to develop and parameterise a mathematical model to characterise SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics, and the transmission impact of interventions serving PEH. Design, methods and analysis Ku-gaa-gii pimitizi-win will follow a random sample of PEH from across Toronto (Canada) for 12 months. 736 participants were enrolled between June and September 2021, and will be followed up at 3-month intervals. At each interval, specimens (saliva, capillary blood) will be collected to determine active SARS-CoV-2 infection and serologic evidence of past infection and/or vaccination, and a detailed survey will gather self-reported information, including a detailed housing history. To examine the association between individual-level and shelter-level characteristics on COVID-19-related infection, adverse outcomes, and vaccination, shelter and healthcare administrative data will be linked to participant study data. Healthcare administrative data will also be used to examine long-term (up to 5 years) COVID-19-related outcomes among participants. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from the Unity Health Toronto and University of Toronto Health Sciences Research Ethics Boards (# 20-272). Ku-gaa-gii pimitizi-win was designed in collaboration with community and service provider partners and people having lived experience of homelessness. Findings will be reported to groups supporting Ku-gaa-gii pimitizi-win, Indigenous and other community partners and service providers, funding bodies, public health agencies and all levels of government to inform policy and public health programs.

15.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0270034, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910668

ABSTRACT

There remains a limited understanding of the HIV prevention and treatment needs among female sex workers in many parts of the world. Systematic reviews of existing literature can help fill this gap; however, well-done systematic reviews are time-demanding and labor-intensive. Here, we propose an automatic document classification approach to a systematic review to significantly reduce the effort in reviewing documents and optimizing empiric decision making. We first describe a manual document classification procedure that is used to curate a pertinent training dataset and then propose three classifiers: a keyword-guided method, a cluster analysis-based method, and a random forest approach that utilizes a large set of feature tokens. This approach is used to identify documents studying female sex workers that contain content relevant to either HIV or experienced violence. We compare the performance of the three classifiers by cross-validation in terms of area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic and precision and recall plot, and found random forest approach reduces the amount of manual reading for our example by 80%; in sensitivity analysis, we found that even trained with only 10% of data, the classifier can still avoid reading 75% of future documents (68% of total) while retaining 80% of relevant documents. In sum, the automated procedure of document classification presented here could improve both the precision and efficiency of systematic reviews and facilitate live reviews, where reviews are updated regularly. We expect to obtain a reasonable classifier by taking 20% of retrieved documents as training samples. The proposed classifier could also be used for more meaningfully assembling literature in other research areas and for rapid documents screening with a tight schedule, such as COVID-related work during the crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sex Workers , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Female , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , ROC Curve
16.
LGBT Health ; 9(6): 418-425, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908718

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study examined differences in self-reported physical violence and psychological distress among Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) sexual minority men (SMM) before and during the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic (2019 vs. 2020). Methods: We used data from 1127 AAPI SMM who completed the 2019 (August 2019-December 2019) and 2020 (August 2020-January 2021) cycles of the American Men's Internet Survey (AMIS). We assessed differences in experiencing physical violence and serious psychological distress by year of survey completion. We used Poisson regression with robust variance estimation to examine whether physical violence was associated with serious psychological distress before and during COVID-19. Multivariate analyses adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and the interaction between year and violence. Results: A greater percentage of AAPI SMM had serious psychological distress in 2020 during the pandemic relative to 2019 before the pandemic (56.6% vs. 35.64%, p < 0.001). AAPI SMM who experienced physical violence in the last 6 months were more likely to experience serious psychological distress than those who never experienced physical violence. The association between violence and psychological distress among AAPI SMM was not significantly different before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusions: Violence against AAPI SMM in the United States is widespread. Although we did not find significant differences in exposure to physical violence among AAPI SMM before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, the increase in serious psychological distress during the pandemic among AAPI SMM may indicate heightened need of mental health services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Asian/psychology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Physical Abuse , United States/epidemiology
17.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 87(1): 644-651, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865024

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus pandemic has necessitated a range of population-based measures to stem the spread of infection. These measures may be associated with disruptions to other health services including for gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) at risk for or living with HIV. Here, we assess the relationship between stringency of COVID-19 control measures and interruptions to HIV prevention and treatment services for MSM. SETTING: Data for this study were collected between April 16, 2020, and May 24, 2020, as part of a COVID-19 Disparities Survey implemented by the gay social networking app, Hornet. Pandemic control measures were quantified using the Oxford Government Response Tracker Stringency Index: each country received a score (0-100) based on the number and strictness of 9 indicators related to restrictions, closures, and travel bans. METHODS: We used a multilevel mixed-effects generalized linear model with Poisson distribution to assess the association between stringency of pandemic control measures and access to HIV services. RESULTS: A total of 10,654 MSM across 20 countries were included. Thirty-eight percent (3992/10,396) reported perceived interruptions to in-person testing, 55% (5178/9335) interruptions to HIV self-testing, 56% (5171/9173) interruptions to pre-exposure prophylaxis, and 10% (990/9542) interruptions to condom access. For every 10-point increase in stringency, there was a 3% reduction in the prevalence of perceived access to in-person testing (aPR: 0·97, 95% CI: [0·96 to 0·98]), a 6% reduction in access to self-testing (aPR: 0·94, 95% CI: [0·93 to 0·95]), and a 5% reduction in access to pre-exposure prophylaxis (aPR: 0·95, 95% CI: [0·95 to 0·97]). Among those living with HIV, 20% (218/1105) were unable to access their provider; 65% (820/1254) reported being unable to refill their treatment prescription remotely. CONCLUSIONS: More stringent responses were associated with decreased perceived access to services. These results support the need for increasing emphasis on innovative strategies in HIV-related diagnostic, prevention, and treatment services to minimize service interruptions during this and potential future waves of COVID-19 for gay men and other MSM at risk for HIV acquisition and transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male/statistics & numerical data , Sexual and Gender Minorities/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Self-Testing , Sexual Behavior , Social Networking , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
18.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(5)2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865162

ABSTRACT

Vaccination policies have shifted dramatically during COVID-19 with the rapid emergence of population-wide vaccine mandates, domestic vaccine passports and differential restrictions based on vaccination status. While these policies have prompted ethical, scientific, practical, legal and political debate, there has been limited evaluation of their potential unintended consequences. Here, we outline a comprehensive set of hypotheses for why these policies may ultimately be counterproductive and harmful. Our framework considers four domains: (1) behavioural psychology, (2) politics and law, (3) socioeconomics, and (4) the integrity of science and public health. While current vaccines appear to have had a significant impact on decreasing COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality burdens, we argue that current mandatory vaccine policies are scientifically questionable and are likely to cause more societal harm than good. Restricting people's access to work, education, public transport and social life based on COVID-19 vaccination status impinges on human rights, promotes stigma and social polarisation, and adversely affects health and well-being. Current policies may lead to a widening of health and economic inequalities, detrimental long-term impacts on trust in government and scientific institutions, and reduce the uptake of future public health measures, including COVID-19 vaccines as well as routine immunisations. Mandating vaccination is one of the most powerful interventions in public health and should be used sparingly and carefully to uphold ethical norms and trust in institutions. We argue that current COVID-19 vaccine policies should be re-evaluated in light of the negative consequences that we outline. Leveraging empowering strategies based on trust and public consultation, and improving healthcare services and infrastructure, represent a more sustainable approach to optimising COVID-19 vaccination programmes and, more broadly, the health and well-being of the public.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Health Policy , Vaccination , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Vaccination/legislation & jurisprudence
19.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 16(6): 1072-1081, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861366

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Shared and divergent predictors of clinical severity across respiratory viruses may support clinical and community responses in the context of a novel respiratory pathogen. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to identify predictors of 30-day all-cause mortality following hospitalization with influenza (N = 45,749; 2010-09 to 2019-05), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV; N = 24 345; 2010-09 to 2019-04), or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; N = 8988; 2020-03 to 2020-12; pre-vaccine) using population-based health administrative data from Ontario, Canada. Multivariable modified Poisson regression was used to assess associations between potential predictors and mortality. We compared the direction, magnitude, and confidence intervals of risk ratios to identify shared and divergent predictors of mortality. RESULTS: A total of 3186 (7.0%), 697 (2.9%), and 1880 (20.9%) patients died within 30 days of hospital admission with influenza, RSV, and SARS-CoV-2, respectively. Shared predictors of increased mortality included older age, male sex, residence in a long-term care home, and chronic kidney disease. Positive associations between age and mortality were largest for patients with SARS-CoV-2. Few comorbidities were associated with mortality among patients with SARS-CoV-2 as compared with those with influenza or RSV. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings may help identify patients at greatest risk of illness secondary to a respiratory virus, anticipate hospital resource needs, and prioritize local prevention and therapeutic strategies to communities with higher prevalence of risk factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
20.
PLoS Med ; 19(3): e1003940, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833506

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Optimizing services to facilitate engagement and retention in care of people living with HIV (PLWH) on antiretroviral therapies (ARTs) is critical to decrease HIV-related morbidity and mortality and HIV transmission. We systematically reviewed the literature for the effectiveness of implementation strategies to reestablish and subsequently retain clinical contact, improve viral load suppression, and reduce mortality among patients who had been lost to follow-up (LTFU) from HIV services. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched 7 databases (PubMed, Cochrane, ERIC, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the WHO regional databases) and 3 conference abstract archives (CROI, IAC, and IAS) to find randomized trials and observational studies published through 13 April 2020. Eligible studies included those involving children and adults who were diagnosed with HIV, had initiated ART, and were subsequently lost to care and that reported at least one review outcome (return to care, retention, viral suppression, or mortality). Data were extracted by 2 reviewers, with discrepancies resolved by a third. We characterized reengagement strategies according to how, where, and by whom tracing was conducted. We explored effects, first, among all categorized as LTFU from the HIV program (reengagement program effect) and second among those found to be alive and out of care (reengagement contact outcome). We used random-effect models for meta-analysis and conducted subgroup analyses to explore heterogeneity. Searches yielded 4,244 titles, resulting in 37 included studies (6 randomized trials and 31 observational studies). In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) (N = 16), tracing most frequently involved identification of LTFU from the electronic medical record (EMR) and paper records followed by a combination of telephone calls and field tracing (including home visits), by a team of outreach workers within 3 months of becoming LTFU (N = 7), with few incorporating additional strategies to support reengagement beyond contact (N = 2). In high-income countries (HICs) (N = 21 studies), LTFU were similarly identified through EMR systems, at times matched with other public health records (N = 4), followed by telephone calls and letters sent by mail or email and conducted by outreach specialist teams. Home visits were less common (N = 7) than in LMICs, and additional reengagement support was similarly infrequent (N = 5). Overall, reengagement programs were able to return 39% (95% CI: 31% to 47%) of all patients who were characterized as LTFU (n = 29). Reengagement contact resulted in 58% (95% CI: 51% to 65%) return among those found to be alive and out of care (N = 17). In 9 studies that had a control condition, the return was higher among those in the reengagement intervention group than the standard of care group (RR: 1.20 (95% CI: 1.08 to 1.32, P < 0.001). There were insufficient data to generate pooled estimates of retention, viral suppression, or mortality after the return. CONCLUSIONS: While the types of interventions are markedly heterogeneity, reengagement interventions increase return to care. HIV programs should consider investing in systems to better characterize LTFU to identify those who are alive and out of care, and further research on the optimum time to initiate reengagement efforts after missed visits and how to best support sustained reengagement could improve efficiency and effectiveness.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Lost to Follow-Up , Adult , Child , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Income , Viral Load , World Health Organization
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL