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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 788581, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648288

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antigen (Ag) tests have been widely employed to identify patients for a rapid diagnosis and pandemic control. Rapid lateral-flow techniques are currently the most used, but automated technologies have emerged as another viable alternative to molecular methods. We aimed to evaluate the analytical performance of the DiaSorin Liaison SARS-CoV-2 Ag test in asymptomatic population and close contacts, for its use as a tool in pandemic control efforts. Material and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted. A total of 861 samples were included, 291 (34%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 with cycle threshold (Ct) <40, and 570 (66%) were negative. Results: A strong correlation was observed between reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) Ct and Ag 50% Tissue Culture Infectious Dose per milliliter (TCID50/ml; r = 0.6486; p < 0.0001) and all RT-PCR negative samples tested negative for the 200 TCID50/ml SARS-Cov-2 Ag cutoff, i.e., a specificity of 100% was reached (95% CI: 99.4-100.0%). Samples with <25 Ct and/or >106 extrapolated copies/ml were reached a sensitivity of 100% (95% IC 97.0-100.0%). For intermediate viral loads (>105 extrapolated copies/ml or <30 Ct), the sensitivity value still exceeded 80%. As with other Ag methods, samples between 30 and 40 Ct could not be detected with a reliable sensitivity. Conclusions: The LIAISON® SARS-CoV-2 Ag assay displays an acceptable sensitivity and a very high specificity that is useful for detecting the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in nasal swabs (NPS) of asymptomatic population or to regular monitoring of risk groups in controlled settings. Additionally, the flexibility in processing different samples and in the sampling preparation process makes this test an option for its use in high throughput laboratories. Automated tests may facilitate result reporting and yield consistent data, while avoiding some of the pitfalls of rapid lateral-flow techniques, such as observer variability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
2.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 709893, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403459

ABSTRACT

Highlights: Innate immune activation during Covid-19 infection is associated with pernicious clinical outcome. Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is a worldwide threat that has already caused more than 3 000 000 deaths. It is characterized by different patterns of disease evolution depending on host factors among which old-age and pre-existing comorbidities play a detrimental role. Previous coronavirus epidemics, notably SARS-CoV, were associated with increased serum neopterin levels, which can be interpreted as a sign of acute innate immunity in response to viral infection. Here we hypothesize that neopterin may serve as a biomarker of SARS-CoV-2 viral infection and Covid-19 disease severity. Methods: We measured neopterin blood levels by ELISA. Seric concentration was quantified from 256 healthy donors and 374 Covid-19 patients at hospital admission. Enrolled Covid-19 patients were all symptomatic and displayed a large spectrum of comorbidities. Patients were followed until disease resolution or death. Results: Severe and critically ill SARS-CoV-2 infected patients were characterized by a profound exacerbation of immune activation characterized by elevated neopterin blood levels. Systemic neopterin levels above 19nM stratified healthy individuals from Covid-19 patients with 87% specificity and 100% sensitivity. Moreover, systemic neopterin levels above 53nM differentiated non-survivors from survivors with 64% specificity and 100% sensitivity. Conclusion: We propose that neopterin concentration measured at arrival to hospital is a hallmark of severe Covid-19 and identifies a high-risk population of pernicious clinical outcome with a need for special medical care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neopterin , Critical Illness , Humans
3.
Metabolites ; 11(9)2021 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374462

ABSTRACT

We report an observational study performed between March and May 2020 in a Spanish university hospital during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The main objective was to analyse the association between the levels of micronutrients in severe COVID-19 patients and their outcome. Adult patients with a positive polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) for SARS-CoV-2 in the nasopharyngeal swab or in tracheal aspirate culture in the case of intubation were included. Micronutrient data were obtained from plasma analysis of a standard nutritional assessment performed within the first 24 h of hospital admission. Vitamins A, B6, C and E were analysed with HPLC methods; 25-OH-vitamin D by immunoassay and zinc by colorimetric measurements. One hundred and twenty patients were included. We found that 74.2% patients had low levels of zinc (normal levels >84 µg/dL) with a mean value of 63.5 (SD 13.5); 71.7% patients had low levels of vitamin A (normal levels >0.3 mg/L) with a mean value of 0.17 (SD 0.06); 42.5% patients had low levels of vitamin B6 (normal levels >3.6 ng/mL) with a mean value of 2.2 (SD 0.9); 100% patients had low levels of vitamin C (normal levels >0.4 mg/dL) with a mean value of 0.14 (SD 0.05); 74.3% patients had low values of vitamin D (normal levels >20 ng/mL) with mean value of 11.4 (SD 4.3); but only 5.8% of patients had low levels of vitamin E (normal levels >5 mg/L) with a mean value of 3.95 (SD 0.87). The variables associated with the need for ICU admission were low levels of zinc (standard error 0.566, 95% CI 0.086 to 0.790, p = 0.017), low levels of vitamin A (standard error 0.582, 95% CI 0.061 to 0.594, p = 0.004), age over 65 (standard error 0.018, 95% CI 0.917 to 0.985, p = 0.005) and male gender (standard error 0.458, 95% CI 1.004 to 6.040, p = 0.049). The only variable that was independently associated with the need for orotracheal intubation was low levels of vitamin A (standard error 0.58, 95% CI 0.042 to 0.405, p = 0.000). Conclusions: Low levels of vitamin A and zinc are associated with a greater need for admission to the ICU and orotracheal intubation. Patients older than 65 years had higher mortality. Randomized clinical trials are needed to examine whether micronutrient supplementation could be beneficial as an adjunctive treatment in COVID-19.

4.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244348, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999840

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rapid spread of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) around the world has caused a global pandemic, infecting millions of individuals, with an unprecedented impact in health care systems worldwide. Healthcare workers are one of the risk groups that need to be well protected, due to their strategic role in patient management, presently and in prevention of healthcare needs for future outbreaks. Here, we present the results of the first SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence study in the Northern Metropolitan Area of Barcelona, Spain. METHODS: IgG SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were analyzed in serum samples from 7563 healthcare workers of the Northern Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. Samples were collected after the first pandemic wave (from May 4th to May 22nd, 2020) and were analyzed by automated chemiluminescence assays. All samples were tested for IgG anti-S1/S2. Participant samples with negative or equivocal results but with analytical signals above the limit of detection and/or previously confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis were also tested for IgG anti-Nucleocapsid. RESULTS: A total of 779 of 7563 (10.3%) healthcare workers were positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG (specific for either S1/S2 or N antigens). No significant differences were observed between those working at primary care or at the reference hospital. Interestingly, among 341 participants with a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis, 36 (10.55%) tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 IgG (both S1/S2 and recombinant N antigen). CONCLUSION: Seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG in the healthcare workers of the North Metropolitan Area of Barcelona was higher than in the general population in the same geographical area. Safety measures have to be stressed in order to protect these essential workers from future pandemic waves.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spain , Young Adult
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