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1.
Lab Med ; 52(5): 493-498, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526169

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the role of midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We included 110 patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Biochemical biomarkers, including MR-proADM, were measured at admission. The association of plasma MR-proADM levels with COVID-19 severity, defined as a requirement for mechanical ventilation or in-hospital mortality, was evaluated. RESULTS: Patients showed increased levels of MR-proADM. In addition, MR-proADM was higher in patients who died during hospitalization than in patients who survived (median, 2.59 nmol/L; interquartile range, 2.3-2.95 vs median, 0.82 nmol/L; interquartile range, 0.57-1.03; P <.0001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed good accuracy of MR-proADM for predicting mortality. A MR-proADM value of 1.73 nmol/L was established as the best cutoff value, with 90% sensitivity and 95% specificity (P <.0001). CONCLUSION: We found that MR-proADM could represent a prognostic biomarker of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adrenomedullin/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Protein Precursors/blood , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Interleukin-6/blood , Lung Diseases/blood , Lung Diseases/mortality , Lung Diseases/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Selection , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Triage/methods
2.
Eur J Nutr ; 2021 Oct 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482208

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In less than one and a half year, the COVID-19 pandemic has nearly brought to a collapse our health care and economic systems. The scientific research community has concentrated all possible efforts to understand the pathogenesis of this complex disease, and several groups have recently emphasized recommendations for nutritional support in COVID-19 patients. In this scoping review, we aim at encouraging a deeper appreciation of magnesium in clinical nutrition, in view of the vital role of magnesium and the numerous links between the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection and magnesium-dependent functions. METHODS: By searching PubMed and Google Scholar from 1990 to date, we review existing evidence from experimental and clinical studies on the role of magnesium in chronic non-communicable diseases and infectious diseases, and we focus on recent reports of alterations of magnesium homeostasis in COVID-19 patients and their association with disease outcomes. Importantly, we conduct a census on ongoing clinical trials specifically dedicated to disclosing the role of magnesium in COVID-19. RESULTS: Despite many methodological limitations, existing data seem to corroborate an association between deranged magnesium homeostasis and COVID-19, and call for further and better studies to explore the prophylactic or therapeutic potential of magnesium supplementation. CONCLUSION: We propose to reconsider the relevance of magnesium, frequently overlooked in clinical practice. Therefore, magnesemia should be monitored and, in case of imbalanced magnesium homeostasis, an appropriate nutritional regimen or supplementation might contribute to protect against SARS-CoV-2 infection, reduce severity of COVID-19 symptoms and facilitate the recovery after the acute phase.

3.
Ageing Res Rev ; 72: 101489, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466056

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been shown to have more severe health outcomes in older people specifically in relation to mortality and disability. Vaccination seems to be efficacious and safe for preventing the negative consequences of COVID-19, but vaccine hesitancy seems to be high in older adults. We therefore aimed to investigate the prevalence of unwillingness and the uncertainty to vaccinate against COVID-19 in older people and the factors that can be associated with the unwillingness to vaccinate. For this work, we searched several databases until 18th June 2021 for studies reporting the prevalence of unwillingness and the uncertainty to vaccinate against COVID-19 in people aged >60 years. A meta-analysis of the prevalence, with the correspondent 95% confidence intervals (CIs), was proposed. Factors that can be associated with the unwillingness to vaccinate against COVID-19 were explored through multivariable analyses and reported as odds ratios (ORs). Among 662 papers initially screened, we included 15 studies for a total of 9753 older adults. The prevalence of unwillingness to vaccinate against COVID-19 in older people was 27.03% (95%CI: 15.10-38.95%), whilst the correspondent figure of uncertainty was 19.33% (95%CI: 12.28-26.39). The risk of being unvaccinated was significantly higher in Hispanics (OR=1.197; 95%CI: 1.010-1.418) and in case of low education (OR=1.678; 95%CI: 1.170-2.408) and low income (OR=1.287; 95%CI: 1.127-1.469). In conclusion, the hesitancy for COVID-19 vaccination is a relevant problem in older people, particularly in those with a low income, a low level of education, and in Hispanics living in the United States.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Uncertainty , Vaccination
5.
Ageing Res Rev ; 69: 101373, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242880

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is relevant in older people. Attention was given to the nursing homes in which frailer people are usually admitted. In this review, we discuss the approaches for daily problems found in nursing home as geriatricians and potentially new research directions. We start with the problem of the older people affected by dementia and Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia for which also the execution of a simple diagnostic test (such as nasopharyngeal swab) could be problematic. Another important problem is the management of wandering patients for which the re-organization of the spaces and vaccination could be the solutions. The relationship with families is another important problem, also from a medico-legal point of view, that can be faced using video conferencing tools. Moreover, we discussed the importance of stratifying prognosis in older nursing home residents for the best management and therapeutically approach, including palliative care, also using telemedicine and the inclusion of prognostic tools in daily clinical practice. Finally, we approached the therapeutical issues in older people that suggests the necessity of future research for finding older-friendly medications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Aged , Dementia/therapy , Geriatricians , Humans , Nursing Homes , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Acta Neurol Belg ; 121(5): 1295-1303, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217494

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease-19) may present with neurological signs, but whether people already affected by neurological conditions are at a higher risk of contracting COVID-19 is still not known. We, therefore, aimed to investigate the association of previously diagnosed neurological conditions with COVID-19. 502,536 community-dwelling UK Biobank participants (54.4% male, mean age 56.6 ± 10.3 years) were included. Among these, 57,463 participants had a diagnosis of neurological conditions (11.43%) and a total of 1326 COVID-19-positive cases were identified (0.26%). Neurological conditions were identified through medical history and linkage to data on hospital admissions (ICD-10 code G00-G99). COVID-19 presence was diagnosed using the data provided by Public Health England. The association of previous diagnosis of neurological conditions with COVID-19 was evaluated through logistic regressions, adjusted for potential confounders, reported as odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Nerve, nerve root and plexus disorders (G50-G59) were the most common conditions identified. The presence of COVID-19 was almost doubled in neurological conditions compared to the general population (0.45 vs. 0.24%, p < 0.0001). Previously diagnosed neurological conditions were associated with 60% higher odds of COVID-19 positive in the multivariable-adjusted model (OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.4-1.8). Other degenerative diseases of the nervous system, extrapyramidal and movement disorders, polyneuropathies and other disorders of the peripheral nervous system, cerebral palsy and other paralytic syndromes were significantly associated with a higher odds of COVID-19. The presence of neurological conditions was associated with a significantly higher likelihood of COVID-19 compared to the general population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases , Adult , Aged , Biological Specimen Banks , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , United Kingdom/epidemiology
7.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2021 Jan 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067765

ABSTRACT

Reduced magnesium (Mg) intake is a frequent cause of deficiency with age together with reduced absorption, renal wasting, and polypharmacotherapy. Chronic Mg deficiency may result in increased oxidative stress and low-grade inflammation, which may be linked to several age-related diseases, including higher predisposition to infectious diseases. Mg might play a role in the immune response being a cofactor for immunoglobulin synthesis and other processes strictly associated with the function of T and B cells. Mg is necessary for the biosynthesis, transport, and activation of vitamin D, another key factor in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. The regulation of cytosolic free Mg in immune cells involves Mg transport systems, such as the melastatin-like transient receptor potential 7 channel, the solute carrier family, and the magnesium transporter 1 (MAGT1). The functional importance of Mg transport in immunity was unknown until the description of the primary immunodeficiency XMEN (X-linked immunodeficiency with Mg defect, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and neoplasia) due to a genetic deficiency of MAGT1 characterized by chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection. This and other research reporting associations of Mg deficit with viral and bacterial infections indicate a possible role of Mg deficit in the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its complications. In this review, we will discuss the importance of Mg for the immune system and for infectious diseases, including the recent pandemic of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Aging/physiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Communicable Diseases/metabolism , Magnesium Deficiency/complications , Magnesium/metabolism , Aged , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cation Transport Proteins/metabolism , Communicable Diseases/immunology , Communicable Diseases/microbiology , Communicable Diseases/virology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/metabolism , Female , Humans , Magnesium/immunology , Magnesium Deficiency/immunology , Magnesium Deficiency/metabolism , Male , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , X-Linked Combined Immunodeficiency Diseases/metabolism
8.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2021 Jan 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1016214

ABSTRACT

Reduced magnesium (Mg) intake is a frequent cause of deficiency with age together with reduced absorption, renal wasting, and polypharmacotherapy. Chronic Mg deficiency may result in increased oxidative stress and low-grade inflammation, which may be linked to several age-related diseases, including higher predisposition to infectious diseases. Mg might play a role in the immune response being a cofactor for immunoglobulin synthesis and other processes strictly associated with the function of T and B cells. Mg is necessary for the biosynthesis, transport, and activation of vitamin D, another key factor in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. The regulation of cytosolic free Mg in immune cells involves Mg transport systems, such as the melastatin-like transient receptor potential 7 channel, the solute carrier family, and the magnesium transporter 1 (MAGT1). The functional importance of Mg transport in immunity was unknown until the description of the primary immunodeficiency XMEN (X-linked immunodeficiency with Mg defect, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and neoplasia) due to a genetic deficiency of MAGT1 characterized by chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection. This and other research reporting associations of Mg deficit with viral and bacterial infections indicate a possible role of Mg deficit in the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its complications. In this review, we will discuss the importance of Mg for the immune system and for infectious diseases, including the recent pandemic of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Aging/physiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Communicable Diseases/metabolism , Magnesium Deficiency/complications , Magnesium/metabolism , Aged , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cation Transport Proteins/metabolism , Communicable Diseases/immunology , Communicable Diseases/microbiology , Communicable Diseases/virology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/metabolism , Female , Humans , Magnesium/immunology , Magnesium Deficiency/immunology , Magnesium Deficiency/metabolism , Male , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , X-Linked Combined Immunodeficiency Diseases/metabolism
9.
Int J Infect Dis ; 103: 599-606, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-970735

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) are anti-malarial drugs frequently used in the rheumatologic field. They were recently identified as potential therapeutic options for Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19). The present study aims to map and grade the diverse health outcomes associated with HCQ/CQ using an umbrella review approach. METHODS: Umbrella review of systematic reviews of observational and intervention studies. For observational studies, random-effects summary effect size, 95% confidence interval, and 95% prediction interval were estimated. We also assessed heterogeneity, evidence for small-study effect, and evidence for excess significance bias. The quality of evidence was then graded using validated criteria from highly convincing to weak. The evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was graded using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) tool. RESULTS: From 313 articles returned in the literature search, six meta-analyses were included (n = 25 outcomes). Among meta-analyses (MAs) of observational studies, HCQ/CQ are weakly associated with a reduced risk for cardiovascular events and diabetes when used for autoimmune diseases and with spontaneous abortion; they are also associated with a higher risk of death in COVID-19 patients. Among MAs of RCTs, HCQ/CQ are associated with an improvement of articular manifestations of rheumatic diseases. CONCLUSIONS: There is high evidence of the efficacy of HCQ/CQ in the rheumatologic field. The lack of evidence for efficacy and the risk of death associated with the use of HCQ/CQ for COVID-19 indicate the inappropriateness of their inclusion in recent COVID-19 therapy guidelines and the urgent need for RCTs to determine eventual appropriateness as a COVID-19 therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects
10.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 170, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-234146

ABSTRACT

The aim was to investigate the effectiveness of glucocorticoid therapy in patients with COVID-19. A systematic search of the literature across nine databases was conducted from inception until 15th March 2020, following the PRISMA guidelines. Patients with a validated diagnosis of COVID-19 and using corticosteroids were included, considering all health outcomes. Four studies with 542 Chinese participants were included. Two studies reported negative findings regarding the use of corticosteroids in patients with COVID-19, i.e., corticosteroids had a detrimental impact on clinical outcomes. One study reported no significant association between the use of corticosteroids and clinical outcomes. However, one study, on 201 participants with different stages of pneumonia due to COVID-19, found that in more severe forms, the administration of methylprednisolone significantly reduced the risk of death by 62%. The literature to date does not fully support the routine use of corticosteroids in COVID-19, but some findings suggest that methylprednisolone could lower mortality rate in more severe forms of the condition.

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