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Ann Dermatol Venereol ; 148(2): 94-100, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014323


BACKGROUND: A marked increase in frequency of acute acral eruptions (AAE) was observed in children during the COVID-19 pandemic in the spring period. OBJECTIVES: In this observational multicenter study, based on children with AAE, we aimed to assess the proportion of household members possibly infected by SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We collected data from all children observed with AAE, prospectively from April 7, 2020 to June 22, 2020, and retrospectively since February 28, 2020. The primary outcome was the household infection rate, defined as the proportion of family clusters having at least one member with COVID-19 infection other than the child with AAE ("index child"). The definition of a case was based on characteristic clinical signs and a positive PCR or serology. RESULTS: The study included 103 children in 10 French departments and in Quebec. The median age was 13 years and the interquartile range [8-15], with a female-to-male ratio of 1/1.15. In children with AAE, all PCR tests were negative (n=18), and serology was positive in 2/14 (14.3%) cases. We found no significant anomalies in the lab results. A total of 66 of the 103 families (64.1%) of included children had at least one other infected member apart from the index child. The total number of household members was 292, of whom 119 (40.8%) were considered possibly infected by SARS-CoV-2. No index children or households exhibited severe COVID-19. DISCUSSION: Among the 103 households included, 64.1% had at least one infected member. Neither children with AAE nor their households showed severe COVID-19.

COVID-19/complications , Family , Adolescent , Antibodies, Antinuclear/blood , COVID-19/transmission , Chilblains/pathology , Child , Erythema/pathology , Female , Hidradenitis/pathology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Lymphocytes/pathology , Male , Mucinoses/pathology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Skin/pathology , Vasculitis/pathology
Br J Dermatol ; 183(5): 866-874, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-900962


BACKGROUND: Acral lesions, mainly chilblains, are the most frequently reported cutaneous lesions associated with COVID-19. In more than 80% of patients tested, nasopharyngeal swabs were negative on reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for SARS-CoV-2 when performed, and serology was generally not performed. METHODS: A national survey was launched on 30 March 2020 by the French Society of Dermatology asking physicians to report cases of skin manifestations in patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 by using a standardized questionnaire. We report the results for acral manifestations. RESULTS: We collected 311 cases of acral manifestations [58.5% women, median age 25.7 years (range 18-39)]. The most frequent clinical presentation (65%) was typical chilblains. In total, 93 cases (30%) showed clinical suspicion of COVID-19, 67 (22%) had only less specific infectious symptoms and 151 (49%) had no clinical signs preceding or during the course of acral lesions. Histology of skin biopsies was consistent with chilblains. Overall, 12 patients showed significant immunological abnormalities. Of the 150 (48%) patients who were tested, 10 patients were positive. Seven of 121 (6%) RT-PCR-tested patients were positive for SARS-CoV-2, and five of 75 (7%) serology-tested patients had IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2. Tested/untested patients or those with/without confirmed COVID-19 did not differ in age, sex, history or acral lesion clinical characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this survey do not rule out that SARS-CoV-2 could be directly responsible for some cases of chilblains, but we found no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the large majority of patients with acral lesions during the COVID-19 lockdown period in France. What is already known about this topic? About 1000 cases of acral lesions, mainly chilblains, were reported during the COVID-19 outbreak. Chilblains were reported to occur in young people within 2 weeks of infectious signs, which were mild when present. Most cases did not have COVID-19 confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and few serology results were available. What does this study add? Among 311 patients with acral lesions, mainly chilblains, during the COVID-19 lockdown period in France, the majority of patients tested had no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Overall, 70 of 75 patients were seronegative for SARS-Cov-2 serology and 114 of 121 patients were negative for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR.

Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Chilblains/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Biopsy , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Chilblains/blood , Chilblains/immunology , Chilblains/pathology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests , Skin/pathology , Young Adult
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 34(12): e758-e760, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-618754