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2.
Non-conventional in English | [Unspecified Source], Grey literature | ID: grc-750490

ABSTRACT

Initially, the global outbreak of COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spared children from severe disease. However, after the initial wave of infections, clusters of a novel hyperinflammatory disease have been reported in regions with ongoing SARS-CoV-2 epidemics. While the characteristic clinical features are becoming clear, the pathophysiology remains unknown. Herein, we report on the immune profiles of eight Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) cases. We document that all MIS-C patients had evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 exposure, mounting an antibody response with normal isotype-switching and neutralization capability. We further profiled the secreted immune response by high-dimensional cytokine assays, which identified elevated signatures of inflammation (IL-18 and IL-6), lymphocytic and myeloid chemotaxis and activation (CCL3, CCL4, and CDCP1) and mucosal immune dysregulation (IL-17A, CCL20, CCL28). Mass cytometry immunophenotyping of peripheral blood revealed reductions of mDC1 and non-classical monocytes, as well as both NK- and T- lymphocytes, suggesting extravasation to affected tissues. Markers of activated myeloid function were also evident, including upregulation of ICAM1 and FcR1 in neutrophil and non-classical monocytes, well-documented markers in autoinflammation and autoimmunity that indicate enhanced antigen presentation and Fc-mediated responses. Finally, to assess the role for autoimmunity secondary to infection, we profiled the auto-antigen reactivity of MIS-C plasma, which revealed both known disease-associated autoantibodies (anti-La) and novel candidates that recognize endothelial, gastrointestinal and immune-cell antigens. All patients were treated with anti- IL6R antibody or IVIG, which led to rapid disease resolution tracking with normalization of inflammatory markers.

3.
Cell ; 183(4): 982-995.e14, 2020 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-756809

ABSTRACT

Initially, children were thought to be spared from disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, a month into the epidemic, a novel multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) emerged. Herein, we report on the immune profiles of nine MIS-C cases. All MIS-C patients had evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 exposure, mounting an antibody response with intact neutralization capability. Cytokine profiling identified elevated signatures of inflammation (IL-18 and IL-6), lymphocytic and myeloid chemotaxis and activation (CCL3, CCL4, and CDCP1), and mucosal immune dysregulation (IL-17A, CCL20, and CCL28). Immunophenotyping of peripheral blood revealed reductions of non-classical monocytes, and subsets of NK and T lymphocytes, suggesting extravasation to affected tissues. Finally, profiling the autoantigen reactivity of MIS-C plasma revealed both known disease-associated autoantibodies (anti-La) and novel candidates that recognize endothelial, gastrointestinal, and immune-cell antigens. All patients were treated with anti-IL-6R antibody and/or IVIG, which led to rapid disease resolution.


Subject(s)
Inflammation/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Autoantibodies/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Chemokine CCL3/metabolism , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Inflammation/metabolism , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Interleukin-18/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural/cytology , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/cytology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Young Adult
4.
medRxiv ; 2020 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-663795

ABSTRACT

Initially, the global outbreak of COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spared children from severe disease. However, after the initial wave of infections, clusters of a novel hyperinflammatory disease have been reported in regions with ongoing SARS-CoV-2 epidemics. While the characteristic clinical features are becoming clear, the pathophysiology remains unknown. Herein, we report on the immune profiles of eight Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) cases. We document that all MIS-C patients had evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 exposure, mounting an antibody response with normal isotype-switching and neutralization capability. We further profiled the secreted immune response by high-dimensional cytokine assays, which identified elevated signatures of inflammation (IL-18 and IL-6), lymphocytic and myeloid chemotaxis and activation (CCL3, CCL4, and CDCP1) and mucosal immune dysregulation (IL-17A, CCL20, CCL28). Mass cytometry immunophenotyping of peripheral blood revealed reductions of mDC1 and non-classical monocytes, as well as both NK- and T- lymphocytes, suggesting extravasation to affected tissues. Markers of activated myeloid function were also evident, including upregulation of ICAM1 and FcR1 in neutrophil and non-classical monocytes, well-documented markers in autoinflammation and autoimmunity that indicate enhanced antigen presentation and Fc-mediated responses. Finally, to assess the role for autoimmunity secondary to infection, we profiled the auto-antigen reactivity of MIS-C plasma, which revealed both known disease-associated autoantibodies (anti-La) and novel candidates that recognize endothelial, gastrointestinal and immune-cell antigens. All patients were treated with anti- IL6R antibody or IVIG, which led to rapid disease resolution tracking with normalization of inflammatory markers.

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