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1.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 78: 177-180, 2018.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30006209

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the present study was focused on the relationship between change in cognition and the functional outcome during rehabilitation in demented and non-demented adult hip fracture patients. We studied seventy consecutive adult patients with hip fracture admitted to our rehabilitation wards. Functional outcome was assessed by the Functional Independence Measure (FIM). The gain in cognition during the rehabilitation process was measured by the difference in Mini Mental State Examination scores at admission and discharge. Data was analyzed by t-test, chi square-test and linear regression. Patients without dementia presented and discharged from the rehabilitation ward with statistically significant higher total, motor, and gain functional independence measure scores compared to patients with dementia. In a multiple regression analyses, gain in Mini Mental State scores examination were not independently associated with higher total and motor functional independence measure scores at discharge (beta = 0.086, p = 0.194; beta = 0.077, p = 0.309, respectively). Our findings suggest that there is no association between functional outcome and cognitive gain at the end of the rehabilitation process among adult hip fracture patients with and without dementia. However hip fracture adult patients with dementia should not be deprived of a post-acute rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
Cognition , Dementia/psychology , Hip Fractures/psychology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hip Fractures/rehabilitation , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
2.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 129(4): 530-45, 2000 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11142867

ABSTRACT

The generally prescribed procedure for choosing a decision strategy from a decision tree employs a backward induction analysis that entails 3 fundamental consistency principles: dynamic, consequential, and strategic. The first requires the decision maker to follow through on plans to the end, the second requires the decision maker to focus solely on future events and final consequences given the current state of events, and the third is the conjunction of the first 2. Five experiments were reported to test these principles using different subject populations, different procedures for estimating consistency, and different factors for manipulating the attractiveness of the gamble at the final stage of the tree. The main findings were that strategic and dynamic consistency principles were violated at rates that exceeded choice inconsistency.


Subject(s)
Decision Trees , Mental Processes , Adolescent , Adult , Decision Making , Female , Humans , Male , Models, Psychological
3.
Exp Cell Res ; 259(1): 35-53, 2000 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10942577

ABSTRACT

The actin cytoskeleton has been found to be required for mitogen-stimulated cells to passage through the cell cycle checkpoint. Here we show that selective disruption of the actin cytoskeleton by dihydrocytochalasin B (H(2)CB) blocked the mitogenic effect in normal Swiss 3T3 cells, leading to cell cycle arrest at mid to late G(1) phase. Cells treated with H(2)CB remain tightly attached to the substratum and respond to mitogen-induced MAP kinase activation. Upon cytoskeleton disruption, however, growth factors fail to induce hyperphosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and the pRb-related p107. While cyclin D1 induction and cdk4-associated kinase activity are not affected, induction of cyclin E expression and activation of cyclin E-cdk2 complexes are greatly inhibited in growth-stimulated cells treated with H(2)CB. The inhibition of cyclin E expression appears to be mediated at least in part at the RNA level and the inhibition of cdk2 kinase activity is also attributed to the decrease in cdk2 phosphorylation and proper subcellular localization. The expression patterns of cdk inhibitors p21 and p27 are similar in both untreated and H(2)CB-treated cells upon serum stimulation. In addition, the changes in subcellular localization of pRb and p107 appear to be linked to their phosphorylation states and disruption of normal actin structure affects nuclear migration of p107 during G(1)-to-S progression. Taken together, our results suggest that the actin cytoskeleton-dependent G(1) arrest is linked to the cyclin-cdk pathway. We hypothesize that normal actin structure may be important for proper localization of certain G(1) regulators, consequently modulating specific cyclin and kinase expression.


Subject(s)
Actins/metabolism , CDC2-CDC28 Kinases , Cell Cycle Proteins , Cyclin E/genetics , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases/metabolism , Cytoskeleton/metabolism , Nuclear Proteins/metabolism , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins , Tumor Suppressor Proteins , 3T3 Cells , Animals , Blood Proteins/pharmacology , Blotting, Western , Cell Nucleus/chemistry , Cell Nucleus/enzymology , Cyclin D1/analysis , Cyclin D1/metabolism , Cyclin E/analysis , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases/analysis , Cyclins/metabolism , Cytochalasin B/analogs & derivatives , Cytochalasin B/pharmacology , Cytoplasm/chemistry , Cytoplasm/enzymology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , G1 Phase/drug effects , G1 Phase/physiology , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Mice , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/metabolism , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1/metabolism , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Mitogens/pharmacology , Phosphorylation , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/analysis , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Retinoblastoma Protein/metabolism , Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p107 , S Phase/drug effects , S Phase/physiology
4.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 6(4): 547-54, 1999 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10682196

ABSTRACT

This article presents a new test of a principle of decision making called dynamic consistency. This principle was tested in an experiment in which participants were asked to make decisions about a second gamble within a sequence of two gambles. Participants were first asked to make a planned choice about the second gamble. The planned choice was made before the first gamble was played and was conditioned on the anticipated outcomes of the first gamble. After the first gamble was played, the same participants were asked to make a final choice about the second gamble, conditioned on the experienced outcome of the first gamble. The results showed that participants' final choices were frequently inconsistent with their plans, even when the anticipated and experienced outcomes were identical. These inconsistencies occurred in a systematic direction. Experiencing an anticipated gain resulted with a change toward risk aversion, and experiencing an anticipated loss resulted in a change toward risk seeking. These results are explained in terms of the effect of actual experience on the reference point used for the evaluation of the decision problem.


Subject(s)
Choice Behavior , Decision Making , Gambling/psychology , Knowledge of Results, Psychological , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Risk-Taking
6.
Organ Behav Hum Decis Process ; 74(2): 118-44, 1998 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9705816

ABSTRACT

Heinrich's (1931) classical study implies that most industrial accidents can be characterized as a probabilistic result of human error. The present research quantifies Heinrich's observation and compares four descriptive models of decision making in the abstracted setting. The suggested quantification utilizes signal detection theory (Green & Swets, 1966). It shows that Heinrich's observation can be described as a probabilistic signal detection task. In a controlled experiment, 90 decision makers participated in 600 trials of six safety games. Each safety game was a numerical example of the probabilistic SDT abstraction of Heinrich's proposition. Three games were designed under a frame of gain to represent perception of safe choice as costless, while the other three were designed under a frame of loss to represent perception of safe choice as costly. Probabilistic penalty for Miss was given at three different levels (1, .5, .1). The results showed that decisions tended initially to be risky and that experience led to safer behavior. As the probability of being penalized was lowered decisions became riskier and the learning process was impaired. The results support the cutoff reinforcement learning model suggested by Erev et al. (1995). The hill-climbing learning model (Busemeyer & Myung, 1992) was partially supported. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

7.
Tsitologiia ; 40(2-3): 172-7, 1998.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9610482

ABSTRACT

It has been confirmed that the main actin-dependent period of G1 phase of the cell cycle is the middle of G1. As the critical points in G1 phase are associated with the synthesis of cycling D and E and with the formation of their active complexes with cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk's), a study of a possible influence of actin filaments on these processes was performed. The activity of G1 kinases was estimated by the degree of phosphorylation of their specific substrate-retinoblastoma protein (pRb). Immunoblot analysis with specific antibodies to pRb revealed hypophosphorylated from of Rb in lysates of resting Swiss 3T3 cells and the appearance of hyperphosphorylated form after 12 h of EGF and serum stimulation. In was shown that actin filaments distruction by H2CB led to a decrease in hyper phosphorylated form appearance, depending on the depth of resting state of the cells and efficiency of their stimulation by growth factors. Thus, these data may suggest the involvement of actin cytoskeleton in functioning of the transcription chain cyclin/Cdk-R1-E2F.


Subject(s)
Actins/ultrastructure , Cell Cycle/physiology , Cytoskeleton/ultrastructure , Retinoblastoma Protein/metabolism , 3T3 Cells , Animals , Cell Division/physiology , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases/metabolism , G1 Phase/physiology , Mice , Phosphorylation
8.
Tsitologiia ; 38(7): 733-41, 1996.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9005646

ABSTRACT

The influence of dihydrocylochalasin B (H2CB), which selectively disrupts the actin cytoskeleton structure, on G1 phase progression after stimulation of quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells by epidermal growth factor (EGF) was investigated. H2CB was added to the culture medium (10 mg/ml) for different periods of time after cell cycle induction by EGF (10 ng/ml). Efficiency of mitogenic stimulation was estimated by 14C-thymidine uptake 21-23 h after EGF addition. It is shown that the main actin-mediated step is in the middle of G1, from 8 to 12 h after stimulation. Disorganization of actin cytoskeleton structure only during this time led to complete and irreversible block of cell entry into the S phase. On the contrary, the same effect of H2CB during the early period of G1 (first 6 h) led to the increase in 14C-thymidine incorporation in DNA. The specificity of actin-dependent period was proven in experiments with another inhibitor of cell proliferation--dancylcadaverine, whose effect was revealed at the earlier time--4-6 h after cell stimulation. Inhibition of protein synthesis during actin-dependent period (8-12 h) led to the same block of cell progression through G1 as it was seen after actin structure disruption. These data suggest that actin-dependent block is associated with the appearance and functioning of such specific regulators of G1 as cyclins (D, E) and their complexes with Cdk's (G1 kinases) which phosphorylate Rb protein (p1 10) associated with transcription factors E2F.


Subject(s)
Actins/physiology , Cytoskeleton/physiology , G1 Phase/physiology , Mitosis/physiology , 3T3 Cells , Actins/drug effects , Animals , Cadaverine/analogs & derivatives , Cadaverine/pharmacology , Cell Division/drug effects , Cytochalasin B/analogs & derivatives , Cytochalasin B/pharmacology , Cytoskeleton/drug effects , DNA/biosynthesis , DNA/drug effects , Drug Interactions , Epidermal Growth Factor/pharmacology , G1 Phase/drug effects , Mice , Mitosis/drug effects , Time Factors
9.
Tsitologiia ; 35(4): 73-80, 1993.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8328027

ABSTRACT

The influence of cytochalasin B (CB) on the epidermal growth factor (EGF) intracellular degradation and release of low-molecular products of degradation into the culture medium were investigated using two cell lines, A431 and 3T3. Investigated parameters were registered 3.0-4.5 h after the beginning of 125I-EGF endocytosis at 37 degrees C. With A431 cells it was shown that actin cytoskeleton disorganization significantly reduced the rate of 125I-EGF final degradation: a high amount of 125I-EGF, still retained cell-associated, and a reduced amount of low-molecular degradation products were released into the medium in experiments with CB addition. That is in agreement with our previous results (Barkan et al., 1988), revealing a long-term accumulation of EGF-rhodamine fluorescence in a juxtanuclear area of A431 cells after CB treatment. Nevertheless when similar experiments were performed on Swiss 3T3 cells, previously used as a model for demonstrating the inhibitory effect of CB on DNA synthesis stimulation by EGF (Barkan, Nikol'skii, 1986), we could not find such a distinct influence of CB on the process of degradation of internalised 125I-EGF.


Subject(s)
Actins/metabolism , Cytoskeleton/metabolism , Epidermal Growth Factor/metabolism , 3T3 Cells/drug effects , 3T3 Cells/metabolism , Actins/drug effects , Animals , Cytochalasin B/pharmacology , Cytoskeleton/drug effects , Epidermal Growth Factor/analysis , Epidermal Growth Factor/drug effects , Humans , Iodine Radioisotopes , Mice , Molecular Weight , Time Factors , Tumor Cells, Cultured/drug effects , Tumor Cells, Cultured/metabolism
10.
Tsitologiia ; 34(10): 84-9, 1992.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-1293873

ABSTRACT

Mitogenic properties of the insulin derived from pig brain were compared with the action of pancreatic (standard) pig insulin and epidermal growth factor (EGF) using the culture of Swiss 3T3 cells. The brain insulin, likely as the pancreatic insulin, induced uptake of 14C-thymidine by resting cells in a dose-dependent manner at concentration of 0.5-2.0 micrograms/ml in culture medium. However, at equal concentrations of these hormones the proliferating effect of the brain insulin appeared to be 2-fold higher than the effect of the pancreatic hormone. At the same time the mitogenic action of both hormones was lower than that of EGF (10 ng/ml). The additive effect of the brain insulin and EGF, administered in combination, was more pronounced than the effect of the pancreatic insulin combined with EGF. The data obtained suggest a possible participation of brain insulin in the process of nerve cell proliferation.


Subject(s)
3T3 Cells/drug effects , Growth Substances/pharmacology , Insulin/pharmacology , 3T3 Cells/cytology , Animals , Brain Chemistry , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Synergism , Epidermal Growth Factor/pharmacology , Growth Substances/isolation & purification , Insulin/isolation & purification , Mice , Pancreas , Stimulation, Chemical , Swine
11.
Biokhimiia ; 56(4): 718-26, 1991 Apr.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-1912075

ABSTRACT

An insulin-like substance (ILS) was isolated from the visceral organs of the bivalve mollusc Anodonta cygnea by chromatography on a sulfocationite CU-23 and purified by reverse phase liquid chromatography. ILS was shown to be made up to several fractions with Mr ranging from 9 to 20 kDa which have identical amino acid composition but different hydrophobicity and N-terminal amino acids. It was supposed that the heterogeneity of ILS fractions is due to its genetical or posttranslational polymorphism. ILS has a low (0.02%) affinity for the mammalian insulin receptor and a low immune affinity for mammalian insulin and possesses a mitogenic activity which is commensurate with that of the epidermal growth factor. The data obtained suggest that Anodonta cygnea ILS represents a separate branch of a relatively ancient family of insulin-like hormones and growth factors responsible for metabolism and proliferation of invertebrate tissues.


Subject(s)
Insulin/analogs & derivatives , Mollusca/metabolism , Amino Acids/analysis , Animals , Blotting, Western , Cell Line , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Thin Layer , DNA/biosynthesis , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Insulin/metabolism , Mice , Rats
12.
Tsitologiia ; 32(5): 524-7, 1990.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2275023

ABSTRACT

Nonhistone chromosomal proteins (NHC), isolated from the kidney and liver of intact rats, the liver of rats treated with hepatocarcinogen DEN and the rat hepatoma, stimulate DNA synthesis in Swiss 3T3 cells in resting culture. The maximum stimulating effect was obtained in the presence of narrow NHC fractions eluted with 0.4-0.5 M NaCl from the phosphocellulose column and identified as hetero-organic NHC protein antigens of the kidney origin associated with hepatocellular tumors.


Subject(s)
Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone/pharmacology , DNA/drug effects , Animals , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured/drug effects , Cells, Cultured/metabolism , Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone/isolation & purification , DNA/biosynthesis , Diethylnitrosamine , Kidney , Liver , Liver Neoplasms, Experimental/chemically induced , Liver Neoplasms, Experimental/metabolism , Male , Mice , Neoplasm Proteins/isolation & purification , Neoplasm Proteins/pharmacology , Rats , Stimulation, Chemical
13.
Tsitologiia ; 30(11): 1311-7, 1988 Nov.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-3266692

ABSTRACT

Endocytosis of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) was investigated in three cell lines--A431, 3T6 and Swiss 3T3--after their incubation with cytochalasin B (CB). CB was introduced into culture medium (10 mkg/ml) 1.5-2 hours before addition of 125I-EGF (20-40 ng/ml). The label uptake rate was measured after a 35-40 minutes incubation of cells with 125I-EGF. It appeared that disorganization of microfilamentous network caused by CB exerted no influence on the binding of EGF to the surface membrane receptors and its internalization. Nevertheless, the experiments performed on A431 cells using a fluorescent label--rhodamine--bound to EGF (EGF-R) indicate that CB, though not influencing the initial steps of endocytosis, inhibits the next step--the intracellular transport of EGF-receptor complexes from the trans-Golgi region to lysosomes. As was shown elsewhere (Barkan, Nikol'sky, 1986), CB inhibits the mitogenic effect of EGF on resting Swiss 3T3 cells. So, the process of EGF-receptor uptake and delivery to the trans-Golgi region is evidently not enough to stimulate the cell proliferation; next steps of transport and degradation of ligand-receptor complexes are presumably needed.


Subject(s)
Actins , Cytochalasin B/pharmacology , Cytoskeleton/drug effects , Endocytosis/drug effects , Epidermal Growth Factor/metabolism , Animals , ErbB Receptors/drug effects , Humans , Mice , Tumor Cells, Cultured/drug effects
15.
Tsitologiia ; 28(12): 1356-61, 1986 Dec.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-3547959

ABSTRACT

Cells freshly seeded into the closed culture flasks or dishes and placed on the metal tray with holes of the thermostat or incubator are seen to form the layer with uneven density: with high density corresponding to the flask bottom regions above the metal and low density corresponding to the flask bottom region above the holes in the tray. The effect was shown using several cell lines with different degrees of transformation and saturation density, including Swiss 3T3. The main cause of this effect is the difference between the temperature inside the thermostat and the lower temperature of the flasks with culture medium (rather than between the metal framework and the air), together with a high heat conduction of the metal. The reverse difference in the temperatures (higher temperature of the culture flasks) leads to the formation of the reverse pattern of the cell layer, with higher density corresponding to the holes. The temperature differences exert their influence presumably during the first 10-15 minutes after the cells seeding, when the process of cell sedimentation is involved possibly by creating the microcurrents in the medium.


Subject(s)
Cytological Techniques/instrumentation , Animals , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured/cytology , Electromagnetic Phenomena , Mice , Temperature
16.
Tsitologiia ; 28(11): 1227-33, 1986 Nov.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-3551265

ABSTRACT

The addition of a microfilament-disorganizing agent--dihydrocytochalasin B B (5-10 micrograms/ml)--to to quiescent confluent or sparse (in 0.5% serum) Swiss 3T3 cells, 1-2 hours prior to stimulation, inhibited the initiation of DNA synthesis induced by an epidermal growth factor (7.5-10 ng/ml) and insulin (0.5-1.0 micrograms/ml), but exerted a low effect on serum stimulation. DNA synthesis was measured 21-23 hours after the growth factor administration by 14C-thymidine incorporation in acid-insoluble material and the ratio of this fraction to exogenous thymidine uptake. Moreover, the polar solvent dimethylsulfoxide, present in culture medium at low concentration (0.1-0.5%), also caused a decrease in the basal level of 14C-thymidine incorporation in resting cells, and a less decrease in the induced incorporation.


Subject(s)
Cytochalasin B/analogs & derivatives , DNA/drug effects , Epidermal Growth Factor/pharmacology , Immune Sera/pharmacology , Insulin/pharmacology , Animals , Cell Division/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Cytochalasin B/pharmacology , DNA/biosynthesis , Dimethyl Sulfoxide/pharmacology , Drug Interactions , Mice , Time Factors
17.
Tsitologiia ; 27(4): 451-7, 1985 Apr.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-4002341

ABSTRACT

Several amines were shown to inhibit growth stimulation in quiescent confluent and sparse cultures of Swiss 3T3 and 3T6 cells by changing for a fresh medium containing 10-20% serum. Proliferation was inhibited by dansylcadaverine (0.1 mM), chloroquine (0.05 mM), 5-methoxytryptamine (0.1 mM), cystamine (0.1 mM), dimethylurea (100 mM), methylurea (100 mM), and in some experiments--by urea (100 mM). The inhibitory activity was not associated with a direct influence of amines on DNA synthesis or thymidine phosphorylation. The findings suggest that amines may influence the process of clustering of growth factor-receptor complexes, or the fusion of plasma membrane and intracellular vesicles containing some components required for cell proliferation.


Subject(s)
Amines/pharmacology , DNA/antagonists & inhibitors , Immune Sera/pharmacology , Muscles/drug effects , Animals , Cattle , Cell Division/drug effects , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Mice , Muscles/cytology , Muscles/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Thymidine/metabolism
18.
Tsitologiia ; 27(1): 5-27, 1985 Jan.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-3885522

ABSTRACT

The present review gives a detailed description of mouse cell lines 3T3 (Swiss 3T3, Balb/c 3T3, and NIH 3T3) including their establishment, evolution, growth properties and formation of the specific monolayer with low saturation density. Questionable views of the 3T3 cell origin are discussed. The main features of these continuous cell lines are shown, such as a high requirement for serum growth factors, substrate dependence, inhibition of cell division in dense monolayer and absence of oncogenic potentions, which are similar to those of normal diploid cells, thus making these pseudonormal lines useful in studies of cell proliferation and oncogenesis. Different methods for obtaining quiescent 3T3 cells are observed, and, more in detail, the achievement of the resting state in confluent monolayer and at low serum concentration in sparce culture. The data reporting the efficiency of growth stimulation using serum, purified growth factors and hormones are analysed. Special attention is paid to the susceptibility of 3T3 lines to culture conditions, and to dependence of experimental data obtained upon keeping stability of these conditions.


Subject(s)
Cell Biology , Animals , Cell Count , Cell Cycle , Cell Division , Cell Line , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/pathology , Cell Transformation, Viral , Cytological Techniques , Interphase , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred Strains
19.
Tsitologiia ; 26(10): 1161-7, 1984 Oct.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-6515717

ABSTRACT

A possibility of using Swiss 3T3 cells, adapted to the growth in the Eagle basal medium and bovine serum, in studies of cell proliferation and quiescent state was shown on the basis of their growth characteristics. Proliferative activity of cultures was estimated by measuring the intensity of DNA synthesis (incorporation of labeled thymidine and flow cytofluorometric analysis), mitotic index and cell number counts. Growth rate and saturation density of the culture were analyzed depending on serum concentration, substrate quality and medium changes both in growth and quiescent states. In spite of repeated medium changes such adapted cells had saturation density within 4.10(4)--7.10(4) cells/cm2, standard for this line. Besides, a distinct inhibition of cell proliferation at confluence or after incubation with low serum (0.5%) and a possibility of the following stimulation of cell divisions by adding a fresh medium containing different concentrations of serum were demonstrated. The increased rate of adipose conversion was detected in resting confluent 3T3 cells cultivated in closed vessels, as compared to cells growing in tissue culture dishes in the CO2 incubator.


Subject(s)
Cells, Cultured/cytology , Animals , Cell Count , Cell Division , Cell Line , Culture Media/pharmacology , DNA/biosynthesis , Mice , Mice, Inbred Strains , Mitosis , Time Factors
20.
Tsitologiia ; 26(5): 622-5, 1984 May.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-6382729

ABSTRACT

A simple and quick method is proposed for measuring the mitotic activity in monolayer cell cultures. The method is based on counts of mitotic figures in several microscopic fields without fixing and staining the cells. The counting procedure takes little time, and culture dishes (or flasks) may be then used for other experiments. The proliferation activity of Swiss 3T3 cells was estimated by this technique and compared with the results provided by the flow cytofluorimetric analysis.


Subject(s)
Cell Division , Animals , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Cytological Techniques , Flow Cytometry , Mitosis
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