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Transplantation ; 105(9): 2072-2079, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254952

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impacts of COVID-19 on lung allograft function, rejection, secondary infection, and clinical outcomes in lung transplant recipients (LTRs) remain unknown. METHODS: A 1:2 matched case-control study was performed to evaluate rehospitalization, lung allograft function, and secondary infections up to 90 d after COVID-19 diagnosis (or index dates for controls). RESULTS: Twenty-four LTRs with COVID-19 (cases) and 48 controls were identified. Cases and controls had similar baseline characteristics and lung allograft function. LTRs with COVID-19 had higher incidence of secondary bacterial infection (29.2% versus 6.3%, P = 0.008), readmission (29.2% versus 10.4%, P = 0.04), and for-cause bronchoscopy (33.3% versus 12.5%, P = 0.04) compared with controls. At d 90, mortality in cases versus controls was 8.3% versus 2.1% (P = 0.21), incidence of invasive fungal infections in cases versus controls was 20.8% versus 8.3% (P = 0.13) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) decline ≥10% from baseline occurred in 19% of cases versus 12.2% of controls (P = 0.46). No acute cellular rejection, acute antibody-mediated rejection, or new donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies were observed among cases or controls within 90 d post index date. CONCLUSIONS: We found LTRs with COVID-19 were at risk to develop secondary infections and rehospitalization post COVID-19, compared with controls. While we did not observe post viral acute cellular rejection or antibody-mediated rejection, further studies are needed to understand if LTRs with COVID-19 who did not recover baseline lung function within 90 d have developed chronic lung allograft dysfunction stage progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Graft Rejection/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/surgery , Transplant Recipients , Adult , Aged , Allografts , Comorbidity , DNA, Viral/analysis , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Transplantation , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United States/epidemiology
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