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1.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 60, 2022 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741949

ABSTRACT

Obesity is highly prevalent in hospitalized patients admitted with COVID-19. Evidence based guidelines are available for COVID-19-related therapies but dosing information specific to patients with obesity is lacking. Failure to account for the pharmacokinetic alterations that exist in this population can lead to underdosing, and treatment failure, or overdosing, resulting in an adverse effect. The objective of this manuscript is to provide clinicians with guidance for making dosing decisions for medications used in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. A detailed literature search was conducted for medications listed in evidence-based guidelines from the National Institutes of Health with an emphasis on pharmacokinetics, dosing and obesity. Retrieved manuscripts were evaluated and the following prioritization strategy was used to form the decision framework for recommendations: clinical outcome data > pharmacokinetic studies > adverse effects > physicochemical properties. Most randomized controlled studies included a substantial number of patients who were obese but few had large numbers of patients more extreme forms of obesity. Pharmacokinetic data have described alterations with volume of distribution and clearance but this variability does not appear to warrant dosing modifications. Future studies should provide more information on size descriptors and stratification of data according to obesity and body habitus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Decision Making , Humans , Obesity/complications , Obesity/drug therapy , United States
2.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 79(15): 1236-1244, 2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692258

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To discuss the potential implications of obesity for drug administration and absorption from subcutaneous (SC) and intramuscular (IM) injection sites. SUMMARY: The SC and IM routes are useful for the parenteral administration of medications to optimize pharmacokinetic properties such as time to onset and duration of effect, for cost considerations, or for ease of administration, such as when intravenous access is unavailable. The choice of SC or IM injection depends on the specific medication, with SC administration preferred for products such as insulin where a slower and more sustained response is desirable, while IM administration is usually preferred for products such as vaccines where more rapid absorption leads to a more rapid antibody response. Obesity has the potential to influence the rate and extent of absorption, as well as adverse effects, of medications administered by the SC or IM route through changes in SC tissue composition and depth or by inadvertent administration of IM medications into SC tissue because of improper needle length. Potential adverse effects associated with IM or SC injections in addition to pain, bruising, and hematoma formation include sciatic nerve injury, particularly with IM injection in the upper outer quadrant of the buttock; bone contusion or rarely osteonecrosis if the IM injection is excessively deep; and granulomas, fat necrosis, and calcification with SC injection. CONCLUSION: Issues related to medication absorption in obese patients are likely to become more prominent in the future with increasing approvals of a wide range of biotherapeutic agents administered by SC injection. Studies should be directed toward these and other agents to assist with dosing decisions in this challenging population.


Subject(s)
Insulin , Subcutaneous Tissue , Humans , Injections, Intramuscular/adverse effects , Injections, Subcutaneous , Obesity
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