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Perfusion ; : 2676591221118321, 2022 Aug 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978679


Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is used in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with acute respiratory distress syndrome unresponsive to other interventions. However, a COVID-19 infection may result in a differential tolerance to both medical treatment and ECMO management. The aim of this study was to compare outcomes (mortality, organ failure, circuit complications) in patients on ECMO with and without COVID-19 infection, either by venovenous (VV) or venoarterial (VA) cannulation. This is a multicenter, retrospective analysis of a national database of patients placed on ECMO between May 2020 and January 2022 within the United States. Nine-hundred thirty patients were classified as either Pulmonary (PULM, n = 206), Cardiac (CARD, n = 279) or COVID-19 (COVID, n = 445). Patients were younger in COVID groups: PULM = 48.4 ± 15.8 years versus COVID = 44.9 ± 12.3 years, p = 0.006, and CARD = 57.9 ± 15.4 versus COVID = 46.5 ± 11.8 years, p < 0.001. Total hours on ECMO were greatest for COVID patients with a median support time two-times higher for VV support (365 [101, 657] hours vs 183 [63, 361], p < 0.001), and three times longer for VA support (212 [99, 566] hours vs 70 [17, 159], p < 0.001). Mortality was highest for COVID patients for both cannulation types (VA-70% vs 51% in CARD, p = 0.041, and VV-59% vs PULM-42%, p < 0.001). For VA supported patients hepatic failure was more often seen with COVID patients, while for VV support renal failure was higher. Circuit complications were more frequent in the COVID group as compared to both CARD and PULM with significantly higher circuit change-outs, circuit thromboses and oxygenator failures. Anticoagulation with direct thrombin inhibitors was used more often in COVID compared to both CARD (31% vs 10%, p = 0.002) and PULM (43% vs 15%, p < 0.001) groups. This multicenter observational study has shown that COVID patients on ECMO had higher support times, greater hospital mortality and higher circuit complications, when compared to patients managed for either cardiac or pulmonary lesions.

Perfusion ; 37(4): 350-358, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820033


The outbreak of the novel coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) has resulted in dramatic changes to the conduct of surgery both from a patient management perspective and in protecting healthcare providers. The current study reports on the status of COVID-19 infections in patients presenting for cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on circuit complications. A tracking process for monitoring the presence of COVID-19 in adult cardiac surgery patients was integrated into a case documentation system across United States hospitals where out-sourced perfusion services were provided. Assessment included infection status, testing technique employed, surgery status and CPB complications. Records from 5612 adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery between November 1, 2020 and January 18, 2021 from 176 hospitals were reviewed. A sub-cohort of coronary artery bypass graft patients (3283) was compared using a mixed effect binary logistic regression analysis. 4297 patients had negative test results (76.6%) while 49 (0.9%) tested positive for COVID-19, and unknown or no results were reported in 693 (12.4%) and 573 (10.2%) respectively. Coagulation complications were reported at 0.2% in the negative test results group versus 4.1% in the positive test result group (p < 0.001). Oxygenator gas exchange complications were 0.2% in the negative test results group versus 2.0% in the positive test results group (p = 0.088). Coronary artery bypass graft patients with a positive test had significantly higher risk for any CPB complication (p = 0.003) [OR 10.38, CI 2.18-49.53] then negative test patients [OR 0.01, CI 0.00-0.20]. The present study has shown that patients undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB who test positive for COVID-19 have higher CPB complication rate than those who test negative.

COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/adverse effects , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Humans , Postoperative Complications/etiology