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1.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 34(6): 1189-1202, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581435

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Primary care is crucial to the health of individuals and communities, but it faces numerous structural and systemic challenges. Our study assessed the state of primary care in Virginia to prepare for Medicaid expansion. It also provides insight into the frontline of health care prior to an unprecedented global COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We surveyed 1622 primary care practices to understand organizational characteristics, scope of care, capacity, and organizational stress. RESULTS: Practices (484) varied in type, ownership, location, and care for medically underserved and diverse patient populations. Most practices accepted uninsured and Medicaid patients. Practices reported a broad scope of care, including offering behavioral health and medication-assisted therapy for opioid addiction. Over half addressed social needs like transportation and unstable housing. One in three practices experienced a significant stress in 2019, prepandemic, and only 18.8% of practices anticipated a stress in 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Primary care serves as the foundation of our health care system and is an essential service, but it is severely stressed, under-resourced, and overburdened in the best of times. Primary care needs strategic workforce planning, adequate access to resources, and financial investment to sustain its value and innovation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Medicaid , Primary Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Virginia
2.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 137: 105656, 2021 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586777

ABSTRACT

The current study assessed the associations between pandemic-related stressors and physiological stress, as indexed by hair cortisol concentration (HCC), for mothers and their children (N = 180) aged 5-14-years old (M = 8.91). The associations between maternal HCC and children's HCC and children's behavioral adjustment were also examined. Mothers reported on COVID-19-related behaviors and children's adjustment, and both mother and child participants collected and mailed hair samples between August and November of 2020. Results indicated that higher maternal HCC was correlated with living in a more urban environment, job loss, working from home, exposure to pandemic-related news, and social isolation. Child HCC was correlated with family job loss and social isolation. Mother HCC and child HCC were significantly associated, and this association was moderated by child age; younger children's HCC was more strongly associated with mothers' HCC than older children's HCC. Finally, maternal HCC was associated with greater child internalizing symptoms, but was not associated with children's externalizing symptoms. Child HCC was not associated with child behavior.

3.
Physiol Rep ; 9(20): e15075, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485552

ABSTRACT

Exercise has substantial health benefits, but the effects of exercise on immune status and susceptibility to respiratory infections are less clear. Furthermore, there is limited research examining the effects of prolonged exercise on local respiratory immunity and antiviral activity. To assess the upper respiratory tract in response to exercise, we collected nasal lavage fluid (NALF) from human subjects (1) at rest, (2) after 45 min of moderate-intensity exercise, and (3) after 180 min of moderate-intensity exercise. To assess immune responses of the lower respiratory tract, we utilized a murine model to examine the effect of exercise duration on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid immune cell content and lung gene expression. NALF cell counts did not change after 45 min of exercise, whereas 180 min significantly increased total cells and leukocytes in NALF. Importantly, fold change in NALF leukocytes correlated with the post-exercise fatigue rating in the 180-min exercise condition. The acellular portion of NALF contained strong antiviral activity against Influenza A in both resting and exercise paradigms. In mice undergoing moderate-intensity exercise, BAL total cells and neutrophils decreased in response to 45 or 90 min of exercise. In lung lobes, increased expression of heat shock proteins suggested that cellular stress occurred in response to exercise. However, a broad upregulation of inflammatory genes was not observed, even at 180 min of exercise. This work demonstrates that exercise duration differentially alters the cellularity of respiratory tract fluids, antiviral activity, and gene expression. These changes in local mucosal immunity may influence resistance to respiratory viruses, including influenza or possibly other pathogens in which nasal mucosa plays a protective role, such as rhinovirus or SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Exercise/physiology , Influenza A virus/immunology , Leukocytes/immunology , Lung/immunology , Nasal Lavage Fluid/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , Female , Gene Expression , Humans , Leukocytes/metabolism , Lung/cytology , Lung/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Nasal Lavage/methods , Nasal Lavage Fluid/cytology , Nasal Mucosa/cytology , Nasal Mucosa/immunology , Nasal Mucosa/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Time Factors , Young Adult
4.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 23(9): 1617-1622, 2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158011

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a public health crisis, but its effects on tobacco users remain ill-defined. This report aimed to assess the relationship between tobacco product-specific risk perceptions for COVID-19 and changes in tobacco use since the start of the pandemic. METHODS: A sample (n = 776) of past-30 day exclusive smokers (n = 238), exclusive e-cigarette users (n = 143), and dual users (n = 395) residing in the US and aged 18 or older were collected using Mechanical Turk from April 27 to June 8, 2020. Adjusted associations between tobacco product-specific COVID-19 risk perceptions (ie risk that smokers/vapers are at for COVID-19 relative to non-smokers/non-vapers) and changes in tobacco use since the pandemic began were assessed using partial proportional odds models. RESULTS: A majority of those who used cigarettes (63.7%) and e-cigarettes (56.1%) felt that the risk of COVID-19 was greater for users of their tobacco product than for non-users. Twenty-four percent of smokers had increased their cigarette use since the start of the pandemic and 28.0% had decreased. Similarly, 27.3% of e-cigarette users had increased their e-cigarette use since the start of the pandemic and 23.8% had decreased. Higher risk perceptions for COVID-19 were associated with reductions in tobacco use since the pandemic began for exclusive e-cigarette users and dual users. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide the support that tobacco product-specific COVID-19 risk perceptions may be an important correlate of changes in tobacco use during the pandemic. Targeted information to inform tobacco users regarding their risks for COVID-19 is needed during this public health crisis. IMPLICATIONS: Few published studies have investigated the relationship between tobacco product-specific risk perceptions for COVID-19 and changes in tobacco product use since the pandemic began. This study enhances the current literature by providing evidence that higher tobacco product-specific risk perceptions for COVID-19 are associated with reductions in tobacco use since the pandemic began for exclusive e-cigarette users and dual users of cigarettes and e-cigarettes. Additionally, daily tobacco users may be more likely to have increased their tobacco use than non-daily users. These findings emphasize the importance of disseminating targeted health information to tobacco users regarding COVID-19 risks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Tobacco Products , Vaping , Humans , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Smokers , Tobacco Use , Vaping/adverse effects
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