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1.
J Arthroplasty ; 37(7S): S408-S412, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763578

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Shifts in demand, capacity, and site of service have impacted total hip arthroplasty (THA) volumes and revenues over the 2019-2021 time period. Moving THA off the inpatient-only (IPO) list and the COVID-19 pandemic has caused a shift in delivery away from inpatient services and a decrease in demand. METHODS: Medicare claims data were surveyed for the latest period available (April 1, 2020 to September 2020) and compared with a similar period in 2019 prior to THA removal from the IPO list and before the COVID-19 pandemic. Length of stay (LOS), admission status, site of service, discharge status, cost to CMS (Centers of Medicaid and Medicare Services), and racial disparities were analyzed. RESULTS: From 2019 to 2020, changes in primary THA metrics occurred (overall change in total joint arthroplasty [THA plus total knee arthroplasty metrics]): CMS THA volume decreased from 78,691 to 65,360, -16% (-22%); THA performed as an outpatient increased from 0% to 51% (141%); THA performed as same-day discharge increased from 3% to 12%, 325% (221%); overall LOS decreased from 1.91 to 1.46, -23% (-11%); inpatient LOS increased from 1.92 to 2.05, 7% (16%); outpatient LOS increased from 0.92 to 0.93, 1% (-12%); discharge home increased from 82% to 91%, 12.8% (11%); and CMS spending decreased from $1,033 million to $751 million, -27% (-27%). CONCLUSION: Medicare payments, LOS, discharge to facilities, and volume declined from 2019 to 2020 and were accelerated by IPO list changes and COVID-19 issues. Same-day discharge and hospital outpatient department cases also increased. THA metrics were not affected by race.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , COVID-19 , Aged , Benchmarking , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Length of Stay , Medicaid , Medicare , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Patient Readmission , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
2.
J Arthroplasty ; 37(7): 1227-1232, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729546

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elective arthroplasty surgery in the United States came to a near-complete halt in the spring of 2019 as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Racial disparity has been a long-term concern in healthcare with increased focus during the pandemic. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of COVID-19 and race on arthroplasty utilization trends during the pandemic. METHODS: We used 2019 and 2020 Center for Medicare and Medicaid Service fee-for-service claims data to compare arthroplasty volumes prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic. We compared overall arthroplasty utilization rates between 2019 and 2020 and then sought to determine the effect of race and COVID-19, both independently and combined. RESULTS: There was a decrease in primary total knee arthroplasty (-28%), primary total hip arthroplasty (-14%), primary total hip arthroplasty for fracture (-2%), and revision arthroplasty (-14%) utilization between 2019 and 2020. The highest decrease in overall arthroplasty utilization was in the Hispanic population (34% decrease vs 19% decrease in the White population). We found that a non-White patient was 39.9% (P < .001) less likely to receive a total joint arthroplasty prior to COVID-19. The COVID-19 pandemic further exacerbated the pre-existing racial differences in arthroplasty utilization by decreasing the probability of receiving a total joint arthroplasty for non-White patient by another 12.9% (P < .001). CONCLUSION: We found an overall decreased utilization rate of arthroplasty during the COVID-19 pandemic with further decrease noted in all non-White populations. This raises significant concern for worsening racial disparity in arthroplasty caused by the ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Medicare , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology
3.
JAMA health forum ; 2(12), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1679176

ABSTRACT

Key Points Question How did hospitalizations and racial and ethnic disparities in hospitalization outcomes change during the COVID-19 pandemic among patients with traditional Medicare? Findings In this cohort study using 100% traditional Medicare inpatient data, comprising 31 771 054 beneficiaries and 14 021 285 hospitalizations from January 2019 through February 2021, the decline in non–COVID-19 and emergence of COVID-19 hospitalizations during the pandemic was qualitatively similar among beneficiaries of different racial and ethnic minority groups. In-hospital mortality for patients with COVID-19 was higher in racial and ethnic minority groups than in White patients, driven by a Hispanic-White gap;mortality among non–COVID-19 hospitalizations also differentially increased among patients in racial and ethnic minority groups relative to White patients, driven by an increased Black-White gap. Meaning Racial and ethnic disparities in mortality were evident among COVID-19 hospitalizations and widened among non–COVID-19 hospitalizations among Medicare beneficiaries, motivating greater attention to health equity. This cohort study examines hospitalizations and differential changes in mortality and related outcomes by race and ethnicity among Medicare beneficiaries during the COVID-19 pandemic. Importance The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately affected racial and ethnic minority populations. However, racial and ethnic disparities in hospitalization outcomes during the pandemic—for both COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 hospitalizations—are poorly understood, especially among older populations. Objective To assess racial and ethnic differences in hospitalization outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic among Medicare beneficiaries. Design, Setting, and Participants In the 100% traditional Medicare inpatient data, there were 31 771 054 unique beneficiaries in cross-section just before the pandemic (February 2020), among whom 26 225 623 were non-Hispanic White, 2 797 462 were Black, 692 994 were Hispanic, and 2 054 975 belonged to other racial and ethnic minority groups. There were 14 021 285 hospitalizations from January 2019 through February 2021, of which 11 353 581 were among non-Hispanic White beneficiaries, 1 656 856 among Black beneficiaries, 321 090 among Hispanic beneficiaries, and 689 758 among beneficiaries of other racial and ethnic minority groups. Sensitivity analyses tested expanded definitions of mortality and alternative model specifications. Exposures Race and ethnicity in Medicare claims from the Social Security Administration. Main Outcomes and Measures In-hospital mortality and mortality inclusive of discharges to hospice, deaths during 30-day readmissions, and 30-day all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes included discharges to hospice and discharges to postacute care. Results The decline in non–COVID-19 and emergence of COVID-19 hospitalizations were qualitatively similar among beneficiaries of different racial and ethnic minority groups through February 2021. In-hospital COVID-19 mortality was not significantly different among Black patients relative to White patients, but was 3.5 percentage points higher among Hispanic patients (95% CI, 2.9-4.1;P < .001) and other racial and ethnic minority patients relative to White counterparts (95% CI, 3.0-4.1;P < .001). For non–COVID-19 hospitalizations, in-hospital mortality among Black patients increased by 0.5 percentage points more than it increased among White patients (95% CI, 0.3-0.6;P < .001), a 17.5% differential increase relative to the prepandemic baseline. This gap was robust to expanded definitions of mortality. Hispanic patients had similar differential increases in expanded definitions of mortality and model specification. Disparities in discharges to hospice and postacute care were evident. In aggregate across COVID-19 and non–COVID-19 hospitalizations, mortality differentially increased among raci l and ethnic minority populations during the pandemic. Conclusions and Relevance In this cohort study, racial and ethnic disparities in mortality were evident among COVID-19 hospitalizations and widened among non–COVID-19 hospitalizations, motivating greater attention to health equity.

4.
JAMA Health Forum ; 2(12): e214223, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599652

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately affected racial and ethnic minority populations. However, racial and ethnic disparities in hospitalization outcomes during the pandemic-for both COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 hospitalizations-are poorly understood, especially among older populations. Objective: To assess racial and ethnic differences in hospitalization outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic among Medicare beneficiaries. Design Setting and Participants: In the 100% traditional Medicare inpatient data, there were 31 771 054 unique beneficiaries in cross-section just before the pandemic (February 2020), among whom 26 225 623 were non-Hispanic White, 2 797 462 were Black, 692 994 were Hispanic, and 2 054 975 belonged to other racial and ethnic minority groups. There were 14 021 285 hospitalizations from January 2019 through February 2021, of which 11 353 581 were among non-Hispanic White beneficiaries, 1 656 856 among Black beneficiaries, 321 090 among Hispanic beneficiaries, and 689 758 among beneficiaries of other racial and ethnic minority groups. Sensitivity analyses tested expanded definitions of mortality and alternative model specifications. Exposures: Race and ethnicity in Medicare claims from the Social Security Administration. Main Outcomes and Measures: In-hospital mortality and mortality inclusive of discharges to hospice, deaths during 30-day readmissions, and 30-day all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes included discharges to hospice and discharges to postacute care. Results: The decline in non-COVID-19 and emergence of COVID-19 hospitalizations were qualitatively similar among beneficiaries of different racial and ethnic minority groups through February 2021. In-hospital COVID-19 mortality was not significantly different among Black patients relative to White patients, but was 3.5 percentage points higher among Hispanic patients (95% CI, 2.9-4.1; P < .001) and other racial and ethnic minority patients relative to White counterparts (95% CI, 3.0-4.1; P < .001). For non-COVID-19 hospitalizations, in-hospital mortality among Black patients increased by 0.5 percentage points more than it increased among White patients (95% CI, 0.3-0.6; P < .001), a 17.5% differential increase relative to the prepandemic baseline. This gap was robust to expanded definitions of mortality. Hispanic patients had similar differential increases in expanded definitions of mortality and model specification. Disparities in discharges to hospice and postacute care were evident. In aggregate across COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 hospitalizations, mortality differentially increased among racial and ethnic minority populations during the pandemic. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, racial and ethnic disparities in mortality were evident among COVID-19 hospitalizations and widened among non-COVID-19 hospitalizations, motivating greater attention to health equity.

5.
J Arthroplasty ; 35(7S): S82-S84, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385020

ABSTRACT

As soon as it became clear that our economy was going to be paralyzed by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons leadership acted swiftly to ensure that our members were going to be eligible for the anticipated federal economic stimulus. The cessation of elective surgery, enacted in mid-March and necessary to stop the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, would surely challenge the solvency of many of our members' practices. Although our advocacy efforts discussed further have helped, clearly more relief is needed. Fortunately, our mitigation efforts have led to a "flattening of the curve" and discussions have begun on when, where, and how to safely start elective surgery again.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Hip/surgery , Knee/surgery , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Elective Surgical Procedures , Humans , Orthopedic Procedures , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical , Surgeons , United States
6.
J Arthroplasty ; 36(7S): S56-S61, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064844

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic caused a massive disruption in elective arthroplasty practice in the United States that to date has not been quantified. We sought to determine the impact of COVID-19 on arthroplasty volumes in the United States, how this varied across the country, and the resultant financial implications. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries undergoing primary and revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) from January 1st through March 31st, 2020 with 74,080 TKAs and 54,975 THAs identified. We calculated the percent drop in average daily cases from before and after March 18, 2020. We then examined variation across states in arthroplasty case volumes as it related to reported COVID-19 cases, the impact of COVID-19 on length of stay and percentage of patients discharged home. Finally, we calculated the revenue impact on hospitals and surgeons. RESULTS: There was a steep decline in TKA and THA volumes in mid-March of 94% and 92%, respectively. There was a significant variation for arthroplasty case volumes across states. We found minimal change in length of stay except for primary THAs with fracture going from 5 + days to 4 days. We saw an increasing trend in discharge to home with the greatest effect in primary THAs with fracture. The total daily hospital Medicare revenue for arthroplasty declined by 87% and surgeon revenue decreased by 85%. CONCLUSION: The beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic caused a significant decrease in arthroplasty volumes in the Medicare population with a resultant substantial revenue loss for hospitals and surgeons.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19 , Aged , Humans , Length of Stay , Medicare , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
7.
J Arthroplasty ; 36(2): 397-402.e2, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-664813

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many U.S. health systems are grappling with how to safely resume elective surgery amid the COVID-19 pandemic. We used online crowdsourcing to explore public perceptions and concerns toward resuming elective surgery during the pandemic, and to determine factors associated with the preferred timing of surgery after health systems reopen. METHODS: A 21-question survey was completed by 722 members of the public using Amazon Mechanical Turk. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors associated with the timing of preferred surgery after health systems reopen. RESULTS: Most (61%) participants were concerned with contracting COVID-19 during the surgical process, primarily during check-in and in waiting room areas, as well as through excessive interactions with staff. Overall, 57% would choose to have their surgery at a hospital over an outpatient surgery center. About 1 in 4 (27%) would feel comfortable undergoing elective surgery in the first month of health systems reopening. After multivariable adjustment, native English speaking (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.04-6.4; P = .042), male sex (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.3-2.7; P < .001), and Veterans Affairs insurance (OR, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.1-18.7; P = .036) were independent predictors of preferring earlier surgery. CONCLUSION: Women and non-native English speakers may be more hesitant to undergo elective surgery amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite concerns of contagion, more than half of the public favors a hospital setting over an outpatient surgery center for their elective surgery. Concerted efforts to minimize patient congestion and unnecessary face-to-face interactions may prove most effective in reducing public anxiety and concerns over the safety of resuming elective care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Public Opinion , Elective Surgical Procedures , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Arthroplasty ; 35(7S): S1-S2, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-116259
10.
J Arthroplasty ; 35(7S): S49-S55, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-102140

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, hospitals in the United States were recommended to stop performing elective procedures. This stoppage has led to the cancellation of a large number of hip and knee arthroplasties. The effect of this on patients' physical mental and economic health is unknown. METHODS: A survey was developed by the AAHKS Research Committee to assess pain, anxiety, physical function, and economic ability of patients to undergo a delayed operation. Six institutions conducted the survey to 360 patients who had to have elective hip and knee arthroplasty cancelled between March and July of 2020. RESULTS: Patients were most anxious about the uncertainty of when their operation could be rescheduled. Although 85% of patients understood and agreed with the public health measures to curb infections, almost 90% of patients plan to reschedule as soon as possible. Age and geographic region of the patients affected their anxiety. Younger patients were more likely to have financial concerns and concerns about job security. Patients in the Northeast were more concerned about catching COVID-19 during a future hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Patients suffering from the pain of hip and knee arthritis continue to struggle with pain from their end-stage disease. They have anxiety about the COVID-19 pandemic. Few patients feel they will be limited financially and 90% want to have surgery as soon as possible. Age and physical location of the patients affect their causes for anxiety around their future surgery.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/statistics & numerical data , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
11.
J Arthroplasty ; 35(7S): S28-S31, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-101972

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused us all to stop our normal activities and consider how we can safely return to caring for our patients. There are many common practices (such as an increased use of personal protective equipment) which we are all familiar with that can be easily incorporated into our daily routines. Other actions, such as cleaning more surfaces with solutions such as dilute povidone iodine or changing the air filtration systems used within operating room theaters, may require more extensive efforts on our behalf. In this article, we have attempted to highlight some of the changes that arthroplasty surgeons may need to instigate when we are able to resume elective joint arthroplasty procedures in an effort to disrupt the chain of pathogen transfer.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Elective Surgical Procedures , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Operating Rooms , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Arthroplasty ; 35(7S): S10-S14, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-97471

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has created widespread changes across all of health care. As a result, the impacts on the delivery of orthopedic services have been challenged. To ensure and provide adequate health care resources in terms of hospital capacity and personnel and personal protective equipment, service lines such as adult reconstruction and lower limb arthroplasty have stopped or substantially limited elective surgeries and have been forced to re-engineer care processes for a high volume of patients. Herein, we summarize the similar approaches by two arthroplasty divisions in high-volume academic referral centers in (1) the cessation of elective surgeries, (2) workforce restructuring, (3) phased delivery of outpatient and inpatient care, and (4) educational restructuring.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Elective Surgical Procedures , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
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