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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2188598

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with HIV on antiretroviral therapy with good CD4 T cell counts make effective immune responses following vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. There are few data on longer term responses and the impact of a booster dose. METHODS: Adults with HIV were enrolled into a single arm open label study. Two doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 were followed twelve months later by a third heterologous vaccine dose. Participants had undetectable viraemia on ART and CD4 counts >350 cells/µl. Immune responses to the ancestral strain and variants of concern were measured by anti-spike IgG ELISA, MesoScale Discovery (MSD) anti-spike platform, ACE-2 inhibition, Activation Induced Marker (AIM) assay and T cell proliferation. FINDINGS: 54 participants received two doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. 43 received a third dose (42 with BNT162b2; 1 with mRNA-1273) one year after the first dose. After the third dose, total anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG titres (MSD), ACE-2 inhibition and IgG ELISA results were significantly higher compared to Day 182 titres (P < 0.0001 for all three). SARS-CoV-2 specific CD4+ T cell responses measured by AIM against SARS-CoV-2 S1 and S2 peptide pools were significantly increased after a third vaccine compared to 6 months after a first dose, with significant increases in proliferative CD4 + and CD8+ T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 S1 and S2 after boosting. Responses to Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta variants were boosted, although to a lesser extent for Omicron. CONCLUSIONS: In PWH receiving a third vaccine dose, there were significant increases in B and T cell immunity, including to known VOCs.

2.
Cell Reports ; : 111903, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2158574

ABSTRACT

Summary Variants of SARS CoV-2 have caused successive global waves of infection. These variants, with multiple mutations in the spike protein are thought to facilitate escape from natural and vaccine-induced immunity and often increase in the affinity for ACE2. The latest variant to cause concern is BA.2.75, identified in India where it is now the dominant strain, with evidence of wider dissemination. BA.2.75 is derived from BA.2 and contains four additional mutations in the receptor binding domain (RBD). Here we perform an antigenic and biophysical characterization of BA.2.75, revealing an interesting balance between humoral evasion and ACE2 receptor affinity. ACE2 affinity for BA.2.75 is increased 9-fold compared to BA.2;there is also evidence of escape of BA.2.75 from immune serum, particularly that induced by Delta infection which may explain the rapid spread in India, where BA.2.75 is now the dominant variant. ACE2 affinity appears to be prioritised over greater escape.

3.
Hepatology ; 76(4): 1190-1202, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059410

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A prophylactic vaccine targeting multiple HCV genotypes (gt) is urgently required to meet World Health Organization elimination targets. Neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are associated with spontaneous clearance of HCV, and each may contribute to protective immunity. However, current vaccine candidates generate either nAbs or T cells targeting genetically variable epitopes and have failed to show efficacy in human trials. We have previously shown that a simian adenovirus vector (ChAdOx1) encoding conserved sequences across gt1-6 (ChAd-Gt1-6), and separately gt-1a E2 protein with variable regions deleted (E2Δ123HMW ), generates pan-genotypic T cells and nAbs, respectively. We now aim to develop a vaccine to generate both viral-specific B- and T-cell responses concurrently. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We show that vaccinating with ChAd-Gt1-6 and E2Δ123HMW sequentially in mice generates T-cell and antibody (Ab) responses comparable to either vaccine given alone. We encoded E2Δ123 in ChAdOx1 (ChAd-E2Δ123) and show that this, given with an E2Δ123HMW protein boost, induces greater CD81-E2 inhibitory and HCV-pseudoparticle nAb titers compared to the E2Δ123HMW prime boost. We developed bivalent viral vector vaccines (ChAdOx1 and modified vaccinia Ankara [MVA]) encoding both Gt1-6 and E2Δ123 immunogens (Gt1-6-E2Δ123) generating polyfunctional CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and nAb titers in prime/boost strategies. This approach generated nAb responses comparable to monovalent E2Δ123 ChAd/MVA vaccines and superior to three doses of recombinant E2Δ123HMW protein, while also generating high-magnitude T-cell responses. CONCLUSIONS: These data are an important step forward for the development of a pan-genotype HCV vaccine to elicit T cells and nAbs for future assessment in humans.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis C , Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Epitopes , Genotype , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Hepatitis C Antibodies , Humans , Mice , Vaccinia virus/genetics
4.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2046031

ABSTRACT

Two doses of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine induces a strong systemic SARS-CoV-2 specific humoral response. However, SARS-CoV-2 airborne transmission makes mucosal immune response a crucial first line of defense. Therefore, we characterized SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG responses induced by BNT162b2 vaccine, as well as IgG responses to other pathogenic and seasonal human coronaviruses in oral fluid and plasma from 200 UK healthcare workers who were naïve (N=62) or previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 (N=138) using a pan-coronavirus multiplex binding immunoassay (Meso Scale Discovery®). Additionally, we investigated the impact of historical SARS-CoV-2 infection on vaccine-induced IgG, IgA and neutralizing responses in selected oral fluid samples before vaccination, after a first and second dose of BNT162b2, as well as following a third dose of mRNA vaccine or breakthrough infections using the same immunoassay and an ACE2 inhibition assay. Prior to vaccination, we found that spike-specific IgG levels in oral fluid positively correlated with IgG levels in plasma from previously-infected individuals (Spearman r=0.6858, p<0.0001) demonstrating that oral fluid could be used as a proxy for the presence of plasma SARS-CoV-2 IgG. However, the sensitivity was lower in oral fluid (0.85, 95% CI 0.77-0.91) than in plasma (0.94, 95% CI 0.88-0.97). Similar kinetics of mucosal and systemic spike-specific IgG levels were observed following vaccination in naïve and previously-infected individuals, respectively. In addition, a significant enhancement of OC43 and HKU1 spike-specific IgG levels was observed in previously-infected individuals following one vaccine dose in oral fluid (OC43 S: p<0.0001;HKU1 S: p=0.0423) suggesting cross-reactive IgG responses to seasonal beta coronaviruses. Mucosal spike-specific IgA responses were induced by mRNA vaccination particularly in previously-infected individuals (71%) but less frequently in naïve participants (23%). Neutralizing responses to SARS-CoV-2 ancestral and variants of concerns were detected following vaccination in naïve and previously-infected participants, with likely contribution from both IgG and IgA in previously-infected individuals (correlations between neutralizing responses and IgG: Spearman r=0.5642, p<0.0001;IgA: Spearman r=0.4545, p=0.0001). We also observed that breakthrough infections or a third vaccine dose enhanced mucosal antibody levels and neutralizing responses. These data contribute to show that a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection tailors the mucosal antibody profile induced by vaccination.

8.
Lancet Microbe ; 3(1): e21-e31, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915218

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous infection with SARS-CoV-2 affects the immune response to the first dose of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. We aimed to compare SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell and antibody responses in health-care workers with and without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection following a single dose of the BNT162b2 (tozinameran; Pfizer-BioNTech) mRNA vaccine. METHODS: We sampled health-care workers enrolled in the PITCH study across four hospital sites in the UK (Oxford, Liverpool, Newcastle, and Sheffield). All health-care workers aged 18 years or older consenting to participate in this prospective cohort study were included, with no exclusion criteria applied. Blood samples were collected where possible before vaccination and 28 (±7) days following one or two doses (given 3-4 weeks apart) of the BNT162b2 vaccine. Previous infection was determined by a documented SARS-CoV-2-positive RT-PCR result or the presence of positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antibodies. We measured spike-specific IgG antibodies and quantified T-cell responses by interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay in all participants where samples were available at the time of analysis, comparing SARS-CoV-2-naive individuals to those with previous infection. FINDINGS: Between Dec 9, 2020, and Feb 9, 2021, 119 SARS-CoV-2-naive and 145 previously infected health-care workers received one dose, and 25 SARS-CoV-2-naive health-care workers received two doses, of the BNT162b2 vaccine. In previously infected health-care workers, the median time from previous infection to vaccination was 268 days (IQR 232-285). At 28 days (IQR 27-33) after a single dose, the spike-specific T-cell response measured in fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was higher in previously infected (n=76) than in infection-naive (n=45) health-care workers (median 284 [IQR 150-461] vs 55 [IQR 24-132] spot-forming units [SFUs] per 106 PBMCs; p<0·0001). With cryopreserved PBMCs, the T-cell response in previously infected individuals (n=52) after one vaccine dose was equivalent to that of infection-naive individuals (n=19) after receiving two vaccine doses (median 152 [IQR 119-275] vs 162 [104-258] SFUs/106 PBMCs; p=1·00). Anti-spike IgG antibody responses following a single dose in 142 previously infected health-care workers (median 270 373 [IQR 203 461-535 188] antibody units [AU] per mL) were higher than in 111 infection-naive health-care workers following one dose (35 001 [17 099-55 341] AU/mL; p<0·0001) and higher than in 25 infection-naive individuals given two doses (180 904 [108 221-242 467] AU/mL; p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: A single dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine is likely to provide greater protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in individuals with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, than in SARS-CoV-2-naive individuals, including against variants of concern. Future studies should determine the additional benefit of a second dose on the magnitude and durability of immune responses in individuals vaccinated following infection, alongside evaluation of the impact of extending the interval between vaccine doses. FUNDING: UK Department of Health and Social Care, and UK Coronavirus Immunology Consortium.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Prospective Studies , T-Lymphocytes , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Vaccines, Synthetic
10.
Cell ; 185(14): 2422-2433.e13, 2022 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1881762

ABSTRACT

The Omicron lineage of SARS-CoV-2, which was first described in November 2021, spread rapidly to become globally dominant and has split into a number of sublineages. BA.1 dominated the initial wave but has been replaced by BA.2 in many countries. Recent sequencing from South Africa's Gauteng region uncovered two new sublineages, BA.4 and BA.5, which are taking over locally, driving a new wave. BA.4 and BA.5 contain identical spike sequences, and although closely related to BA.2, they contain further mutations in the receptor-binding domain of their spikes. Here, we study the neutralization of BA.4/5 using a range of vaccine and naturally immune serum and panels of monoclonal antibodies. BA.4/5 shows reduced neutralization by the serum from individuals vaccinated with triple doses of AstraZeneca or Pfizer vaccine compared with BA.1 and BA.2. Furthermore, using the serum from BA.1 vaccine breakthrough infections, there are, likewise, significant reductions in the neutralization of BA.4/5, raising the possibility of repeat Omicron infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , South Africa
11.
Br J Haematol ; 198(4): 668-679, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874397

ABSTRACT

Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients remain at high risk of adverse outcomes from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and emerging variants. The optimal prophylactic vaccine strategy for this cohort is not defined. T cell-mediated immunity is a critical component of graft-versus-tumour effect and in determining vaccine immunogenicity. Using validated anti-spike (S) immunoglobulin G (IgG) and S-specific interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (IFNγ-ELIspot) assays we analysed response to a two-dose vaccination schedule (either BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1) in 33 HSCT recipients at ≤2 years from transplant, alongside vaccine-matched healthy controls (HCs). After two vaccines, infection-naïve HSCT recipients had a significantly lower rate of seroconversion compared to infection-naïve HCs (25/32 HSCT vs. 39/39 HCs no responders) and had lower S-specific T-cell responses. The HSCT recipients who received BNT162b2 had a higher rate of seroconversion compared to ChAdOx1 (89% vs. 74%) and significantly higher anti-S IgG titres (p = 0.022). S-specific T-cell responses were seen after one vaccine in HCs and HSCT recipients. However, two vaccines enhanced S-specific T-cell responses in HCs but not in the majority of HSCT recipients. These data demonstrate limited immunogenicity of two-dose vaccination strategies in HSCT recipients, bolstering evidence of the need for additional boosters and/or alternative prophylactic measures in this group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Age Factors , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , Bone Marrow Transplantation/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/immunology , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/therapeutic use , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/drug effects , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Seroconversion , Transplantation, Homologous/adverse effects , Vaccination/adverse effects
12.
JCI Insight ; 7(13)2022 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861743

ABSTRACT

The role of immune responses to previously seen endemic coronavirus epitopes in severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and disease progression has not yet been determined. Here, we show that a key characteristic of fatal outcomes with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is that the immune response to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is enriched for antibodies directed against epitopes shared with endemic beta-coronaviruses and has a lower proportion of antibodies targeting the more protective variable regions of the spike. The magnitude of antibody responses to the SARS-CoV-2 full-length spike protein, its domains and subunits, and the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid also correlated strongly with responses to the endemic beta-coronavirus spike proteins in individuals admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) with fatal COVID-19 outcomes, but not in individuals with nonfatal outcomes. This correlation was found to be due to the antibody response directed at the S2 subunit of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, which has the highest degree of conservation between the beta-coronavirus spike proteins. Intriguingly, antibody responses to the less cross-reactive SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid were not significantly different in individuals who were admitted to an ICU with fatal and nonfatal outcomes, suggesting an antibody profile in individuals with fatal outcomes consistent with an "original antigenic sin" type response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , Epitopes , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Cell ; 185(12): 2116-2131.e18, 2022 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850795

ABSTRACT

Highly transmissible Omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2 currently dominate globally. Here, we compare neutralization of Omicron BA.1, BA.1.1, and BA.2. BA.2 RBD has slightly higher ACE2 affinity than BA.1 and slightly reduced neutralization by vaccine serum, possibly associated with its increased transmissibility. Neutralization differences between sub-lineages for mAbs (including therapeutics) mostly arise from variation in residues bordering the ACE2 binding site; however, more distant mutations S371F (BA.2) and R346K (BA.1.1) markedly reduce neutralization by therapeutic antibody Vir-S309. In-depth structure-and-function analyses of 27 potent RBD-binding mAbs isolated from vaccinated volunteers following breakthrough Omicron-BA.1 infection reveals that they are focused in two main clusters within the RBD, with potent right-shoulder antibodies showing increased prevalence. Selection and somatic maturation have optimized antibody potency in less-mutated epitopes and recovered potency in highly mutated epitopes. All 27 mAbs potently neutralize early pandemic strains, and many show broad reactivity with variants of concern.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/genetics , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Epitopes , Humans , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
14.
Clin Exp Immunol ; 209(1): 90-98, 2022 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831028

ABSTRACT

T-cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 following infection and vaccination are less characterized than antibody responses, due to a more complex experimental pathway. We measured T-cell responses in 108 healthcare workers (HCWs) using the commercialized Oxford Immunotec T-SPOT Discovery SARS-CoV-2 assay service (OI T-SPOT) and the PITCH ELISpot protocol established for academic research settings. Both assays detected T-cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike, membrane, and nucleocapsid proteins. Responses were significantly lower when reported by OI T-SPOT than by PITCH ELISpot. Four weeks after two doses of either Pfizer/BioNTech BNT162b or ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 AZD1222 vaccine, the responder rate was 63% for OI T-SPOT Panels 1 + 2 (peptides representing SARS-CoV-2 spike protein excluding regions present in seasonal coronaviruses), 69% for OI T-SPOT Panel 14 (peptides representing the entire SARS-CoV-2 spike), and 94% for the PITCH ELISpot total spike. The two OI T-SPOT panels correlated strongly with each other showing that either readout quantifies spike-specific T-cell responses, although the correlation between the OI T-SPOT panels and the PITCH ELISpot total spike was moderate. The standardization, relative scalability, and longer interval between blood acquisition and processing are advantages of the commercial OI T-SPOT assay. However, the OI T-SPOT assay measures T-cell responses at a significantly lower magnitude compared to the PITCH ELISpot assay, detecting T-cell responses in a lower proportion of vaccinees. This has implications for the reporting of low-level T-cell responses that may be observed in patient populations and for the assessment of T-cell durability after vaccination.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , T-Lymphocytes , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/immunology , Health Personnel , Humans , Peptides , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccination
16.
Nat Metab ; 4(3): 301-302, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764214
17.
JCI Insight ; 7(7)2022 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702851

ABSTRACT

Duration of protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection in people living with HIV (PWH) following vaccination is unclear. In a substudy of the phase II/III the COV002 trial (NCT04400838), 54 HIV+ male participants on antiretroviral therapy (undetectable viral loads, CD4+ T cells > 350 cells/µL) received 2 doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) 4-6 weeks apart and were followed for 6 months. Responses to vaccination were determined by serology (IgG ELISA and Meso Scale Discovery [MSD]), neutralization, ACE-2 inhibition, IFN-γ ELISpot, activation-induced marker (AIM) assay and T cell proliferation. We show that, 6 months after vaccination, the majority of measurable immune responses were greater than prevaccination baseline but with evidence of a decline in both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. There was, however, no significant difference compared with a cohort of HIV-uninfected individuals vaccinated with the same regimen. Responses to the variants of concern were detectable, although they were lower than WT. Preexisting cross-reactive T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike were associated with greater postvaccine immunity and correlated with prior exposure to beta coronaviruses. These data support the ongoing policy to vaccinate PWH against SARS-CoV-2, and they underpin the need for long-term monitoring of responses after vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , COVID-19/prevention & control , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
18.
Cell ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1601904

ABSTRACT

On the 24th November 2021 the sequence of a new SARS CoV-2 viral isolate Omicron-B.1.1.529 was announced, containing far more mutations in Spike (S) than previously reported variants. Neutralization titres of Omicron by sera from vaccinees and convalescent subjects infected with early pandemic as well as Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta are substantially reduced or fail to neutralize. Titres against Omicron are boosted by third vaccine doses and are high in cases both vaccinated and infected by Delta. Mutations in Omicron knock out or substantially reduce neutralization by most of a large panel of potent monoclonal antibodies and antibodies under commercial development. Omicron S has structural changes from earlier viruses, combining mutations conferring tight binding to ACE2 to unleash evolution driven by immune escape, leading to a large number of mutations in the ACE2 binding site which rebalance receptor affinity to that of early pandemic viruses. A comprehensive analysis of sera from vaccinees, convalescent patients infected previously by multiple variants and potent monoclonal antibodies from early in the COVID-19 pandemic reveals a substantial overall reduction the ability to neutralize the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, which a third vaccine dose seems to ameliorate. Structural analyses of the Omicron RBD suggest a selective pressure enabling the virus bind ACE2 with increased affinity that is offset by other changes in the receptor binding motif that facilitates immune escape.

20.
Gut ; 70(Suppl 4):A7-A8, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1504357

ABSTRACT

OTH-1 Figure 1(A) AIH v non-AIH CLD (B) AIH v non-CLD[Figure omitted. See PDF]ConclusionDespite immunosuppressive treatment, AIH patients were not at increased risk of adverse outcomes from COVID-19 compared to other causes of CLD and to matched cases without liver disease.

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