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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017777

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) was reported in association with the COVID-19 pandemic. MIS-A was included in the list of adverse events to be monitored as part of the emergency use authorizations issued for COVID-19 vaccines. METHODS: Reports of MIS-A patients received by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) after COVID-19 vaccines became available were assessed. Data collected on the patients included clinical and demographic characteristics and their vaccine status. The Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) was also reviewed for possible cases of MIS-A. RESULTS: From December 14, 2020 to April 30, 2021, 20 patients who met the case definition for MIS-A were reported to CDC. Their median age was 35 years (range, 21-66 years), and 13 (65%) were male. Overall, 16 (80%) patients had a preceding COVID-19-like illness a median of 26 days (range 11-78 days) before MIS-A onset. All 20 patients had laboratory evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Seven MIS-A patients (35%) received COVID-19 vaccine a median of 10 days (range, 6-45 days) before MIS-A onset; 3 patients received a second dose of COVID-19 vaccine 4, 17, and 22 days before MIS-A onset. Patients with MIS-A predominantly had gastrointestinal and cardiac manifestations and hypotension or shock. CONCLUSIONS: Although 7 patients were reported to have received COVID-19 vaccine, all had evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Given the widespread use of COVID-19 vaccines, the lack of reporting of MIS-A associated with vaccination alone, without evidence of underlying SARS-CoV-2 infection, is reassuring.

2.
J Perinatol ; 2022 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947261

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: SARS-CoV-2 infection induces significant inflammatory cytokine production in adults, but infant cytokine signatures in pregnancies affected by maternal SARS-CoV-2 are less well characterized. We aimed to evaluate cytokine profiles of mothers and their infants following COVID-19 in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: Serum samples at delivery from 31 mother-infant dyads with maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy (COVID) were examined in comparison to 29 control dyads (Control). Samples were evaluated using a 13-plex cytokine assay. RESULTS: In comparison with controls, interleukin (IL)-6 and interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) were higher in COVID maternal and infant samples (p < 0.05) and IL-8 uniquely elevated in COVID infant samples (p < 0.05). Significant elevations in IL-6, IP-10, and IL-8 were found among both early (1st/2nd Trimester) and late (3rd Trimester) maternal SARS-CoV-2 infections. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal SARS-CoV-2 infections throughout gestation are associated with increased maternal and infant inflammatory cytokines at birth with potential to impact long-term infant health.

3.
J Travel Med ; 29(2)2022 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672228

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-immune international travellers are at risk of acquiring hepatitis A. Although hepatitis A vaccination is recommended for unvaccinated travellers to high or intermediate hepatitis A virus endemicity, compliance with this recommendation is not universal.The main objective was to describe the demographic and travel characteristics of international travellers infected with hepatitis A during travel. METHODS: Available data on travellers with confirmed (positive molecular test) or probable (symptomatic individuals with a single positive IgM test) hepatitis A diagnosed during and after travel from January 2008 to December 2020 were obtained from the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network database. We analysed demographic and travel characteristics of infected travellers. RESULTS: Among 254 travellers with hepatitis A (185 confirmed and 69 probable), the median age was 28 years (interquartile range: 19-40), 150 (59%) were male, and among 54 travellers with information available, 53 (98%) were unvaccinated. The most common reasons for travel included tourism (n = 120; 47%) and visiting friends or relatives (VFR; n = 72; 28%). About two-thirds of VFR travellers with hepatitis A (n = 50; 69%) were younger than 20 years old. Hepatitis A was acquired most frequently in South-Central Asia (n = 63; 25%) and sub-Saharan Africa (n = 61; 24%), but 16 travellers (6%) acquired hepatitis A in regions with low endemicity including Western Europe (n = 7; 3%), the Caribbean (n = 6; 2%) and North America (n = 3; 1%). Median duration from illness onset to GeoSentinel site presentation was ~7 days (interquartile range : 4-14 days). Among 88 travellers with information available, 59% were hospitalized. CONCLUSIONS: Despite availability of highly effective vaccines, travellers still acquire hepatitis A, even when traveling to low-endemicity destinations. Providing pre-departure hepatitis A vaccine to susceptible travellers is crucial to reducing travel-associated hepatitis A and should be offered to all travellers as part of the pre-travel consultation, regardless of destination.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis A , Adult , Europe/epidemiology , Hepatitis A/epidemiology , Hepatitis A/prevention & control , Hepatitis A Vaccines , Humans , Male , Travel , Vaccination , Young Adult
4.
JAMA ; 327(4): 331-340, 2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649976

ABSTRACT

Importance: Vaccination against COVID-19 provides clear public health benefits, but vaccination also carries potential risks. The risks and outcomes of myocarditis after COVID-19 vaccination are unclear. Objective: To describe reports of myocarditis and the reporting rates after mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccination in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants: Descriptive study of reports of myocarditis to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) that occurred after mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine administration between December 2020 and August 2021 in 192 405 448 individuals older than 12 years of age in the US; data were processed by VAERS as of September 30, 2021. Exposures: Vaccination with BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna). Main Outcomes and Measures: Reports of myocarditis to VAERS were adjudicated and summarized for all age groups. Crude reporting rates were calculated across age and sex strata. Expected rates of myocarditis by age and sex were calculated using 2017-2019 claims data. For persons younger than 30 years of age, medical record reviews and clinician interviews were conducted to describe clinical presentation, diagnostic test results, treatment, and early outcomes. Results: Among 192 405 448 persons receiving a total of 354 100 845 mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines during the study period, there were 1991 reports of myocarditis to VAERS and 1626 of these reports met the case definition of myocarditis. Of those with myocarditis, the median age was 21 years (IQR, 16-31 years) and the median time to symptom onset was 2 days (IQR, 1-3 days). Males comprised 82% of the myocarditis cases for whom sex was reported. The crude reporting rates for cases of myocarditis within 7 days after COVID-19 vaccination exceeded the expected rates of myocarditis across multiple age and sex strata. The rates of myocarditis were highest after the second vaccination dose in adolescent males aged 12 to 15 years (70.7 per million doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine), in adolescent males aged 16 to 17 years (105.9 per million doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine), and in young men aged 18 to 24 years (52.4 and 56.3 per million doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine and the mRNA-1273 vaccine, respectively). There were 826 cases of myocarditis among those younger than 30 years of age who had detailed clinical information available; of these cases, 792 of 809 (98%) had elevated troponin levels, 569 of 794 (72%) had abnormal electrocardiogram results, and 223 of 312 (72%) had abnormal cardiac magnetic resonance imaging results. Approximately 96% of persons (784/813) were hospitalized and 87% (577/661) of these had resolution of presenting symptoms by hospital discharge. The most common treatment was nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (589/676; 87%). Conclusions and Relevance: Based on passive surveillance reporting in the US, the risk of myocarditis after receiving mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines was increased across multiple age and sex strata and was highest after the second vaccination dose in adolescent males and young men. This risk should be considered in the context of the benefits of COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , Myocarditis/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/adverse effects , Male , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545912

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) was reported in association with the COVID-19 pandemic. MIS-A was included in the list of adverse events to be monitored as part of the emergency use authorizations issued for COVID-19 vaccines. METHODS: Reports of MIS-A patients received by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) after COVID-19 vaccines became available were assessed. Data collected on the patients included clinical and demographic characteristics and their vaccine status. The Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) was also reviewed for possible cases of MIS-A. RESULTS: From December 14, 2020 to April 30, 2021, 20 patients who met the case definition for MIS-A were reported to CDC. Their median age was 35 years (range, 21-66 years), and 13 (65%) were male. Overall, 16 (80%) patients had a preceding COVID-19-like illness a median of 26 days (range 11-78 days) before MIS-A onset. All 20 patients had laboratory evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Seven MIS-A patients (35%) received COVID-19 vaccine a median of 10 days (range, 6-45 days) before MIS-A onset; 3 patients received a second dose of COVID-19 vaccine 4, 17, and 22 days before MIS-A onset. Patients with MIS-A predominantly had gastrointestinal and cardiac manifestations and hypotension or shock. CONCLUSIONS: Although 7 patients were reported to have received COVID-19 vaccine, all had evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Given the widespread use of COVID-19 vaccines, the lack of reporting of MIS-A associated with vaccination alone, without evidence of underlying SARS-CoV-2 infection, is reassuring.

6.
Infect Dis Clin Pract (Baltim Md) ; 29(6): e420-e423, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528218

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 disease has been a pandemic caused by a ß-coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A life-threatening multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS), secondary to SARS-CoV-2 virus infection, sharing common features with Kawasaki disease shock syndrome, staphylococcal/streptococcal shock syndrome, and macrophage activation syndrome in pediatric patients has been described. A total of 27 cases in adults (MIS-A) with a similar presentation have been reported so far. Here we describe the case of a 21-year-old man admitted with abdominal pain, diarrhea, tachycardia, and low blood pressure. He had elevated troponin, ferritin, and interleukin-2 receptor levels and had evidence of myocarditis. He tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody, and a diagnosis of MIS-A was made. Our case adds to the scant literature on this topic, and to our knowledge, it is the first case where anakinra was administered. He recovered well. MIS-A should be considered when young adults present with multiorgan dysfunction.

7.
N Engl J Med ; 386(1): 35-46, 2022 01 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506999

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Safe, effective vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) are urgently needed in children younger than 12 years of age. METHODS: A phase 1, dose-finding study and an ongoing phase 2-3 randomized trial are being conducted to investigate the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine administered 21 days apart in children 6 months to 11 years of age. We present results for 5-to-11-year-old children. In the phase 2-3 trial, participants were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive two doses of either the BNT162b2 vaccine at the dose level identified during the open-label phase 1 study or placebo. Immune responses 1 month after the second dose of BNT162b2 were immunologically bridged to those in 16-to-25-year-olds from the pivotal trial of two 30-µg doses of BNT162b2. Vaccine efficacy against Covid-19 at 7 days or more after the second dose was assessed. RESULTS: During the phase 1 study, a total of 48 children 5 to 11 years of age received 10 µg, 20 µg, or 30 µg of the BNT162b2 vaccine (16 children at each dose level). On the basis of reactogenicity and immunogenicity, a dose level of 10 µg was selected for further study. In the phase 2-3 trial, a total of 2268 children were randomly assigned to receive the BNT162b2 vaccine (1517 children) or placebo (751 children). At data cutoff, the median follow-up was 2.3 months. In the 5-to-11-year-olds, as in other age groups, the BNT162b2 vaccine had a favorable safety profile. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were noted. One month after the second dose, the geometric mean ratio of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) neutralizing titers in 5-to-11-year-olds to those in 16-to-25-year-olds was 1.04 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93 to 1.18), a ratio meeting the prespecified immunogenicity success criterion (lower bound of two-sided 95% CI, >0.67; geometric mean ratio point estimate, ≥0.8). Covid-19 with onset 7 days or more after the second dose was reported in three recipients of the BNT162b2 vaccine and in 16 placebo recipients (vaccine efficacy, 90.7%; 95% CI, 67.7 to 98.3). CONCLUSIONS: A Covid-19 vaccination regimen consisting of two 10-µg doses of BNT162b2 administered 21 days apart was found to be safe, immunogenic, and efficacious in children 5 to 11 years of age. (Funded by BioNTech and Pfizer; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04816643.).

8.
Pediatr Res ; 2021 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493073

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic that has and will continue to affect many pregnant women. Knowledge regarding the risk of vertical transmission is limited. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of nasopharyngeal swabs typically have been used to confirm the diagnosis among infants, but whether the virus can be detected in other biological specimens, and therefore potentially transmitted in other ways, is unknown. Positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR has been reported from feces and urine from adult patients. We hypothesize that the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in infant urine and fecal samples after prenatal COVID-19 exposure is low. METHODS: We examined the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA using RT-PCR in urine and fecal samples among 42 infants born to SARS-CoV-2-infected mothers during different stages of pregnancy. RESULTS: A urine sample was collected from 39 of 42 infants and fecal samples from all 42 infants shortly after birth. Although the majority of the women had the symptomatic disease (85.6%), we were unable to detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2 virus from any infant urine or fecal samples. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 was not detected in infant urine or feces after maternal infection during pregnancy, providing further evidence for low rates of perinatal transmission. IMPACT: SARS-CoV-2 was not detected in the urine or feces of infants of mothers with COVID-19 during various time points in pregnancy. This study provides further evidence for low rates of perinatal transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Results help to provide guidance on perinatal care practices for infants exposed to COVID-19 in utero.

9.
Am J Perinatol ; 38(7): 741-746, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182902

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe maternal characteristics and clinical outcomes of infants born to mothers with positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) tests during pregnancy at an urban, safety-net hospital in Boston. STUDY DESIGN: We abstracted electronic chart data from 75 pregnant women with positive SARS-CoV-2 tests at any stage of gestation until 72 hours after birth who delivered consecutively between March 31 and August 6, 2020 at our center. We collected clinical data on maternal and infant characteristics, including testing, signs, and symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), delivery outcomes, newborn care practices (skin-to-skin care, location of care, and breastfeeding) and 30-day postdischarge infant emergency room visits and readmissions. We described categorical characteristics as percentages for this case series. RESULTS: Among 75 pregnant women, 47 (63%) were Hispanic, 10 (13%) had hypertension, 23 (30%) had prepregnancy obesity, and 57 (76%) had symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Regarding birth outcomes, 32 (41%) had cesarean delivery and 14 (19%) had preterm birth. Among 75 infants, 5 (7%) had positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction tests in the first week of life, all of whom were born to Hispanic mothers with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and had clinical courses consistent with gestational age. Six (8%) infants visited the emergency department within 30 days of discharge; one was admitted with a non-COVID-19 diagnosis. CONCLUSION: At our urban, safety-net hospital among pregnant women with positive SARS-CoV-2 tests, 41% had a cesarean delivery and 19% had a preterm birth. Seven percent of infants had one or more positive SARS-CoV-2 tests and all infants had clinical courses expected for gestational age. KEY POINTS: · Among 75 pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 positive testing at our center, five infants (7%) had one or more SARS-CoV-2 positive tests in the first week of life.. · Infants with positive SARS-CoV-2 tests had clinical courses expected for gestational age..


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Boston/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Female , Gestational Age , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant Care/methods , Infant Care/statistics & numerical data , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/virology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Outcome , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Safety-net Providers/statistics & numerical data
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(1): e2031266, 2021 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130416

ABSTRACT

Importance: Trivalent adjuvanted inactivated influenza vaccine (aIIV3) and trivalent high-dose inactivated influenza vaccine (HD-IIV3) are US-licensed for adults aged 65 years and older. Data are needed on the comparative safety, reactogenicity, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) effects of these vaccines. Objective: To compare safety, reactogenicity, and changes in HRQOL scores after aIIV3 vs HD-IIV3. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized blinded clinical trial was a multicenter US study conducted during the 2017 to 2018 and 2018 to 2019 influenza seasons. Among 778 community-dwelling adults aged at least 65 years and assessed for eligibility, 13 were ineligible and 8 withdrew before randomization. Statistical analysis was performed from August 2019 to August 2020. Interventions: Intramuscular administration of aIIV3 or HD-IIV3 after age-stratification (65-79 years; ≥80 years) and randomization. Main Outcomes and Measures: Proportions of participants with moderate-to-severe injection-site pain and 14 other solicited reactions during days 1 to 8, using a noninferiority test (5% noninferiority margin), and serious adverse events (SAE) and adverse events of clinical interest (AECI), including new-onset immune-mediated conditions, during days 1 to 43. Changes in HRQOL scores before and after vaccination (days 1, 3) were also compared between study groups. Results: A total of 757 adults were randomized, 378 to receive aIIV3 and 379 to receive HD-IIV3. Of these participants, there were 420 women (55%) and 589 White individuals (78%) with a median (range) age of 72 (65-97) years. The proportion reporting moderate-to-severe injection-site pain, limiting or preventing activity, after aIIV3 (12 participants [3.2%]) (primary outcome) was noninferior compared with HD-IIV3 (22 participants [5.8%]) (difference -2.7%; 95% CI, -5.8 to 0.4). Ten reactions met noninferiority criteria for aIIV3; 4 (moderate-to-severe injection-site tenderness, arthralgia, fatigue, malaise) did not. It was inconclusive whether these 4 reactions occurred in higher proportions of participants after aIIV3. No participant sought medical care for a vaccine reaction. No AECI was observed. Nine participants had at least SAE after aIIV3 (2.4%; 95% CI,1.1% to 4.5%); 3 had at least 1 SAE after HD-IIV3 (0.8%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 2.2%). No SAE was associated with vaccination. Changes in prevaccination and postvaccination HRQOL scores were not clinically meaningful and not different between the groups. Conclusions and Relevance: Overall safety and HRQOL findings were similar after aIIV3 and HD-IIV3, and consistent with prelicensure data. From a safety standpoint, this study's results support using either vaccine to prevent influenza in older adults. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03183908.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Quality of Life , Vaccines, Inactivated , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Adjuvants, Immunologic/adverse effects , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Injections, Intramuscular , Male , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology
11.
Placenta ; 100: 69-74, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728807

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: While the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant global health impact, rates of maternal to infant vertical transmission remain low (<5%). Parenchymal changes of placentas from COVID-19 infected mothers have been reported by several groups, but the localization and relative abundance of SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins and cellular entry machinery has not been fully characterized within larger placental tissue cohorts. METHODS: An extended placental tissue cohort including samples from 15 COVID-19 positive maternal-fetal dyads (with n = 5 cases with evidence of fetal transmission) in comparison with 10 contemporary COVID-19 negative controls. Using comparative immunofluorescence, we examined the localization and relative tissue abundance of SARS-CoV2 spike glycoprotein (CoV2 SP) along with the co-localization of two SARS-CoV2 viral entry proteins angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2). RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: CoV2 SP was present within the villous placenta in COVID-19 positive pregnancies with and without evidence of fetal transmission. We further identified the predominance of ACE2 expression in comparison with TMPRSS2. Importantly, both CoV2 SP and ACE2 expression consistently localized primarily within the outer syncytiotrophoblast layer placental villi, a key physiologic interface between mother and fetus. Overall this study provides an important basis for the ongoing evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 physiology in pregnancy and highlights the importance of the placenta as a key source of primary human tissue for ongoing diagnostic and therapeutic research efforts to reduce the global burden of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Chorionic Villi/chemistry , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/analysis , Pneumonia, Viral , Serine Endopeptidases/analysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Female , Fetus , Fluorescent Antibody Technique/methods , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Placenta/chemistry , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Receptors, Virus/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Trophoblasts/chemistry
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