Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 18 de 18
Filter
1.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 1944, 2023 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304001

ABSTRACT

Omicron spike (S) encoding vaccines as boosters, are a potential strategy to improve COVID-19 vaccine efficacy against Omicron. Here, macaques (mostly females) previously immunized with Ad26.COV2.S, are boosted with Ad26.COV2.S, Ad26.COV2.S.529 (encoding Omicron BA.1 S) or a 1:1 combination of both vaccines. All booster vaccinations elicit a rapid antibody titers increase against WA1/2020 and Omicron S. Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 antibody responses are most effectively boosted by vaccines including Ad26.COV2.S.529. Independent of vaccine used, mostly WA1/2020-reactive or WA1/2020-Omicron BA.1 cross-reactive B cells are detected. Ad26.COV2.S.529 containing boosters provide only slightly higher protection of the lower respiratory tract against Omicron BA.1 challenge compared with Ad26.COV2.S-only booster. Antibodies and cellular immune responses are identified as complementary correlates of protection. Overall, a booster with an Omicron-spike based vaccine provide only moderately improved immune responses and protection compared with the original Wuhan-Hu-1-spike based vaccine, which still provide robust immune responses and protection against Omicron.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Female , Animals , Humans , Male , Ad26COVS1 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Macaca , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral
2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(4)2023 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306599

ABSTRACT

Immunological memory is the key source of protective immunity against pathogens. At the current stage of the COVID-19 pandemic, heterologous combinations of exposure to viral antigens during infection and/or vaccination shape a distinctive immunological memory. Immune imprinting, the downside of memory, might limit the generation of de novo immune response against variant infection or the response to the next-generation vaccines. Here, we review mechanistic basis of immune imprinting by focusing on B cell immunobiology and discuss the extent to which immune imprinting is harmful, as well as its effect on SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination.

3.
Cell Rep Med ; 4(4): 101018, 2023 04 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288041

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines demonstrate reduced protection against acquisition of BA.5 subvariant but are still effective against severe disease. However, immune correlates of protection against BA.5 remain unknown. We report the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of vaccine regimens consisting of the vector-based Ad26.COV2.S vaccine and the adjuvanted spike ferritin nanoparticle (SpFN) vaccine against a high-dose, mismatched Omicron BA.5 challenge in macaques. The SpFNx3 and Ad26 + SpFNx2 regimens elicit higher antibody responses than Ad26x3, whereas the Ad26 + SpFNx2 and Ad26x3 regimens induce higher CD8 T cell responses than SpFNx3. The Ad26 + SpFNx2 regimen elicits the highest CD4 T cell responses. All three regimens suppress peak and day 4 viral loads in the respiratory tract, which correlate with both humoral and cellular immune responses. This study demonstrates that both homologous and heterologous regimens involving Ad26.COV2.S and SpFN vaccines provide robust protection against a mismatched BA.5 challenge in macaques.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Vaccines , Humans , Animals , Macaca , Ad26COVS1 , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Ferritins
4.
NPJ Vaccines ; 8(1): 23, 2023 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264251

ABSTRACT

Despite the availability of several effective SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, additional vaccines will be required for optimal global vaccination. In this study, we investigate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the GBP510 protein subunit vaccine adjuvanted with AS03, which has recently been authorized for marketing in South Korea under the trade name SKYCovioneTM. The antigen in GBP510/AS03 is a two-part recombinant nanoparticle, which displays 60 receptor binding domain (RBD) proteins of SARS-CoV-2 Spike on its surface. In this study we show that GBP510/AS03 induced robust immune responses in rhesus macaques and protected against a high-dose SARS-CoV-2 Delta challenge. We vaccinated macaques with two or three doses of GBP510/AS03 matched to the ancestral Wuhan strain of SARS-CoV-2 or with two doses of GBP510/AS03 matched to the ancestral strain and one dose matched to the Beta strain. Following the challenge with Delta, the vaccinated macaques rapidly controlled the virus in bronchoalveolar lavage and nasal swabs. Binding and neutralizing antibody responses prior to challenge correlated with protection against viral replication postchallenge. These data are consistent with data with this vaccine from the phase 3 clinical trial.

6.
Sci Adv ; 8(47): eade4433, 2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137357

ABSTRACT

Emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants and waning immunity call for next-generation vaccine strategies. Here, we assessed the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of two SARS-CoV-2 vaccines targeting the WA1/2020 spike protein, Ad26.COV2.S (Ad26) and Spike ferritin Nanoparticle (SpFN), in nonhuman primates, delivered as either a homologous (SpFN/SpFN and Ad26/Ad26) or heterologous (Ad26/SpFN) prime-boost regimen. The Ad26/SpFN regimen elicited the highest CD4 T cell and memory B cell responses, the SpFN/SpFN regimen generated the highest binding and neutralizing antibody responses, and the Ad26/Ad26 regimen generated the most robust CD8 T cell responses. Despite these differences, protective efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 challenge was similar for all three regimens. After challenge, all vaccinated monkeys showed significantly reduced peak and day 4 viral loads in both bronchoalveolar lavage and nasal swabs as compared with sham animals. The efficacy conferred by these three immunologically distinct vaccine regimens suggests that both humoral and cellular immunity contribute to protection against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron challenge.

7.
NPJ Vaccines ; 7(1): 125, 2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087218

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic marks the third coronavirus pandemic this century (SARS-CoV-1, MERS, SARS-CoV-2), emphasizing the need to identify and evaluate conserved immunogens for a pan-sarbecovirus vaccine. Here we investigate the potential utility of a T-cell vaccine strategy targeting conserved regions of the sarbecovirus proteome. We identified the most conserved regions of the sarbecovirus proteome as portions of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and Helicase proteins, both of which are part of the coronavirus replication transcription complex (RTC). Fitness constraints suggest that as SARS-CoV-2 continues to evolve these regions may better preserve cross-reactive potential of T-cell responses than Spike, Nucleocapsid, or Membrane proteins. We sought to determine if vaccine-elicited T-cell responses to the highly conserved regions of the RTC would reduce viral loads following challenge with SARS-CoV-2 in mice using a rhesus adenovirus serotype 52 (RhAd52) vector. The RhAd52.CoV.Consv vaccine generated robust cellular immunity in mice and led to significant reductions in viral loads in the nasal turbinates following challenge with a mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2. These data suggest the potential utility of T-cell targeting of conserved regions for a pan-sarbecovirus vaccine.

8.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(665): eabo6160, 2022 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053108

ABSTRACT

Human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target the spike glycoprotein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) offer a promising approach for the prevention and treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Given suboptimal global vaccination rates, waning immunity in vaccinated individuals, and the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, the use of mAbs for COVID-19 prevention may increase and may need to be administered together with vaccines in certain settings. However, it is unknown whether administration of mAbs will affect the immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Using an adenovirus vector-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, we show that simultaneous administration of the vaccine with SARS-CoV-2 mAbs does not diminish vaccine-induced humoral or cellular immunity in cynomolgus macaques. These results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 mAbs and viral vector-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines can be administered together without loss of potency of either product. Additional studies will be required to evaluate coadministration of mAbs with other vaccine platforms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Macaca , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination
9.
J Infect Dis ; 225(7): 1124-1128, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774388

ABSTRACT

Individuals on immunosuppressive (IS) therapy have increased mortality from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and delayed viral clearance may lead to new viral variants. IS therapy reduces antibody responses following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccination; however, a comprehensive assessment of vaccine immunogenicity is lacking. Here we show that IS therapy reduced neutralizing, binding, and nonneutralizing antibody functions in addition to CD4 and CD8 T-cell interferon-γ responses following COVID-19 mRNA vaccination compared to immunocompetent individuals. Moreover, IS therapy reduced cross-reactivity against SARS-CoV-2 variants. These data suggest that the standard COVID-19 mRNA vaccine regimens will likely not provide optimal protection in immunocompromised individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , RNA, Messenger , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
10.
Cell ; 185(9): 1549-1555.e11, 2022 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748149

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant, including in highly vaccinated populations, has raised important questions about the efficacy of current vaccines. In this study, we show that the mRNA-based BNT162b2 vaccine and the adenovirus-vector-based Ad26.COV2.S vaccine provide robust protection against high-dose challenge with the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant in cynomolgus macaques. We vaccinated 30 macaques with homologous and heterologous prime-boost regimens with BNT162b2 and Ad26.COV2.S. Following Omicron challenge, vaccinated macaques demonstrated rapid control of virus in bronchoalveolar lavage, and most vaccinated animals also controlled virus in nasal swabs. However, 4 vaccinated animals that had moderate Omicron-neutralizing antibody titers and undetectable Omicron CD8+ T cell responses failed to control virus in the upper respiratory tract. Moreover, virologic control correlated with both antibody and T cell responses. These data suggest that both humoral and cellular immune responses contribute to vaccine protection against a highly mutated SARS-CoV-2 variant.


Subject(s)
Ad26COVS1/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19 , Macaca , SARS-CoV-2 , Ad26COVS1/administration & dosage , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
11.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(638): eabm4996, 2022 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705843

ABSTRACT

Ad26.COV2.S has demonstrated durability and clinical efficacy against symptomatic COVID-19 in humans. In this study, we report the correlates of durability of humoral and cellular immune responses in 20 rhesus macaques immunized with single-shot Ad26.COV2.S and the immunogenicity of a booster shot at 8 to 10 months after the initial immunization. Ad26.COV2.S elicited durable binding and neutralizing antibodies as well as memory B cells and long-lived bone marrow plasma cells. Innate immune responses and bone marrow plasma cell responses correlated with durable antibody responses. After Ad26.COV2.S boost immunization, binding and neutralizing antibody responses against multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants increased 31- to 69-fold and 23- to 43-fold, respectively, compared with preboost concentrations. Antigen-specific B cell and T cell responses also increased substantially after the boost immunization. Boosting with a modified Ad26.COV2.S.351 vaccine expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein from the beta variant led to largely comparable responses with slightly higher beta- and omicron-specific humoral immune responses. These data demonstrate that a late boost with Ad26.COV2.S or Ad26.COV2.S.351 resulted in a marked increase in humoral and cellular immune responses that were highly cross-reactive across multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants in rhesus macaques.


Subject(s)
Ad26COVS1 , COVID-19 , Immunity, Humoral , Immunization, Secondary , SARS-CoV-2 , Ad26COVS1/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Macaca mulatta , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
12.
NPJ Vaccines ; 7(1): 23, 2022 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703964

ABSTRACT

Emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants with the potential to escape binding and neutralizing antibody responses pose a threat to vaccine efficacy. We recently reported expansion of broadly neutralizing activity of vaccine-elicited antibodies in humans 8 months following a single immunization with Ad26.COV2.S. Here, we assessed the 15-month durability of antibody responses and their neutralizing capacity to B.1.617.2 (delta) and B.1.351 (beta) variants following a single immunization of Ad26.COV2.S in mice. We report the persistence of binding and neutralizing antibody titers following immunization with a concomitant increase in neutralizing antibody breadth to delta and beta variants over time. Evaluation of bone marrow and spleen at 15 months postimmunization revealed that Ad26.COV2.S-immunized mice tissues contained spike-specific antibody-secreting cells. We conclude that immunization with Ad26.COV2.S elicits a robust immune response against SARS-CoV-2 spike, which expands over time to neutralize delta and beta variants more robustly, and seeds bone marrow and spleen with long-lived spike-specific antibody-secreting cells. These data extend previous findings in humans and support the use of a mouse model as a potential tool to further explore the dynamics of the humoral immune response following vaccination with Ad26.COV2.S.

13.
Nature ; 603(7901): 493-496, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661970

ABSTRACT

The highly mutated SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant has been shown to evade a substantial fraction of neutralizing antibody responses elicited by current vaccines that encode the WA1/2020 spike protein1. Cellular immune responses, particularly CD8+ T cell responses, probably contribute to protection against severe SARS-CoV-2 infection2-6. Here we show that cellular immunity induced by current vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 is highly conserved to the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron spike protein. Individuals who received the Ad26.COV2.S or BNT162b2 vaccines demonstrated durable spike-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses, which showed extensive cross-reactivity against both the Delta and the Omicron variants, including in central and effector memory cellular subpopulations. Median Omicron spike-specific CD8+ T cell responses were 82-84% of the WA1/2020 spike-specific CD8+ T cell responses. These data provide immunological context for the observation that current vaccines still show robust protection against severe disease with the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant despite the substantially reduced neutralizing antibody responses7,8.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
14.
NPJ Vaccines ; 7(1): 2, 2022 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616986

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 Spike-specific binding and neutralizing antibodies, elicited either by natural infection or vaccination, have emerged as potential correlates of protection. An important question, however, is whether vaccine-elicited antibodies in humans provide direct, functional protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease. In this study, we explored directly the protective efficacy of human antibodies elicited by Ad26.COV2.S vaccination by adoptive transfer studies. IgG from plasma of Ad26.COV2.S vaccinated individuals was purified and transferred into naïve golden Syrian hamster recipients, followed by intra-nasal challenge of the hamsters with SARS-CoV-2. IgG purified from Ad26.COV2.S-vaccinated individuals provided dose-dependent protection in the recipient hamsters from weight loss following challenge. In contrast, IgG purified from placebo recipients provided no protection in this adoptive transfer model. Attenuation of weight loss correlated with binding and neutralizing antibody titers of the passively transferred IgG. This study suggests that Ad26.COV2.S-elicited antibodies in humans are mechanistically involved in protection against SARS-CoV-2.

16.
Nature ; 601(7893): 410-414, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521758

ABSTRACT

The CVnCoV (CureVac) mRNA vaccine for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was recently evaluated in a phase 2b/3 efficacy trial in humans1. CV2CoV is a second-generation mRNA vaccine containing non-modified nucleosides but with optimized non-coding regions and enhanced antigen expression. Here we report the results of a head-to-head comparison of the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of CVnCoV and CV2CoV in non-human primates. We immunized 18 cynomolgus macaques with two doses of 12 µg lipid nanoparticle-formulated CVnCoV or CV2CoV or with sham (n = 6 per group). Compared with CVnCoV, CV2CoV induced substantially higher titres of binding and neutralizing antibodies, memory B cell responses and T cell responses as well as more potent neutralizing antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 variants, including the Delta variant. Moreover, CV2CoV was found to be comparably immunogenic to the BNT162b2 (Pfizer) vaccine in macaques. Although CVnCoV provided partial protection against SARS-CoV-2 challenge, CV2CoV afforded more robust protection with markedly lower viral loads in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. Binding and neutralizing antibody titres were correlated with protective efficacy. These data demonstrate that optimization of non-coding regions can greatly improve the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a non-modified mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in non-human primates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Nucleosides/chemistry , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , mRNA Vaccines/genetics , mRNA Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/standards , Female , Macaca fascicularis/immunology , Male , Memory B Cells/immunology , Nucleosides/genetics , Respiratory System/immunology , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/standards , Viral Load , mRNA Vaccines/standards
17.
J Virol ; 96(2): e0159921, 2022 01 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494959

ABSTRACT

Live oral vaccines have been explored for their protective efficacy against respiratory viruses, particularly for adenovirus serotypes 4 and 7. The potential of a live oral vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), however, remains unclear. In this study, we assessed the immunogenicity of live SARS-CoV-2 delivered to the gastrointestinal tract in rhesus macaques and its protective efficacy against intranasal and intratracheal SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Postpyloric administration of SARS-CoV-2 by esophagogastroduodenoscopy resulted in limited virus replication in the gastrointestinal tract and minimal to no induction of mucosal antibody titers in rectal swabs, nasal swabs, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Low levels of serum neutralizing antibodies were induced and correlated with modestly diminished viral loads in nasal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid following intranasal and intratracheal SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Overall, our data show that postpyloric inoculation of live SARS-CoV-2 is weakly immunogenic and confers partial protection against respiratory SARS-CoV-2 challenge in rhesus macaques. IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2 remains a global threat, despite the rapid deployment but limited coverage of multiple vaccines. Alternative vaccine strategies that have favorable manufacturing timelines, greater ease of distribution, and improved coverage may offer significant public health benefits, especially in resource-limited settings. Live oral vaccines have the potential to address some of these limitations; however, no studies have yet been conducted to assess the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a live oral vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. Here, we report that oral administration of live SARS-CoV-2 in nonhuman primates may offer prophylactic benefits, but the formulation and route of administration will require further optimization.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Administration, Oral , Animals , Female , Macaca mulatta , Male , Vaccine Efficacy
18.
JAMA ; 325(23): 2370-2380, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287297

ABSTRACT

Importance: Pregnant women are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 but have been excluded from the phase 3 COVID-19 vaccine trials. Data on vaccine safety and immunogenicity in these populations are therefore limited. Objective: To evaluate the immunogenicity of COVID-19 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines in pregnant and lactating women, including against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Design, Setting, and Participants: An exploratory, descriptive, prospective cohort study enrolled 103 women who received a COVID-19 vaccine from December 2020 through March 2021 and 28 women who had confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from April 2020 through March 2021 (the last follow-up date was March 26, 2021). This study enrolled 30 pregnant, 16 lactating, and 57 neither pregnant nor lactating women who received either the mRNA-1273 (Moderna) or BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) COVID-19 vaccines and 22 pregnant and 6 nonpregnant unvaccinated women with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Main Outcomes and Measures: SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain binding, neutralizing, and functional nonneutralizing antibody responses from pregnant, lactating, and nonpregnant women were assessed following vaccination. Spike-specific T-cell responses were evaluated using IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot and multiparameter intracellular cytokine-staining assays. Humoral and cellular immune responses were determined against the original SARS-CoV-2 USA-WA1/2020 strain as well as against the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants. Results: This study enrolled 103 women aged 18 to 45 years (66% non-Hispanic White) who received a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. After the second vaccine dose, fever was reported in 4 pregnant women (14%; SD, 6%), 7 lactating women (44%; SD, 12%), and 27 nonpregnant women (52%; SD, 7%). Binding, neutralizing, and functional nonneutralizing antibody responses as well as CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses were present in pregnant, lactating, and nonpregnant women following vaccination. Binding and neutralizing antibodies were also observed in infant cord blood and breast milk. Binding and neutralizing antibody titers against the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants of concern were reduced, but T-cell responses were preserved against viral variants. Conclusion and Relevance: In this exploratory analysis of a convenience sample, receipt of a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine was immunogenic in pregnant women, and vaccine-elicited antibodies were transported to infant cord blood and breast milk. Pregnant and nonpregnant women who were vaccinated developed cross-reactive antibody responses and T-cell responses against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Fetal Blood/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Milk, Human/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , BNT162 Vaccine , Cross Reactions/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoassay , Lactation , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/physiology , Middle Aged , Pregnancy/immunology , Prospective Studies , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL