Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 9 de 9
Filter
1.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 11(3): e1380, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750347

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Antibody testing against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been instrumental in detecting previous exposures and analyzing vaccine-elicited immune responses. Here, we describe a scalable solution to detect and quantify SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, discriminate between natural infection- and vaccination-induced responses, and assess antibody-mediated inhibition of the spike-angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) interaction. Methods: We developed methods and reagents to detect SARS-CoV-2 antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The main assays focus on the parallel detection of immunoglobulin (Ig)Gs against the spike trimer, its receptor binding domain (RBD) and nucleocapsid (N). We automated a surrogate neutralisation (sn)ELISA that measures inhibition of ACE2-spike or -RBD interactions by antibodies. The assays were calibrated to a World Health Organization reference standard. Results: Our single-point IgG-based ELISAs accurately distinguished non-infected and infected individuals. For seroprevalence assessment (in a non-vaccinated cohort), classifying a sample as positive if antibodies were detected for ≥ 2 of the 3 antigens provided the highest specificity. In vaccinated cohorts, increases in anti-spike and -RBD (but not -N) antibodies are observed. We present detailed protocols for serum/plasma or dried blood spots analysis performed manually and on automated platforms. The snELISA can be performed automatically at single points, increasing its scalability. Conclusions: Measuring antibodies to three viral antigens and identify neutralising antibodies capable of disrupting spike-ACE2 interactions in high-throughput enables large-scale analyses of humoral immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination. The reagents are available to enable scaling up of standardised serological assays, permitting inter-laboratory data comparison and aggregation.

2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e2146798, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1694847

ABSTRACT

Importance: The incidence of infection during SARS-CoV-2 viral waves, the factors associated with infection, and the durability of antibody responses to infection among Canadian adults remain undocumented. Objective: To assess the cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first 2 viral waves in Canada by measuring seropositivity among adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Action to Beat Coronavirus study conducted 2 rounds of an online survey about COVID-19 experience and analyzed immunoglobulin G levels based on participant-collected dried blood spots (DBS) to assess the cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first and second viral waves in Canada. A sample of 19 994 Canadian adults (aged ≥18 years) was recruited from established members of the Angus Reid Forum, a public polling organization. The study comprised 2 phases (phase 1 from May 1 to September 30, 2020, and phase 2 from December 1, 2020, to March 31, 2021) that generally corresponded to the first (April 1 to July 31, 2020) and second (October 1, 2020, to March 1, 2021) viral waves. Main Outcomes and Measures: SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G seropositivity (using a chemiluminescence assay) by major geographic and demographic variables and correlation with COVID-19 symptom reporting. Results: Among 19 994 adults who completed the online questionnaire in phase 1, the mean (SD) age was 50.9 (15.4) years, and 10 522 participants (51.9%) were female; 2948 participants (14.5%) had self-identified racial and ethnic minority group status, and 1578 participants (8.2%) were self-identified Indigenous Canadians. Among participants in phase 1, 8967 had DBS testing. In phase 2, 14 621 adults completed online questionnaires, and 7102 of those had DBS testing. Of 19 994 adults who completed the online survey in phase 1, fewer had an educational level of some college or less (4747 individuals [33.1%]) compared with the general population in Canada (45.0%). Survey respondents were otherwise representative of the general population, including in prevalence of known risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among unvaccinated adults increased from 1.9% in phase 1 to 6.5% in phase 2. The seropositivity pattern was demographically and geographically heterogeneous during phase 1 but more homogeneous by phase 2 (with a cumulative incidence ranging from 6.4% to 7.0% in most regions). The exception was the Atlantic region, in which cumulative incidence reached only 3.3% (odds ratio [OR] vs Ontario, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.21-1.02). A total of 47 of 188 adults (25.3%) reporting COVID-19 symptoms during phase 2 were seropositive, and the OR of seropositivity for COVID-19 symptoms was 6.15 (95% CI, 2.02-18.69). In phase 2, 94 of 444 seropositive adults (22.2%) reported having no symptoms. Of 134 seropositive adults in phase 1 who were retested in phase 2, 111 individuals (81.8%) remained seropositive. Participants who had a history of diabetes (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.38-0.90) had lower odds of having detectable antibodies in phase 2. Conclusions and Relevance: The Action to Beat Coronavirus study found that the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Canada was modest until March 2021, and this incidence was lower than the levels of population immunity required to substantially reduce transmission of the virus. Ongoing vaccination efforts remain central to reducing viral transmission and mortality. Assessment of future infection-induced and vaccine-induced immunity is practicable through the use of serial online surveys and participant-collected DBS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , Canada/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322524

ABSTRACT

Background: The prevalence of infection in Canada’s COVID-19 viral waves, the predictors of infection, and the durability of antibody responses to infection remain undocumented.Methods: We organized serial online surveys of a representative group of Canadian adults about their COVID experience in the first (n=19 994;April-July 2020) and second viral wave (n=14 621;October 2020-March 2021). We paired these with IgG analysis of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in self-collected dried blood spots after the first (n=8967) and second (n=7102) waves.Findings: Canada’s cumulative seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among unvaccinated adults rose from ~2% after the first wave to 7% after the second. The seropositivity pattern was heterogeneous demographically and geographically during the first wave, but more homogeneous by the second (except in the four Atlantic Provinces, cumulative seroprevalence ~3%). Seroprevalence among visible minorities rose sharply from about 2% to >8% from the first to second wave. About a quarter of those reporting COVID symptoms during the second wave were seropositive, and in both waves the odds ratio (OR) of seropositivity for COVID symptoms exceeded six. About one-fifth of seropositives reported no symptoms. Of 134 seropositive adults in the first wave who were retested after the second, 83% (111) remained seropositive at least seven months later. Current smokers and people with a history of diabetes had lower ORs of infection. We calculated the absolute numbers of seropositive adults nationwide, which nearly quadrupled from 0.57 million to 1.90 million, with the largest increases among older adults. Infection fatality rates fell from 3.7 to 2.6/1000 infections, most notably at older ages.Interpretation: Canada’s COVID pandemic grew substantially between the first and second viral waves. Home-based DBS collection offers a practicable way to document evolving demographic and geographic patterns and to assess the levels and durability of population immunity, including from SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.Funding: Pfizer Global Medical, Unity Health Foundation, and the Canadian COVID-19 Immunity Task Force. Declaration of Interest: None to declare. Ethical Approval: The Ab-C study was approved by the Unity Health Toronto Ethics Review Board.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306015

ABSTRACT

Population scale sweeps of viral pathogens, such as SARS-CoV-2, require high intensity testing for effective management. This protocol describes the “Systematic Parallel Analysis of RNA coupled to Sequencing for Covid-19 screening” (C19-SPAR-Seq), a multiplexed, scalable, readily automated platform for SARS-CoV-2 detection that is capable of analyzing tens of thousands of patient samples in a single run. To address strict requirements for control of assay parameters and output demanded by clinical diagnostics, we employed a control-based Precision-Recall and Receiver Operator Characteristics (coPR) analysis to assign run-specific quality control metrics. C19-SPAR-Seq coupled to coPR on a trial cohort of several hundred patients performed with a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 91% on samples with low viral loads, and a sensitivity of > 95% on high viral loads associated with disease onset and peak transmissibility. This study establishes the feasibility of employing C19-SPAR-Seq for the large-scale monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 and other pathogens.

5.
Virol J ; 18(1): 99, 2021 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232429

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sensitive, rapid, and accessible diagnostics continue to be critical to track the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. RT-qPCR is the gold standard test, and comparison of methodologies and reagents, utilizing patient samples, is important to establish reliable diagnostic pipelines. METHODS: Here, we assessed indirect methods that require RNA extraction with direct RT-qPCR on patient samples. Four different RNA extraction kits (Qiagen, Invitrogen, BGI and Norgen Biotek) were compared. For detection, we assessed two recently developed Taqman-based modules (BGI and Norgen Biotek), a SYBR green-based approach (NEB Luna Universal One-Step Kit) with published and newly-developed primers, and clinical results (Seegene STARMag RNA extraction system and Allplex 2019-nCoV RT-qPCR assay). We also tested and optimized direct, extraction-free detection using these RT-qPCR systems and performed a cost analysis of the different methods evaluated here. RESULTS: Most RNA isolation procedures performed similarly, and while all RT-qPCR modules effectively detected purified viral RNA, the BGI system provided overall superior performance (lower detection limit, lower Ct values and higher sensitivity), generating comparable results to original clinical diagnostic data, and identifying samples ranging from 65 copies to 2.1 × 105 copies of viral genome/µl. However, the BGI detection system is more expensive than other options tested here. With direct RT-qPCR, simply adding an RNase inhibitor greatly improved detection, without the need for any other treatments (e.g. lysis buffers or boiling). The best direct methods detected ~ 10 fold less virus than indirect methods, but this simplified approach reduced sample handling, as well as assay time and cost. CONCLUSIONS: With extracted RNA, the BGI RT-qPCR detection system exhibited superior performance over the Norgen system, matching initial clinical diagnosis with the Seegene Allplex assay. The BGI system was also suitable for direct, extraction-free analysis, providing 78.4% sensitivity. The Norgen system, however, still accurately detected samples with a clinical Ct < 33 from extracted RNA, provided significant cost savings, and was superior to SYBR green assays that exhibited reduced specificity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling/methods , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1405, 2021 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117349

ABSTRACT

Population scale sweeps of viral pathogens, such as SARS-CoV-2, require high intensity testing for effective management. Here, we describe "Systematic Parallel Analysis of RNA coupled to Sequencing for Covid-19 screening" (C19-SPAR-Seq), a multiplexed, scalable, readily automated platform for SARS-CoV-2 detection that is capable of analyzing tens of thousands of patient samples in a single run. To address strict requirements for control of assay parameters and output demanded by clinical diagnostics, we employ a control-based Precision-Recall and Receiver Operator Characteristics (coPR) analysis to assign run-specific quality control metrics. C19-SPAR-Seq coupled to coPR on a trial cohort of several hundred patients performs with a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 91% on samples with low viral loads, and a sensitivity of >95% on high viral loads associated with disease onset and peak transmissibility. This study establishes the feasibility of employing C19-SPAR-Seq for the large-scale monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 and other pathogens.


Subject(s)
High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Viral Load
8.
Sci Immunol ; 5(52)2020 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-842548

ABSTRACT

While the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 has been extensively studied in blood, relatively little is known about the antibody response in saliva and its relationship to systemic antibody levels. Here, we profiled by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) IgG, IgA and IgM responses to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (full length trimer) and its receptor-binding domain (RBD) in serum and saliva of acute and convalescent patients with laboratory-diagnosed COVID-19 ranging from 3-115 days post-symptom onset (PSO), compared to negative controls. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses were readily detected in serum and saliva, with peak IgG levels attained by 16-30 days PSO. Longitudinal analysis revealed that anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA and IgM antibodies rapidly decayed, while IgG antibodies remained relatively stable up to 105 days PSO in both biofluids. Lastly, IgG, IgM and to a lesser extent IgA responses to spike and RBD in the serum positively correlated with matched saliva samples. This study confirms that serum and saliva IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 are maintained in the majority of COVID-19 patients for at least 3 months PSO. IgG responses in saliva may serve as a surrogate measure of systemic immunity to SARS-CoV-2 based on their correlation with serum IgG responses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Saliva/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
9.
JCI Insight ; 5(19)2020 10 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-737501

ABSTRACT

Most of the patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mount a humoral immune response to the virus within a few weeks of infection, but the duration of this response and how it correlates with clinical outcomes has not been completely characterized. Of particular importance is the identification of immune correlates of infection that would support public health decision-making on treatment approaches, vaccination strategies, and convalescent plasma therapy. While ELISA-based assays to detect and quantitate antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in patient samples have been developed, the detection of neutralizing antibodies typically requires more demanding cell-based viral assays. Here, we present a safe and efficient protein-based assay for the detection of serum and plasma antibodies that block the interaction of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) with its receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The assay serves as a surrogate neutralization assay and is performed on the same platform and in parallel with an ELISA for the detection of antibodies against the RBD, enabling a direct comparison. The results obtained with our assay correlate with those of 2 viral-based assays, a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) that uses live SARS-CoV-2 virus and a spike pseudotyped viral vector-based assay.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Area Under Curve , COVID-19 , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , Regression Analysis , Sampling Studies , Treatment Outcome , Viral Envelope Proteins/immunology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL