Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 10 de 10
Filter
1.
Nat Microbiol ; 7(6): 896-908, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873507

ABSTRACT

Genetically distinct variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have emerged since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. Over this period, we developed a rapid platform (R-20) for viral isolation and characterization using primary remnant diagnostic swabs. This, combined with quarantine testing and genomics surveillance, enabled the rapid isolation and characterization of all major SARS-CoV-2 variants circulating in Australia in 2021. Our platform facilitated viral variant isolation, rapid resolution of variant fitness using nasopharyngeal swabs and ranking of evasion of neutralizing antibodies. In late 2021, variant of concern Omicron (B1.1.529) emerged. Using our platform, we detected and characterized SARS-CoV-2 VOC Omicron. We show that Omicron effectively evades neutralization antibodies and has a different entry route that is TMPRSS2-independent. Our low-cost platform is available to all and can detect all variants of SARS-CoV-2 studied so far, with the main limitation being that our platform still requires appropriate biocontainment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Australia , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
2.
Eur Respir Rev ; 31(164)2022 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833275

ABSTRACT

Respiratory virus infections initiate in the upper respiratory tract (URT). Innate immunity is critical for initial control of infection at this site, particularly in the absence of mucosal virus-neutralising antibodies. If the innate immune response is inadequate, infection can spread to the lower respiratory tract (LRT) causing community-acquired pneumonia (as exemplified by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)/coronavirus disease 2019). Vaccines for respiratory viruses (influenza and SARS-CoV-2) leverage systemic adaptive immunity to protect from severe lung disease. However, the URT remains vulnerable to infection, enabling viral transmission and posing an ongoing risk of severe disease in populations that lack effective adaptive immunity.Innate immunity is triggered by host cell recognition of viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns via molecular sensors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Here we review the role of TLRs in respiratory viral infections and the potential of TLR-targeted treatments to enhance airway antiviral immunity to limit progression to severe LRT disease and reduce person-to-person viral transmission. By considering cellular localisation and antiviral mechanisms of action and treatment route/timing, we propose that cell surface TLR agonist therapies are a viable strategy for preventing respiratory viral diseases by providing immediate, durable pan-viral protection within the URT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Lung , Toll-Like Receptors
3.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 415, 2022 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821623

ABSTRACT

IL-25 is implicated in the pathogenesis of viral asthma exacerbations. However, the effect of IL-25 on antiviral immunity has yet to be elucidated. We observed abundant expression and colocalization of IL-25 and IL-25 receptor at the apical surface of uninfected airway epithelial cells and rhinovirus infection increased IL-25 expression. Analysis of immune transcriptome of rhinovirus-infected differentiated asthmatic bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) treated with an anti-IL-25 monoclonal antibody (LNR125) revealed a re-calibrated response defined by increased type I/III IFN and reduced expression of type-2 immune genes CCL26, IL1RL1 and IL-25 receptor. LNR125 treatment also increased type I/III IFN expression by coronavirus infected BECs. Exogenous IL-25 treatment increased viral load with suppressed innate immunity. In vivo LNR125 treatment reduced IL-25/type 2 cytokine expression and increased IFN-ß expression and reduced lung viral load. We define a new immune-regulatory role for IL-25 that directly inhibits virus induced airway epithelial cell innate anti-viral immunity.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Interleukin-17/immunology , Virus Diseases , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Asthma/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Rhinovirus
4.
Viruses ; 14(1)2022 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632083

ABSTRACT

Rhinoviruses (RVs) have been reported as one of the main viral causes for severe respiratory illnesses that may require hospitalization, competing with the burden of other respiratory viruses such as influenza and RSV in terms of severity, economic cost, and resource utilization. With three species and 169 subtypes, RV presents the greatest diversity within the Enterovirus genus, and despite the efforts of the research community to identify clinically relevant subtypes to target therapeutic strategies, the role of species and subtype in the clinical outcomes of RV infection remains unclear. This review aims to collect and organize data relevant to RV illness in order to find patterns and links with species and/or subtype, with a specific focus on species and subtype diversity in clinical studies typing of respiratory samples.


Subject(s)
Picornaviridae Infections/virology , Rhinovirus/classification , Rhinovirus/genetics , Asthma/etiology , Coinfection/virology , Enterovirus , Enterovirus Infections/virology , Genotyping Techniques , Hospitalization , Humans , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Serotyping
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 648004, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175544

ABSTRACT

Background: Deficient interferon responses have been proposed as one of the relevant mechanisms prompting severe manifestations of COVID-19. Objective: To evaluate the interferon (IFN)-α levels in a cohort of COVID-19 patients in relation to severity, evolution of the clinical manifestations and immune/inflammatory profile. Methods: This is prospective study recruiting consecutive hospitalized patients with respiratory failure associated with SARS-COV-2 infection and matched controls. After enrollment, patients were assessed every 7 ± 2 days for additional 2 consecutive visits, for a total of 21 days. The severity of the clinical condition was ranked based on the level of respiratory support required. At each time-point blood samples were obtained to assess immune cells and mediators by multiplex immunoassay. Results: Fifty-four COVD-19 and 11 control patients matched for severity were enrolled. At recruitment, lower levels of blood IFN-α were found in COVID-19 patients compared to controls (3.8-fold difference, p < 0.01). Improvements in COVID-19 severity were paralleled by a significant increase of blood IFN-α levels. A significant increase in blood IFN-α was found over the study period in survivors (70% of the study population). A similar trend was found for blood IFN-ß with IFN-ß levels below the threshold of detectability in a substantial proportion of subjects. Significantly higher values of blood lymphocytes and lower levels of IL-10 were found at each time point in patients who survived compared to patients who died. In patients who clinically improved and survived during the study, we found an inverse association between IL-10 and IFN-α levels. Conclusion: The study identifies a blood immune profile defined by deficient IFN-α levels associated with increased IL-10 expression in patients progressing to severe/life threatening COVID-19 conditions, suggesting the involvement of immunological pathways that could be target of pharmacological intervention. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT04343053.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Interferon-alpha/blood , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 648004, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154220

ABSTRACT

Background: Deficient interferon responses have been proposed as one of the relevant mechanisms prompting severe manifestations of COVID-19. Objective: To evaluate the interferon (IFN)-α levels in a cohort of COVID-19 patients in relation to severity, evolution of the clinical manifestations and immune/inflammatory profile. Methods: This is prospective study recruiting consecutive hospitalized patients with respiratory failure associated with SARS-COV-2 infection and matched controls. After enrollment, patients were assessed every 7 ± 2 days for additional 2 consecutive visits, for a total of 21 days. The severity of the clinical condition was ranked based on the level of respiratory support required. At each time-point blood samples were obtained to assess immune cells and mediators by multiplex immunoassay. Results: Fifty-four COVD-19 and 11 control patients matched for severity were enrolled. At recruitment, lower levels of blood IFN-α were found in COVID-19 patients compared to controls (3.8-fold difference, p < 0.01). Improvements in COVID-19 severity were paralleled by a significant increase of blood IFN-α levels. A significant increase in blood IFN-α was found over the study period in survivors (70% of the study population). A similar trend was found for blood IFN-ß with IFN-ß levels below the threshold of detectability in a substantial proportion of subjects. Significantly higher values of blood lymphocytes and lower levels of IL-10 were found at each time point in patients who survived compared to patients who died. In patients who clinically improved and survived during the study, we found an inverse association between IL-10 and IFN-α levels. Conclusion: The study identifies a blood immune profile defined by deficient IFN-α levels associated with increased IL-10 expression in patients progressing to severe/life threatening COVID-19 conditions, suggesting the involvement of immunological pathways that could be target of pharmacological intervention. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT04343053.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Interferon-alpha/blood , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index
7.
EBioMedicine ; 63: 103153, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-956065

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is a major ongoing global threat with huge economic burden. Like all respiratory viruses, SARS-CoV-2 initiates infection in the upper respiratory tract (URT). Infected individuals are often asymptomatic, yet highly infectious and readily transmit virus. A therapy that restricts initial replication in the URT has the potential to prevent progression of severe lower respiratory tract disease as well as limiting person-to-person transmission. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 Victoria/01/2020 was passaged in Vero/hSLAM cells and virus titre determined by plaque assay. Challenge virus was delivered by intranasal instillation to female ferrets at 5.0 × 106 pfu/ml. Treatment groups received intranasal INNA-051, developed by Ena Respiratory. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected using the 2019-nCoV CDC RUO Kit and QuantStudio™ 7 Flex Real-Time PCR System. Histopathological analysis was performed using cut tissues stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E). FINDINGS: We show that prophylactic intra-nasal administration of the TLR2/6 agonist INNA-051 in a SARS-CoV-2 ferret infection model effectively reduces levels of viral RNA in the nose and throat. After 5 days post-exposure to SARS-CoV-2, INNA-051 significantly reduced virus in throat swabs (p=<0.0001) by up to a 24 fold (96% reduction) and in nasal wash (p=0.0107) up to a 15 fold (93% reduction) in comparison to untreated animals. INTERPRETATION: The results of our study support clinical development of a therapy based on prophylactic TLR2/6 innate immune activation in the URT, to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission and provide protection against COVID-19. FUNDING: This work was funded by Ena Respiratory, Melbourne, Australia.


Subject(s)
Lipopeptides/administration & dosage , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Toll-Like Receptor 2/agonists , Toll-Like Receptor 6/agonists , Virus Shedding , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Ferrets , Immunity, Innate , Lipopeptides/chemistry , Lipopeptides/pharmacology , Nasal Cavity/pathology , Nasal Cavity/virology , Pharynx/pathology , Pharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory System/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load/drug effects
8.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 319(6): L926-L931, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-951850

ABSTRACT

The recurrent emergence of novel, pathogenic coronaviruses (CoVs) severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1; 2002), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV (2012), and most recently SARS-CoV-2 (2019) has highlighted the need for physiologically informative airway epithelial cell infection models for studying immunity to CoVs and development of antiviral therapies. To address this, we developed an in vitro infection model for two human coronaviruses; alphacoronavirus 229E-CoV (229E) and betacoronavirus OC43-CoV (OC43) in differentiated primary human bronchial epithelial cells (pBECs). Primary BECs from healthy subjects were grown at air-liquid interface (ALI) and infected with 229E or OC43, and replication kinetics and time-course expression of innate immune mediators were assessed. OC43 and 229E-CoVs replicated in differentiated pBECs but displayed distinct replication kinetics: 229E replicated rapidly with viral load peaking at 24 h postinfection, while OC43 replication was slower peaking at 96 h after infection. This was associated with diverse antiviral response profiles defined by increased expression of type I/III interferons and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) by 229E compared with no innate immune activation with OC43 infection. Understanding the host-virus interaction for previously established coronaviruses will give insight into pathogenic mechanisms underpinning SARS-CoV-2-induced respiratory disease and other future coronaviruses that may arise from zoonotic sources.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Bronchi/immunology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Virus Replication/drug effects , Bronchi/drug effects , Bronchi/virology , Cells, Cultured , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Interferons/metabolism
9.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 147(2): 510-519.e5, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872184

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying altered susceptibility and propensity to severe Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease in at-risk groups such as patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are poorly understood. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) are widely used in COPD, but the extent to which these therapies protect or expose patients to risk of severe COVID-19 is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ICSs following pulmonary expression of the SARS-CoV-2 viral entry receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2). METHODS: We evaluated the effect of ICS administration on pulmonary ACE2 expression in vitro in human airway epithelial cell cultures and in vivo in mouse models of ICS administration. Mice deficient in the type I IFN-α/ß receptor (Ifnar1-/-) and administration of exogenous IFN-ß were used to study the functional role of type-I interferon signaling in ACE2 expression. We compared sputum ACE2 expression in patients with COPD stratified according to use or nonuse of ICS. RESULTS: ICS administration attenuated ACE2 expression in mice, an effect that was reversed by exogenous IFN-ß administration, and Ifnar1-/- mice had reduced ACE2 expression, indicating that type I interferon contributes mechanistically to this effect. ICS administration attenuated expression of ACE2 in airway epithelial cell cultures from patients with COPD and in mice with elastase-induced COPD-like changes. Compared with ICS nonusers, patients with COPD who were taking ICSs also had reduced sputum expression of ACE2. CONCLUSION: ICS therapies in COPD reduce expression of the SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor ACE2. This effect may thus contribute to altered susceptibility to COVID-19 in patients with COPD.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , COVID-19 , Interferon Type I/antagonists & inhibitors , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Administration, Inhalation , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Bronchi/cytology , Cells, Cultured , Disease Susceptibility , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Female , Humans , Interferon Type I/immunology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/immunology , Male , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/genetics , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics
10.
FASEB Bioadv ; 2(5): 296-303, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-47522

ABSTRACT

Growth factor receptors are known to be involved in the process of viral infection. Many viruses not only use growth factor receptors to physically attach to the cell surface and internalize, but also divert receptor tyrosine kinase signaling in order to replicate. Thus, repurposing drugs that have initially been developed to target growth factor receptors and their signaling in cancer may prove to be a fast track to effective therapies against emerging new viral infections, including the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19).

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL