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1.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 178, 2022 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35701812

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) may represent an invaluable tool for optimizing antimicrobial therapy in septic patients, but extensive use is burdened by barriers. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a newly established expert clinical pharmacological advice (ECPA) program in improving the clinical usefulness of an already existing TDM program for emerging candidates in tailoring antimicrobial therapy among critically ill patients. METHODS: This retrospective observational study included an organizational phase (OP) and an assessment phase (AP). During the OP (January-June 2021), specific actions were organized by MD clinical pharmacologists together with bioanalytical experts, clinical engineers, and ICU clinicians. During the AP (July-December 2021), the impact of these actions in optimizing antimicrobial treatment of the critically ill patients was assessed. Four indicators of performance of the TDM-guided real-time ECPA program were identified [total TDM-guided ECPAs July-December 2021/total TDM results July-December 2020; total ECPA dosing adjustments/total delivered ECPAs both at first assessment and overall; and turnaround time (TAT) of ECPAs, defined as optimal (< 12 h), quasi-optimal (12-24 h), acceptable (24-48 h), suboptimal (> 48 h)]. RESULTS: The OP allowed to implement new organizational procedures, to create a dedicated pathway in the intranet system, to offer educational webinars on clinical pharmacology of antimicrobials, and to establish a multidisciplinary team at the morning bedside ICU meeting. In the AP, a total of 640 ECPAs were provided for optimizing 261 courses of antimicrobial therapy in 166 critically ill patients. ECPAs concerned mainly piperacillin-tazobactam (41.8%) and meropenem (24.9%), and also other antimicrobials had ≥ 10 ECPAs (ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, fluconazole, ganciclovir, levofloxacin, and linezolid). Overall, the pre-post-increase in TDM activity was of 13.3-fold. TDM-guided dosing adjustments were recommended at first assessment in 61.7% of ECPAs (10.7% increases and 51.0% decreases), and overall in 45.0% of ECPAs (10.0% increases and 35.0% decreases). The overall median TAT was optimal (7.7 h) and that of each single agent was always optimal or quasi-optimal. CONCLUSIONS: Multidisciplinary approach and timely expert interpretation of TDM results by MD Clinical Pharmacologists could represent cornerstones in improving the cost-effectiveness of an antimicrobial TDM program for emerging TDM candidates.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Drug Monitoring , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Critical Illness/therapy , Drug Monitoring/methods , Humans , Meropenem
2.
Front Oncol ; 12: 880008, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35692798

ABSTRACT

Background: Endometrial cancer (EC) therapeutic and diagnostic approaches have been changed by the development of a new prognostic molecular classification, the introduction of dostarlimab in microsatellite instability (MSI) high pre-treated advanced EC patients with further expected innovation deriving from lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab regardless MSI status. How this is and will be translated and embedded in the clinical setting in Italy is not known; this is why we developed Multicentre Italian Trials in Ovarian cancer and gynaecologic malignancies (MITO) survey on the current practice and expected future changes in EC. Methods: We designed a self-administered, multiple-choice online questionnaire available only for MITO members for one month, starting in April 2021. Results: 75.6% of the respondents were oncologists with a specific focus on gynaecologic malignancies and 73.3% of the respondents declared the availability of clinical trials in second line treatment for advanced EC. The therapeutic algorithm in second line was heterogeneous, being the most frequent choice administering anthracyclines followed by endocrine therapy or enrolling in clinical trials. While more than half of the clinicians declared that they performed the molecular classification, only six/45 respondents (13.3%) ran all the tests needed for it. On the other hand, 80% of them declared regular assessment of MSI status with IHC as recommended. The therapeutic approach in MSI high advanced EC patients has changed since dostarlimab approval. Indeed the most frequent choice in second line has been chemotherapy (53.3%) before its availability, while dostarlimab has been preferred in more than three-fourths of the cases (75.6%) after its approval. As for MSS patients, 77.8% of clinicians would choose lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab for them in second line once approved. Conclusions: Despite the selected sample of respondents from Italian MITO centres showing good knowledge of diagnostic and therapeutic innovations in EC, these are not fully implemented in everyday clinics, except for MSI status assessment.

3.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 29: 386-389, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35569757

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Conditions favouring persistent enterococcal bacteraemia (p-EB) have not been fully investigated yet. The aim of our study is to analyse risk factors for p-EB and its impact on mortality. METHODS: International two-centre retrospective study of all hospitalised adults with enterococcal bacteraemia managed with follow-up blood cultures (BCs) during the period 2011-2019. Exclusion criteria were: (1) death within 72 hours from index BCs and (2) polymicrobial bacteraemia. Primary endpoint was p-EB, defined as further isolation of the same species of Enterococcus spp. from BCs after at least 72 hours of appropriate antibiotic therapy. Multivariable logistic regression model was performed to assess risk factors for p-EB. The impact of p-EB on 30-day mortality was assessed by Kaplan-Meier survival curve and Cox regression multivariable model. RESULTS: During the study period, 244 enterococcal bacteraemia were diagnosed. P-EB were 13.5% (33/244). At multivariable analysis, factors independently associated with p-EB were hematologic malignancy (OR 4.60 [95% CI 1.32-16.00], P = 0.01), infective endocarditis (OR 7.99 [95% CI 2.20-28.9], P = 0.002), and use of daptomycin as initial treatment (OR 4.50 [95% CI 1.29-15.61], P = 0.018). Mortality rate was higher in the p-EB group (32% vs. 18%). Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed that patients with p-EB were less likely to survive at 30 days from index BCs (log-rank P = 0.002). Using a Cox regression model, independent predictors of 30-day mortality were hematologic malignancy (HR 2.30 [95% CI 1.02-4.11], P = 0.043), p-EB (HR 1.93 [95% CI 0.92-4.04], P = 0.08), and septic shock (HR 5.92 [95% CI 2.17-16.30], P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: P-EB was diagnosed mainly in very fragile patients and in those receiving daptomycin as frontline therapy. P-EB may have an impact on mortality.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , Daptomycin , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections , Hematologic Neoplasms , Adult , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
4.
Microorganisms ; 10(4)2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35456827

ABSTRACT

Novel carbapenem-ß-lactamase inhibitor combination, imipenem/relebactam (IMI-REL), has been recently approved for treatment of infections with limited or no alternative treatment options. In this study, we described the emergence of the IMI-REL-resistance in a KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) strain collected from a hematological patient with no evidence of prior colonization. Interestingly, IMI-REL-resistance was associated with meropenem/vaborbactam (MER-VAB) cross-resistance but was not associated with cross-resistance to ceftazidime/avibactam (CAZ-AVI). Although treatment with CAZ-AVI and gentamicin completely eradicated the infection due KPC-Kp cross-resistance to IMI-REL and MER-VAB, the patient became colonized subsequently by KPC-Kp strains susceptible to IMI-REL and MER-VAB. Whole-genome sequencing performed by hybrid approach using Illumina and Oxford Nanopore platforms demonstrated that all KPC-Kp strains isolated from hematological patient belonged to the ST512 and were clonally related. Analysis of antimicrobial and porins genes demonstrated that cross-resistance to IMI-REL and MER-VAB was associated with increased blaKPC-3 copy number and truncated OmpK35 and OmpK36 with GD134-135 insertion. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that KPC-Kp cross-resistance to IMI-REL and MER-VAB was clonally related to a KPC-Kp resistant to IMI-REL as previously described, demonstrating the spread of this multidrug resistant clone in the hematological unit. In conclusion, the results presented in this study reported the emergence of cross-resistance to MER-VAB and IMI-REL in a KPC-Kp strain isolated from a hematological patient and highlight the potential development and diffusion of new multidrug resistance traits.

5.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 8(4)2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35448621

ABSTRACT

First reports of cases and case series of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) emerged during the first months of the pandemic. Prevalence rates varied widely due to the fact that CAPA was, and still remains, challenging to diagnose in patients with COVID-19-associated acute respiratory failure (ARF). The clinical picture and radiological findings of CAPA are unspecific and can resemble those of severe COVID-19. Hence, mycological evidence became a key component in establishing a diagnosis. However, blood tests lack sensitivity in early treatable phases of CAPA and once positive, mortality has been shown to exceed 80% despite systemic antifungal therapy. The primarily airway invasive growth in non-neutropenic patients and the late occurrence of angioinvasion in the course of disease may mainly account for these diagnostic obstacles. Testing of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is therefore crucial in the diagnostic process, but was rarely performed during the early phase of the pandemic, which potentially interfered with the accuracy of reported prevalence. Current guidelines recommend treatment of CAPA during its early airway invasive phase, which may result in some overtreatment (i.e., treatment in patients that may not develop angioinvasive infection) and adverse drug events, yet there is no viable alternative approach. Timely treatment of cases needs to be ensured for patients with mycological evidence of CAPA in the lower respiratory tract given the independent contribution of CAPA to devastating mortality rates of around 50% that have been shown in multiple studies. Here, we review the evolution of reported CAPA prevalence and the role of CAPA as an important opportunistic infection affecting COVID-19 patients in intensive care units (ICUs).

6.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 77(6): 1570-1577, 2022 05 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35373297

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The novel carbapenem/ß-lactamase inhibitor combination imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam has been developed for the treatment of infections due to carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). Herein, we describe the in vivo evolution of imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam resistance in longitudinal intra-patient Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) strains isolated from a patient following ceftazidime/avibactam-based treatments. METHODS: WGS analysis was performed on KPC-Kp strains isolated at different times and during antimicrobial treatments from the same patient. Genome assemblies were performed using a hybrid approach using Illumina iSeq 100 and Minion Oxford Nanopore platforms. Subpopulation analysis and allele frequency determination was performed by mapping Illumina reads to blaKPC. RESULTS: During antimicrobial treatment, resistance to ceftazidime/avibactam was observed following 16 days of antimicrobial therapy. WGS results showed that all KPC-Kp exhibited a low SNP rate of divergence, belonged to ST512 and shared similar antimicrobial resistance and porin gene patterns. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the first ceftazidime/avibactam-resistant KPC-Kp strain harboured a blaKPC-53 gene in a Tn4401 transposon moved from IncFII(K) to a 43 kb IncX3 plasmid, while a imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam-resistant strain exhibited two copies of the Tn4401 transposon in IncFII(K) and IncX3 plasmids, resulting in an increased blaKPC copy number. Of note, frequency analysis demonstrated that imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam-resistant KPC-Kp consisted of mixed subpopulations harbouring blaKPC-40 and blaKPC-53 alleles. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show the in vivo evolution of genetic rearrangement conferring resistance to imipenem/relebactam in a patient with KPC-Kp infection and treated with different ceftazidime/avibactam-based treatments. The rapid development of mutations and the high adaptability of its genome highlight the potential threat of KPC-Kp.


Subject(s)
Ceftazidime , Klebsiella Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Azabicyclo Compounds/pharmacology , Azabicyclo Compounds/therapeutic use , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Ceftazidime/pharmacology , Ceftazidime/therapeutic use , Cilastatin , Drug Combinations , Humans , Imipenem/pharmacology , Imipenem/therapeutic use , Klebsiella , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , beta-Lactamases/genetics
8.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 32(6): 799-803, 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35318277

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors have transformed the management landscape for patients with ovarian cancer, demonstrating remarkable improvements in progression-free survival and overall survival. Unfortunately, most relapses are due to an acquired mechanism of resistance to these agents. We hypothesize that secondary cytoreductive surgery, removing resistant clones, might help to overcome the development of resistance to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, prolonging their therapeutic effect. PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of olaparib beyond progression compared with standard platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer progressed during or after poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor maintenance therapy after secondary cytoreductive surgery. STUDY HYPOTHESIS: Olaparib administered beyond progression is more effective in increasing progression-free survival and progression-free survival 2 compared with second-line platinum-based chemotherapy in patients after secondary cytoreductive surgery. TRIAL DESIGN: Phase III, randomized, open-label, multicenter trial. Eligible patients will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive olaparib or platinum-based chemotherapy of the investigator's choice. MAJOR ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Eligible patients must have high-grade serous or endometrioid ovarian cancer progressed during or after first-line poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor maintenance therapy and must have undergone secondary cytoreductive surgery. PRIMARY ENDPOINT: The dual primary endpoints will include progression-free survival and progression-free survival 2. Progression-free survival is defined by the investigator using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1 as the time between randomization and progression or death from any cause. Progression-free survival 2 is defined by the investigator using RECIST version 1.1 as the time frame from randomization to the second progression or death from any cause after subsequent treatment. SAMPLE SIZE: Approximately 200 patients will be enrolled in this study. ESTIMATED DATES FOR COMPLETING ACCRUAL AND PRESENTING RESULTS: Enrollment will be completed in 2024. Results will be presented in 2026. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT 2021-000245-41 NCT05255471.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Mangifera , Ovarian Neoplasms , Adenosine Diphosphate/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Ovarian Epithelial/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Ovarian Epithelial/surgery , Cytoreduction Surgical Procedures , Female , Humans , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/drug therapy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery , Ovarian Neoplasms/drug therapy , Ovarian Neoplasms/surgery , Phthalazines , Piperazines , Platinum/therapeutic use , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors , Ribose/therapeutic use
10.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 2022 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35307571

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In this study we investigated the rate of susceptibility testing discrepancies between semi-automated and reference systems with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) and the impact of alleged errors by semi-automated systems on guiding targeted therapy for CRE bloodstream infection (BSI). METHODS: This was a multicentre, retrospective study enrolling patients with monomicrobial BSI caused by CRE from January 2013 to December 2016. Nonduplicate isolates from index blood cultures tested locally with semi-automated systems were centralized at a referral laboratory and retested with a reference broth microdilution or agar dilution method. RESULTS: We enrolled 366 patients with CRE-BSI; 220 (60%) were male, and the median age was 67 years (interquartile range, 54-76 years). When compared with the results of the reference methods, those of the semi-automated systems exhibited variable rates of very major errors (VMEs; i.e. false susceptibilities) and major errors (MEs; i.e. false resistances). The highest rates of VMEs were observed with fosfomycin (14%) and colistin (13.9%), and the highest rates of MEs were observed with gentamicin (21%), fosfomycin (7.7%), and tigecycline (34%). Overall, VMEs and MEs led clinicians to prescribe or confirm ineffective therapy in 25 of 341 patients (7%). Receipt of ineffective therapy supported by a misleading susceptibility test was associated with higher 30-day mortality rates by Kaplan-Meier survival curves rates compared with receipt of active therapy (56% vs. 26%; p = 0.002), and the difference was confirmed after adjustment for confounders in a Cox regression model (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.91; 95% CI, 1.62-5.22; p < 0.001). DISCUSSION: MEs and VMEs were relatively common with semi-automated susceptibility testing systems. VMEs were associated with inappropriate use of antibiotics and poorer outcomes.

11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 117: 233-240, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35150910

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has intensified interest in how the infection affects the lung microbiome of critically ill patients and how it contributes to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We aimed to characterize the lower respiratory tract mycobiome of critically ill patients with COVID-19 in comparison to patients without COVID-19. METHODS: We performed an internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) profiling with the Illumina MiSeq platform on 26 respiratory specimens from patients with COVID-19 as well as from 26 patients with non-COVID-19 pneumonia. RESULTS: Patients with COVID-19 were more likely to be colonized with Candida spp. ARDS was associated with lung dysbiosis characterized by a shift to Candida species colonization and a decrease of fungal diversity. We also observed higher bacterial phylogenetic distance among taxa in colonized patients with COVID-19. In patients with COVID-19 not colonized with Candida spp., ITS2 amplicon sequencing revealed an increase of Ascomycota unassigned spp. and 1 Aspergillus spp.-positive specimen. In addition, we found that corticosteroid therapy was frequently associated with positive Galactomannan cell wall component of Aspergillus spp. among patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Our study underpins that ARDS in patients with COVID-19 is associated with lung dysbiosis and that an increased density of Ascomycota unassigned spp. is present in patients not colonized with Candida spp.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Candida/genetics , Critical Illness , Dysbiosis/complications , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Humans , Lung/microbiology , Pandemics , Phylogeny
12.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(2)2022 Jan 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35053468

ABSTRACT

High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is among the deadliest gynecological malignancies. The acquired resistance to platinum-based therapies and the intrinsic heterogeneity of the disease contribute to the low survival rate. To improve patients' outcomes, new combinatorial approaches able to target different tumor vulnerabilities and enhance the efficacy of the current therapies are required. AKT inhibitors are promising antineoplastic agents able to act in synergy with PARP inhibitors, but the spectrum of patients who can benefit from this combination is unclear, since the role of the three different isoforms of AKT is still unknown. Here, we study the expression of AKT isoforms on a retrospective cohort of archive tissue by RT-droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) analyzing their association with the clinicopathological features of patients. Based on AKT1/AKT2 and AKT1/AKT3 ratios, we define four AKT classes which were related to patients' survival, tumor morphology and BRCA1 expression. Moreover, our results show that high AKT3 expression levels were frequently associated with tumors having classic features, a low number of mitoses and the presence of psammoma bodies. Overall, our study obtains new insights on AKT isoforms and their associations with the clinicopathological features of HGSOC patients. These evidences could help to better define the subsets of patients who can benefit from AKT and PARP inhibitors therapy in future clinical trials.

14.
Infection ; 2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35488112

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to build a predictive model able to stratify the risk of bacterial co-infection at hospitalization in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Multicenter observational study of adult patients hospitalized from February to December 2020 with confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis. Endpoint was microbiologically documented bacterial co-infection diagnosed within 72 h from hospitalization. The cohort was randomly split into derivation and validation cohort. To investigate risk factors for co-infection univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. Predictive risk score was obtained assigning a point value corresponding to ß-coefficients to the variables in the multivariable model. ROC analysis in the validation cohort was used to estimate prediction accuracy. RESULTS: Overall, 1733 patients were analyzed: 61.4% males, median age 69 years (IQR 57-80), median Charlson 3 (IQR 2-6). Co-infection was diagnosed in 110 (6.3%) patients. Empirical antibiotics were started in 64.2 and 59.5% of patients with and without co-infection (p = 0.35). At multivariable analysis in the derivation cohort: WBC ≥ 7.7/mm3, PCT ≥ 0.2 ng/mL, and Charlson index ≥ 5 were risk factors for bacterial co-infection. A point was assigned to each variable obtaining a predictive score ranging from 0 to 5. In the validation cohort, ROC analysis showed AUC of 0.83 (95%CI 0.75-0.90). The optimal cut-point was ≥2 with sensitivity 70.0%, specificity 75.9%, positive predictive value 16.0% and negative predictive value 97.5%. According to individual risk score, patients were classified at low (point 0), intermediate (point 1), and high risk (point ≥ 2). CURB-65 ≥ 2 was further proposed to identify patients at intermediate risk who would benefit from early antibiotic coverage. CONCLUSIONS: Our score may be useful in stratifying bacterial co-infection risk in COVID-19 hospitalized patients, optimizing diagnostic testing and antibiotic use.

15.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(2): 222-238, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823008

ABSTRACT

SCOPE: In January 2021, the ESCMID Executive Committee decided to launch a new initiative to develop ESCMID guidelines on several COVID-19-related issues, including treatment of COVID-19. METHODS: An ESCMID COVID-19 guidelines task force was established by the ESCMID Executive Committee. A small group was established, half appointed by the chair, and the remaining selected with an open call. Each panel met virtually once a week. For all decisions, a simple majority vote was used. A long list of clinical questions using the PICO (population, intervention, comparison, outcome) format was developed at the beginning of the process. For each PICO, two panel members performed a literature search with a third panellist involved in case of inconsistent results. Voting was based on the GRADE approach. QUESTIONS ADDRESSED BY THE GUIDELINE AND RECOMMENDATIONS: A synthesis of the available evidence and recommendations is provided for each of the 15 PICOs, which cover use of hydroxychloroquine, bamlanivimab alone or in combination with etesevimab, casirivimab combined with imdevimab, ivermectin, azithromycin and empirical antibiotics, colchicine, corticosteroids, convalescent plasma, favipiravir, remdesivir, tocilizumab and interferon ß-1a, as well as the utility of antifungal prophylaxis and enoxaparin. In general, the panel recommended against the use of hydroxychloroquine, ivermectin, azithromycin, colchicine and interferon ß-1a. Conditional recommendations were given for the use of monoclonal antibodies in high-risk outpatients with mild-moderate COVID-19, and remdesivir. There was insufficient evidence to make a recommendation for use of favipiravir and antifungal prophylaxis, and it was recommended that antibiotics should not be routinely prescribed in patients with COVID-19 unless bacterial coinfection or secondary infection is suspected or confirmed. Tocilizumab and corticosteroids were recommended for treatment of severe COVID-19 but not in outpatients with non-severe COVID-19. SCOPE: The aim of the present guidance is to provide evidence-based recommendations for management of adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). More specifically, the goal is to aid clinicians managing patients with COVID-19 at various levels of severity including outpatients, hospitalized patients, and those admitted to intensive care unit. Considering the composition of the panel, mostly clinical microbiologists or infectious disease specialists with no pulmonology or intensive care background, we focus only on pharmacological treatment and do not give recommendations on oxygen supplement/support. Similarly, as no paediatricians were included in the panel; the recommendations are only for adult patients with COVID-19. Considering the current literature, no guidance was given for special populations such as the immunocompromised.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
16.
JAC Antimicrob Resist ; 3(4): dlab174, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806011

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To analyse the impact of cefiderocol use on outcome in patients admitted to the ICU for severe COVID-19 and further diagnosed with carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CR-Ab) infection. METHODS: Retrospective multicentre observational study was performed at four Italian hospitals, from January 2020 to April 2021. Adult patients admitted to ICU for severe COVID-19 and further diagnosed with CR-Ab infections were enrolled. Patients treated with cefiderocol, as compassionate use, for at least 72 h were compared with those receiving alternative regimens. Primary endpoint was all-cause 28 day mortality. The impact of cefiderocol on mortality was evaluated by multivariable Cox regression model. RESULTS: In total, 107 patients were enrolled (76% male, median age 65 years). The median time from ICU admission to CR-Ab infection diagnosis was 14 (IQR 8-20) days, and the main types of CR-Ab infections were bloodstream infection (58%) and lower respiratory tract infection (41%). Cefiderocol was administered to 42 patients within a median of 2 (IQR 1-4) days after CR-Ab infection diagnosis and as monotherapy in all cases. The remaining patients received colistin, mostly (82%) administered as combination therapy. All-cause 28 day mortality rate was 57%, without differences between groups (cefiderocol 55% versus colistin 58% P = 0.70). In multivariable analysis, the independent risk factor for mortality was SOFA score (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.15-1.38, P < 0.001). Cefiderocol was associated with a non-significant lower mortality risk (HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.38-1.08, P = 0.10). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the potential role of cefiderocol in the treatment of CR-Ab infection, but larger clinical studies are needed.

17.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 741248, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795637

ABSTRACT

Background: Hyperglycemia and obesity are associated with a worse prognosis in subjects with COVID-19 independently. Their interaction as well as the potential modulating effects of additional confounding factors is poorly known. Therefore, we aimed to identify and evaluate confounding factors affecting the prognostic value of obesity and hyperglycemia in relation to mortality and admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) due to COVID-19. Methods: Consecutive patients admitted in two Hospitals from Italy (Bologna and Rome) and three from Spain (Barcelona and Girona) as well as subjects from Primary Health Care centers. Mortality from COVID-19 and risk for ICU admission were evaluated using logistic regression analyses and machine learning (ML) algorithms. Results: As expected, among 3,065 consecutive patients, both obesity and hyperglycemia were independent predictors of ICU admission. A ML variable selection strategy confirmed these results and identified hyperglycemia, blood hemoglobin and serum bilirubin associated with increased mortality risk. In subjects with blood hemoglobin levels above the median, hyperglycemic and morbidly obese subjects had increased mortality risk than normoglycemic individuals or non-obese subjects. However, no differences were observed among individuals with hemoglobin levels below the median. This was particularly evident in men: those with severe hyperglycemia and hemoglobin concentrations above the median had 30 times increased mortality risk compared with men without hyperglycemia. Importantly, the protective effect of female sex was lost in subjects with increased hemoglobin levels. Conclusions: Blood hemoglobin substantially modulates the influence of hyperglycemia on increased mortality risk in patients with COVID-19. Monitoring hemoglobin concentrations seem of utmost importance in the clinical settings to help clinicians in the identification of patients at increased death risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Obesity, Morbid/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Incidence , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity, Morbid/blood , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk , Sex Factors , Spain , Survival Rate
18.
ACS Omega ; 6(43): 28611-28619, 2021 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746556

ABSTRACT

High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is one of the major life-threatening cancers in women, with a survival rate of less than 50%. So far, chemotherapy is the main therapeutic tool to cure this lethal disease; however, in many cases, it fails to cure HGSOC even with severe side effects. Self-therapeutic nanomaterials could be an effective alternative to chemotherapy, facilitated by their diverse physicochemical properties and the ability to generate reactive species for killing cancer cells. Herein, inorganic cobalt hydroxide nanosheets (Co(OH)2 NS) were synthesized by a simple solution process at room temperature, and morphological, spectroscopic, and crystallographic analyses revealed the formation of Co(OH)2 NS with good crystallinity and purity. The as-prepared Co(OH)2 NS showed excellent potency, comparable to the FDA-approved cisplatin drug to kill ovarian cancer cells. Flow cytometric analysis (nnexin V) revealed increased cellular apoptosis for Co(OH)2 NS than cobalt acetate (the precursor). Tracking experiments demonstrated that Co(OH)2 NS are internalized through the lysosome pathway, although relocalization in the cytoplasm has been observed. Hence, Co(OH)2 NS could be an effective self-therapeutic drug and open up an area for the optimization of self-therapeutic properties of cobalt nanomaterials for cancer treatment.

19.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 27: 294-298, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710630

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between cefiderocol pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) target attainment and microbiological outcome in critically ill patients affected by extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR-AB) bloodstream infection (BSI) and/or ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). METHODS: Patients who received compassionate use of cefiderocol to treat documented XDR-AB infections at the intensive care unit of the IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria of Bologna and who underwent therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) from 15 March 2021 to 30 April 2021 were retrospectively assessed. Cefiderocol trough concentration (Cmin) was determined at steady-state, and the free fraction (fCmin) was calculated according to a plasma protein binding of 58%. The fCmin/MIC ratio was selected as a pharmacodynamic parameter of cefiderocol efficacy and was defined as optimal if ≥4, quasi-optimal if between 1 and 4, and suboptimal if <1. The association between fCmin/MIC and microbiological outcome was assessed. RESULTS: A total of 13 patients treated with cefiderocol for the management of XDR-AB infections (6 BSI plus VAP, 5 VAP and 2 BSI) were retrieved. fCmin/MIC ratios were suboptimal in 3 cases (23%) and quasi-optimal or optimal in 5 cases each (38%). Microbiological failure occurred in seven cases (54%; six with VAP and one with VAP plus BSI). Microbiological failure occurred in 80% of patients with suboptimal fCmin/MIC compared with 29% of those achieving optimal or quasi-optimal fCmin/MIC ratio. CONCLUSION: Suboptimal attainment of PK/PD targets of cefiderocol may lead to microbiological failure of treatment with cefiderocol of critically ill patients affected by XDR-AB VAP.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Sepsis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Cephalosporins , Critical Illness , Humans , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/drug therapy
20.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(19)2021 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638273

ABSTRACT

Large B-cell lymphomas (LBCL) are the most common types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Although outcomes have improved thanks to the introduction of rituximab-based chemoimmunotherapy, certain LBCL still represents a challenge because of initial resistance to therapy or recurrent relapses. Axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel) and tisagenlecleucel (tisa-cel) are second-generation autologous CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies approved for patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) LBCL, based on the results of phase II pivotal single-arm trials ZUMA-1 (for axi-cel) and JULIET (for tisa-cel). Here, we report patients outcomes with axi-cel and tisa-cel in the standard of care (SoC) setting for R/R LBCL, treated at our Institution. Data were collected from patients who underwent leukapheresis between August 2019 and February 2021. Toxicities were graded and managed according to the institution's guidelines. Responses were assessed as per Lugano 2014 classification. Of the 30 patients who underwent leukapheresis, 18 (60%) received axi-cel, while 12 (40%) tisa-cel. Grade 3 or higher cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity occurred in 10% and 16% patients, respectively. Best objective and complete response rates were 73.3% and 40%, respectively. Treatment in SoC setting with CD19 CAR T-cell therapies for R/R LBCL showed a manageable safety profile and high objective response rate.

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