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1.
Front Mol Biosci ; 9: 839809, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817986

ABSTRACT

1H NMR spectra of sera have been used to define the changes induced by vaccination with Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine (2 shots, 21 days apart) in 10 COVID-19-recovered subjects and 10 COVID-19-naïve subjects at different time points, starting from before vaccination, then weekly until 7 days after second injection, and finally 1 month after the second dose. The data show that vaccination does not induce any significant variation in the metabolome, whereas it causes changes at the level of lipoproteins. The effects are different in the COVID-19-recovered subjects with respect to the naïve subjects, suggesting that a previous infection reduces the vaccine modulation of the lipoproteome composition.

2.
Infect Dis Rep ; 14(3): 315-320, 2022 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809845

ABSTRACT

We present a brief commentary illustrating the current COVID-19 outpatient treatment options in Italy. We also report our experience setting up a service dedicated to these patients in the wake of the rise in COVID-19 cases observed in January 2022. We also gathered data on the daily costs faced by our outpatient service, based at a tertiary care center located in Florence, Italy. We present them with some considerations on future outlooks on the use of outpatient treatment in COVID-19.

3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 733337, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775870

ABSTRACT

Space radiobiology is an interdisciplinary science that examines the biological effects of ionizing radiation on humans involved in aerospace missions. The dose-effect models are one of the relevant topics of space radiobiology. Their knowledge is crucial for optimizing radioprotection strategies (e.g., spaceship and lunar space station-shielding and lunar/Mars village design), the risk assessment of the health hazard related to human space exploration, and reducing damages induced to astronauts from galactic cosmic radiation. Dose-effect relationships describe the observed damages to normal tissues or cancer induction during and after space flights. They are developed for the various dose ranges and radiation qualities characterizing the actual and the forecast space missions [International Space Station (ISS) and solar system exploration]. Based on a Pubmed search including 53 papers reporting the collected dose-effect relationships after space missions or in ground simulations, 7 significant dose-effect relationships (e.g., eye flashes, cataract, central nervous systems, cardiovascular disease, cancer, chromosomal aberrations, and biomarkers) have been identified. For each considered effect, the absorbed dose thresholds and the uncertainties/limitations of the developed relationships are summarized and discussed. The current knowledge on this topic can benefit from further in vitro and in vivo radiobiological studies, an accurate characterization of the quality of space radiation, and the numerous experimental dose-effects data derived from the experience in the clinical use of ionizing radiation for diagnostic or treatments with doses similar to those foreseen for the future space missions. The growing number of pooled studies could improve the prediction ability of dose-effect relationships for space exposure and reduce their uncertainty level. Novel research in the field is of paramount importance to reduce damages to astronauts from cosmic radiation before Beyond Low Earth Orbit exploration in the next future. The study aims at providing an overview of the published dose-effect relationships and illustrates novel perspectives to inspire future research.


Subject(s)
Cosmic Radiation , Astronauts , Cosmic Radiation/adverse effects , Humans , Radiation Dosage , Radiobiology
4.
Eur Respir J ; 2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775304

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Pulse glucocorticoid therapy is used in hyperinflammation related to coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). We evaluated the efficacy and safety of pulse intravenous methylprednisolone in addition to standard treatment in COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: In this multicenter, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 304 hospitalised patients with Covid-19 pneumonia were randomised to receive 1 g of methylprednisolone intravenously for 3 consecutive days or placebo in addition to standard dexamethasone. The primary outcome was the duration of the patient hospitalisation, calculated as the time interval between randomisation and hospital discharge without the need of supplementary oxygen. The key secondary outcomes were survival free from invasive ventilation with orotracheal intubation and overall survival. RESULTS: Overall, 112 of 151 (75.4%) patients in the pulse methylprednisolone arm and 111 of 150 (75.2%) in the placebo arm were discharged from hospital without oxygen within 30 days from randomisation. Median time to discharge was similar in both groups [15 days (95% confidence interval (CI), 13.0 to 17.0) and 16 days (95%CI, 13.8 to 18.2); hazard ratio (HR), 0.92; 95% CI 0.71-1.20; p=0.528]. No significant differences between pulse methylprednisolone and placebo arms were observed in terms of admission to Intensive Care Unit with orotracheal intubation or death (20.0% versus 16.1%; HR, 1.26; 95%CI, 0.74-2.16; p=0.176), or overall mortality (10.0% versus 12.2%; HR, 0.83; 95%CI, 0.42-1.64; p=0.584). Serious adverse events occurred with similar frequency in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Methylprenisolone pulse therapy added to dexamethasone was not of benefit in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. MESSAGE OF THE STUDY: Pulse glucocorticoid therapy is used for severe and/or life threatening immuno-inflammatory diseases. The addition of pulse glucocorticoid therapy to the standard low dose of dexamethasone scheme was not of benefit in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.

5.
Panminerva Med ; 2022 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1743139

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To assess the clinical effectiveness of Tocilizumab (TCZ) in moderate-to-severe hospitalized COVID-19 patients and factors associated with clinical response. METHODS: 508 inpatients with moderate-to-severe SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled. TCZ effect in addition to standard medical therapy was evaluated in terms of death during hospital stay. Unadjusted and adjusted risk of mortality for TCZ treated patients versus TCZ untreated ones was estimated using robust Cox regression model. We considered the combination of TCZ and ICU as time-dependent exposure and created a model using duplication method to assess the TCZ effect in very severe COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: TCZ REDUCED DEATH DURING HOSPITAL STAY IN THE UNADJUSTED MODEL (HR 0.54, 95%CI 0.33- 0.88) and also in the adjusted model, although with loss of statistical significance (HR 0.72, 0.43- 1.20). Better effectiveness was observed in patients with low SpO2/FiO2 ratio (HR 0.35, 0.21-0.61 vs 1.61, 0.54-4.82, p<0.05), and, without statistical significance, in patients with high CRP (HR 0.51, 0.30-0.87 vs 0.41, 0.12-1.37, p =NS) and high IL-6 (HR 0.49, 0.29-0.82 vs 1.00, 0.28-3.55, p=NS). TCZ was effective in patients not admitted to ICU, both in the unadjusted (HR 0.33, 0.14-0.74) and in the adjusted (HR 0.39, 0.17-0.91) model but no benefit was observed in critical ICU-admitted patients both in the unadjusted (HR 0.66, 0.37-1.15) and in the adjusted model (HR 0.95, 0.54-1.68). CONCLUSIONS: our real-life study suggests clinical efficacy of TCZ in moderate-to-severe COVID-19 patients but not in end-stage disease. Thus, to enhance TCZ effectiveness, patients should be selected before grave compromise of clinical conditions.

6.
J Clin Invest ; 131(12)2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731387

ABSTRACT

The characterization of the adaptive immune response to COVID-19 vaccination in individuals who recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection may define current and future clinical practice. To determine the effect of the 2-dose BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination schedule in individuals who recovered from COVID-19 (COVID-19-recovered subjects) compared with naive subjects, we evaluated SARS-CoV-2 Spike-specific T and B cell responses, as well as specific IgA, IgG, IgM, and neutralizing antibodies titers in 22 individuals who received the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, 11 of whom had a previous history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Evaluations were performed before vaccination and then weekly until 7 days after second injection. Data obtained clearly showed that one vaccine dose is sufficient to increase both cellular and humoral immune response in COVID-19-recovered subjects without any additional improvement after the second dose. On the contrary, the second dose proved mandatory in naive subjects to further enhance the immune response. These findings were further confirmed at the serological level in a larger cohort of naive (n = 68) and COVID-19-recovered (n = 29) subjects, tested up to 50 days after vaccination. These results question whether a second vaccine injection in COVID-19-recovered subjects is required, and indicate that millions of vaccine doses may be redirected to naive individuals, thus shortening the time to reach herd immunity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Immunologic Memory/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
7.
Infection ; 2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729429

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Pregnant and postpartum women are at increased risk of developing severe COVID-19. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are now widely used in high-income countries to treat mild to moderate COVID-19 outpatients at risk for developing severe disease. Very few data are available on the use of mAbs in special populations, including pregnant and postpartum women. Here we present our early experience with mAbs in these two populations. METHODS: Electronic records of pregnant and postpartum women treated with mAbs at Careggi University Hospital, Florence, were retrieved. Relevant data were extracted (age, presence of risk factors for COVID-19, oxygen support, mAb type, gestational age, and pregnancy status). When available, outcomes at 28 days after administration were also included. RESULTS: From March 1st to September 30th 2021, eight pregnant and two postpartum women have been treated with mAbs at our center. The median age was 31 years (IQR 30-33.5, range 29-38), median gestational age was 24 weeks. Seven patients had additional risk factors. According to the Italian disposition, all patients received casirivimab/imdevimab, with five receiving a 2.4 mg dose and five receiving a 8 g dose. Eight patients improved. One developed myocarditis, considered a COVID-19 complication. Another required a transient increase of low flow oxygen support before improving and being discharged. At a 28 days follow-up, all patients were clinically recovered. We did not observe mAbs related adverse events. CONCLUSION: Although preliminary data should be interpreted with caution, it is remarkable how mAbs were well tolerated by pregnant women with COVID-19. Further data on mAbs in this special population should be collected but the use of mAbs in pregnant and postpartum patients should be considered. Even thus oral antivirals are becoming available, they are not recommended in pregnant and postpartum women. This population may specifically benefit from treatment with last generation mAbs.

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318409

ABSTRACT

Background: In clinical practice, the striking similarities observed at computed tomography (CT) between the diseases make it difficult to distinguish a COVID-19 pneumonia from a progression of interstitial lung disease (ILD) secondary to Systemic sclerosis (SSc). The aim of the present study was to identify the main CT features that may help distinguishing SSc-ILD from COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods: This multicentric study included 22 international readers divided in the radiologist group (RAD) and non-radiologist group (nRAD). A total of 99 patients, 52 with COVID-19 and 47 with SSc-ILD, were included in the study.Findings: Fibrosis inside focal ground glass opacities (GGO) in the upper lobes;fibrosis in the lower lobe GGO;reticulations in lower lobes (especially if bilateral and symmetrical or associated with signs of fibrosis) were the CT features most frequently associated with SSc-ILD. The CT features most frequently associated with COVID- 19 pneumonia were: consolidation (CONS) in the lower lobes, CONS with peripheral (both central/peripheral or patchy distributions), anterior and posterior CONS and rounded-shaped GGOs in the lower lobes. After multivariate analysis, the presence of CONS in the lower lobes (p <0.0001) and signs of fibrosis in GGO in the lower lobes (p <0.0001) remained independently associated with COVID-19 pneumonia or SSc-ILD, respectively. A predictive score weas created which resulted positively associated with the COVID-19 diagnosis (96.1% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity).Interpretation: The CT differential diagnosis between COVID-19 pneumonia and SSc-ILD is possible through the combination our score and the radiologic expertise. If an overlap of both diseases is suspected, the presence of consolidation in the lower lobes may suggest a COVID-19 pneumonia while the presence of fibrosis inside GGO may indicate a SSc-ILD.Funding: No Funding were received for this study.Declaration of Interests: SC reports personal fees from NOVARTIS-SANOFI-LILLY-CELTHER-PFIZER-JANSSEN;MK reports grants and personal fees from Boehringer-Ingelheim, personal fees from Corbus, grants and personal fees from Chugai, grants and personal fees from Ono Pharmeceuticals, personal fees from Tanabe-Mitsubishi, personal fees from Astellas, personal fees from Gilead, personal fees from Mochida;ST reports personal fees from Boehringer Ingelheim, personal fees from Roche, outside the submitted work;GS reports personal fees from Boehringer Ingelheim;CB reports personal fees from Actelion, personal fees from Eli Lilly, grants from European Scleroderma Trial and Research (EUSTAR) group, grants from New Horizon Fellowship, grants from Foundation for Research in Rheumatology (FOREUM), grants from Fondazione Italiana per la Ricerca sull'Artrite (FIRA);CV reports grants and personal fees from Boehringer Ingelheim, grants and personal fees from F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.;FL reports lectures fee from Roche and from Boehringer- Ingelheim;CPD reports grants and personal fees from GSK, personal fees from Boerhinger Ingelheim, grants from Servier, grants and personal fees from Inventiva, grants and personal fees from Arxx Therapeutics, personal fees from Corbus, personal fees from Sanofi, personal fees from Roche;FL reports grants and personal fees from GSK, personal fees from Boehringer Ingelheim, personal fees from Orion Pharma, personal fees from AstraZeneca, grants from MSD, personal fees from HIKMA, personal fees from Trudell International, grants and personal fees from Chiesi Farmaceutici, personal fees from Novartis Pharma;MH reports personal fees from Speaking fees from Actelion, Eli lilly and Pfizer;D K reports personal fees from Actelion, grants and personal fees from Bayer, grants and personal fees from Boehringer Ingelhem, personal fees from CSL Behring, grants and personal fees from Horizon, grants from Pfizer, personal fees from Corbus, grants and personal fees from BMS, outside the submitted work;and Dr Khanna is the Chief Medical officer of Eicos Sciences Inc and has s ock options. All the mentioned authors declared previous feed outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: This retrospective, observational, multicentric, international study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Florence Careggi hospital (protocol number 17104_oss).

9.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327684

ABSTRACT

Background: Waning immunity and the surge of SARS-CoV-2 variants are responsible for breakthrough infections, i.e. infections in fully vaccinated individuals. Although the majority of vaccinated infected subjects reports mild or no symptoms, some others require hospitalization. The clinical and immunological features of vaccinated hospitalized COVID-19 patients are currently unknown. Methods: 29 unvaccinated and 36 vaccinated hospitalized COVID-19 patients were prospectively enrolled and clinical and laboratory data. Immunophenotyping of leukocytes subsets, T and B cell SARS-CoV-2 specific responses were evaluated via flow cytometry. Anti-IFN-α autoantibodies were measured via ELISA. Results: Despite vaccinated patients were older and with more comorbidities, unvaccinated subjects showed higher levels of pro-inflammatory markers, more severe disease and increased mortality rate. Accordingly, they presented significant alterations in the circulating leukocyte composition, typical of severe COVID-19. Vaccinated patients displayed higher levels of anti-Spike IgGs and Spike-specific B cells. Of all participants, survivors showed higher levels of anti-Spike IgGs and S-specific CD4+ T cells than non-survivors. At hospital admission, 6 out of 65 patients (9.2%) displayed high serum concentrations of autoantibodies targeting IFN-α. Remarkably, 3 were unvaccinated and eventually died, while the other 3 were vaccinated and survived. Conclusion: Despite more severe pre-existing clinical conditions, vaccinated patients have good outcome. A rapid activation of anti-SARS-CoV-2-specific immunity is fundamental for the resolution of the infection. Therefore, prior immunization through vaccination provides a significant contribute to prevention of disease worsening and can even overcome the presence of high-risk factors (i.e. older age, comorbidities, anti-IFN-α autoantibodies positivity).

10.
J Clin Invest ; 132(6)2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685792

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDImmunization against SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, occurs via natural infection or vaccination. However, it is currently unknown how long infection- or vaccination-induced immunological memory will last.METHODSWe performed a longitudinal evaluation of immunological memory to SARS-CoV-2 up to 1 year after infection and following mRNA vaccination in naive individuals and individuals recovered from COVID-19 infection.RESULTSWe found that memory cells are still detectable 8 months after vaccination, while antibody levels decline significantly, especially in naive individuals. We also found that a booster injection is efficacious in reactivating immunological memory to spike protein in naive individuals, whereas it was ineffective in previously SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals. Finally, we observed a similar kinetics of decay of humoral and cellular immunity to SARS-CoV-2 up to 1 year following natural infection in a cohort of unvaccinated individuals.CONCLUSIONShort-term persistence of humoral immunity, together with the reduced neutralization capacity versus the currently prevailing SARS-CoV-2 variants, may account for reinfections and breakthrough infections. Long-lived memory B and CD4+ T cells may protect from severe disease development. In naive individuals, a booster dose restored optimal anti-spike immunity, whereas the needs for vaccinated individuals who have recovered from COVID-19 have yet to be defined.FUNDINGThis study was supported by funds to the Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence (Project Excellence Departments 2018-2022), the University of Florence (project RICTD2122), the Italian Ministry of Health (COVID-2020-12371849), and the region of Tuscany (TagSARS CoV 2).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination
11.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1678999

ABSTRACT

Although accumulating data have investigated the effect of SARS-CoV-2 mutations on antibody neutralizing activity, less is known about T cell immunity. In this work, we found that the ancestral (Wuhan strain) Spike protein can efficaciously reactivate CD4+ T cell memory in subjects with previous Alpha variant infection. This finding has practical implications, as in many countries only one vaccine dose is currently administered to individuals with previous COVID-19, independently of which SARS-CoV-2 variant was responsible of the infection. We also found that only a minority of Spike-specific CD4+ T cells targets regions mutated in Alpha, Beta and Delta variants, both after natural infection and vaccination. Finally, we found that the vast majority of Spike-specific CD4+ T cell memory response induced by natural infection or mRNA vaccination is conserved also against Omicron variant. This is of importance, as this newly emerged strain is responsible for a sudden rise in COVID-19 cases worldwide due to its increased transmissibility and ability to evade antibody neutralization. Collectively, these observations suggest that most of the memory CD4+ T cell response is conserved against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, providing an efficacious line of defense that can protect from the development of severe forms of COVID-19.

12.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S607-S607, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602163

ABSTRACT

Background The diagnosis of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in patients with immunosuppression secondary to disease or medications is often unclear. Symptoms may be absent or blunted, and acute phase reactants, like procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) may not elevate. For these patients, minor signs or symptoms could lead to hospitalization and antibiotic prescriptions to prevent complications or death. FebriDx® is a rapid, qualitative immunoassay test designed to distinguish between viral or bacterial respiratory infection through simultaneous detection of both CRP and Myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) from a fingerstick blood sample. Methods FebriDx was evaluated as part of a real-world prospective, observational study in hospitalized patients with symptoms of ARI and suspected COVID-19 in a single tertiary care center in Italy (August, 2020 - January, 2021). A sub analysis of patients with expected reduced host immune responses secondary to immunosuppression by disease or medication was performed. (Classified by treating clinician;patient on high dose steroids/ immunosuppressive therapy, or underlying condition like cancer or autoimmune disease). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and likelihood ratios were calculated for FebriDx with respect to the final diagnosis. Results We included 28 patients from 200 in the study, 16 patients had a final diagnosis of bacterial infection and 12 had viral infection. FebriDx showed a sensitivity of 91.7% to accurately diagnose viral infection and 93.8% for bacterial infection (see tables). Serum CRP was not available for 4 of the patients included (14%) and elevated in the remaining patients. PCT was not available for one patient with viral infection and was elevated in 50.0%. FebriDx Performance when compared to Clinical Diagnosis Conclusion FebriDx demonstrated a higher accuracy for differentiating bacterial vs. viral infection in an immunocompromised cohort than single biomarkers CRP and PCT. FebriDx demonstrated a high diagnostic accuracy to differentiate viral from bacterial infection in patients with chronic immunosuppressive conditions in a real-world setting and had better performance than standalone CRP and PCT to distinguish viral and bacterial ARI in immunocompromised patients. Disclosures Catalina Suarez-Cuervo, MD, Lumos Diagnostics (Employee)

13.
Andrology ; 2021 Dec 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575098

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is evidence that, after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, male reproductive function and semen quality may be damaged OBJECTIVES: To evaluate a panel of inflammatory mediators in semen in patients recovered from coronavirus disease 2019. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sexually active men with previous severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and proven recovery from coronavirus disease 2019 were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Clinical, uro-andrological data and semen specimens were prospectively collected. For previously hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 patients, data on serum inflammatory markers were retrospectively collected. RESULTS: A total of 43 men were enrolled in the study. Of these, 32 men were normozoospermic, three were oligozoospermic, and eight were crypto-azoospermic. Serum inflammatory markers (procalcitonin and C-reactive protein) were analyzed in previously hospitalized patients both at admission and at peak of infection. Levels at admission were statistically significantly higher in patients resulting in crypto-azoospermic with respect to those resulting in normozoospermic (p = 0.05; p = 0.03 and p = 0.02, respectively) after healing. Seminal cytokine levels were similar among all groups. Interleukin-1ß and tumor necrosis factor-α levels were significantly negatively related to sperm total number and concentration, whereas interleukin-4 was correlated with sperm motility. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Negative correlations between interleukin-1ß and tumor necrosis factor-α and sperm number and the overall high levels of semen cytokines indicate a potential detrimental role of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 driven inflammation on spermatogenesis. Overall, our results indicate that male patients recovering from coronavirus disease 2019 deserve accurate follow-up for their fertility status.

14.
Infect Dis Ther ; 11(1): 629-633, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565479

ABSTRACT

Recently, the Italian Society of Anti-Infective Therapy (SITA) and the Italian Society of Pulmonology (SIP) published guidelines on the management of inpatients with COVID-19. The guidelines do not recommend the use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in inpatients, pending results from clinical trials. However, recently the Italian Drug Agency (AIFA) has allowed for the use of casirivimab/imdevimab at higher doses in hospitalized seronegative patients with COVID-19. Furthermore, several other therapeutic options based on mAbs are about to become available for outpatients. Here we provide a brief summary of the future possibilities and summarize existing data.

15.
Eur J Intern Med ; 97: 36-41, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561522

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the persistence of symptoms compatible with COVID-19 in a real-file prospective cohort of patients at 12 months from hospital discharge. METHODS: Longitudinal, prospective, single-center, cohort telephone follow-up (FU) study in a Tertiary Care Hospital. All consecutive patients >18 years admitted for COVID-19 were prospectively enrolled in a telephone FU program aimed at monitoring symptoms after 1,3,6,9 and 12 months from hospital discharge. The survey screened for somatic (fatigue, dyspnea, dyspnea, palpitations, cough, chest pain, abdominal pain, ageusia, anosmia, bowel symptoms) and emotional symptoms (insomnia, confusion, altered sense of reality, loss of appetite, fear, and depression) and frailty. Only patients with 12 months FU data were analyzed (N=254). Prevalence and factors associated with symptoms were the main outcomes. Frailty was defined by the presence of ≥3 indicators: weakness, slowness/impaired mobility, weight-loss, low physical activity, and exhaustion. RESULTS: At 12 months, 40.5% of patients reported at least one symptom. The most common somatic ones were fatigue, exertional dyspnea, cough, bowel complaints while the most common psycho-emotional were insomnia, confusion, fear, and depression. Age, gender, gender, frailty, multiple symptoms at baseline and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were associated with symptoms persistence. Furthermore, frailty, COPD and multiple symptoms at baseline were associated with increased risk of somatic symptoms at 12 months, while age and gender were associated with emotional ones. CONCLUSIONS: Burden of the long COVID-19 symptoms decreased over time but remained as high as 40% at 12 months with important gender and functional differences, highlighting potential patient categories who may benefit from specific follow up strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2136246, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540039

ABSTRACT

Importance: Convalescent plasma (CP) has been generally unsuccessful in preventing worsening of respiratory failure or death in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of CP plus standard therapy (ST) vs ST alone in preventing worsening respiratory failure or death in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective, open-label, randomized clinical trial enrolled (1:1 ratio) hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia to receive CP plus ST or ST alone between July 15 and December 8, 2020, at 27 clinical sites in Italy. Hospitalized adults with COVID-19 pneumonia and a partial pressure of oxygen-to-fraction of inspired oxygen (Pao2/Fio2) ratio between 350 and 200 mm Hg were eligible. Interventions: Patients in the experimental group received intravenous high-titer CP (≥1:160, by microneutralization test) plus ST. The volume of infused CP was 200 mL given from 1 to a maximum of 3 infusions. Patients in the control group received ST, represented by remdesivir, glucocorticoids, and low-molecular weight heparin, according to the Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco recommendations. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a composite of worsening respiratory failure (Pao2/Fio2 ratio <150 mm Hg) or death within 30 days from randomization. Results: Of the 487 randomized patients (241 to CP plus ST; 246 to ST alone), 312 (64.1%) were men; the median (IQR) age was 64 (54.0-74.0) years. The modified intention-to-treat population included 473 patients. The primary end point occurred in 59 of 231 patients (25.5%) treated with CP and ST and in 67 of 239 patients (28.0%) who received ST (odds ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.59-1.33; P = .54). Adverse events occurred more frequently in the CP group (12 of 241 [5.0%]) compared with the control group (4 of 246 [1.6%]; P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 pneumonia, high-titer anti-SARS-CoV-2 CP did not reduce the progression to severe respiratory failure or death within 30 days. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04716556.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Immunization, Passive , Plasma , Respiratory Insufficiency , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Standard of Care
17.
Eur J Immunol ; 52(2): 352-355, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530141

ABSTRACT

A late presenter AIDS patient with severe T cell depletion presented non-severe COVID-19 symptoms, with prolonged viral shedding. Our case report supports the hypothesis that an effective T cell response may be dispensable for the control of COVID-19 progression to severe forms, while it may be necessary for SARS-CoV-2 clearance.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/blood , Adult , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
18.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(1): 137-144, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477604

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder in hospitalized patients and occurs in about 30% of patients with pneumonia. Hyponatremia has been associated with a worse outcome in several pathologic conditions The main objective of this study was to determine whether serum sodium alterations may be independent predictors of the outcome of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. DESIGN AND METHODS: In this observational study, data from 441 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to a University Hospital were collected. After excluding 61 patients (no serum sodium at admission available, saline solution infusion before sodium assessment, transfer from another hospital), data from 380 patients were analyzed. RESULTS: 274 (72.1%) patients had normonatremia at admission, 87 (22.9%) patients had hyponatremia and 19 (5%) patients had hypernatremia. We found an inverse correlation between serum sodium and IL-6, whereas a direct correlation between serum sodium and PaO2/FiO2 ratio was observed. Patients with hyponatremia had a higher prevalence of non-invasive ventilation and ICU transfer than those with normonatremia or hypernatremia. Hyponatremia was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (2.7-fold increase vs normonatremia) and each mEq/L of serum sodium reduction was associated with a 14.4% increased risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that serum sodium at admission may be considered as an early prognostic marker of disease severity in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sodium/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Fluorocarbons/blood , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydrocarbons, Brominated/blood , Hypernatremia/epidemiology , Hyponatremia/epidemiology , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS Virus
19.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e207, 2021 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397816

ABSTRACT

We report the events of an Italian top league soccer club that took place in 1 year (from March 2020 to February 2021) at the time of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In early March 2020, just before sport competitions were called off due to the national lockdown in Italy, the team, which included 27 players and 26 staff at the time, faced a COVID-19 outbreak, with 16 confirmed and seven probable cases, including three staff members who had to be hospitalised. In May 2020, at the resumption of the training sessions, a high prevalence of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunoglobulin G positivity (35/53, 66%) was detected among the members of the group. In the following months, sport activities were organised behind closed doors with stringent risk mitigation procedures in place. As of February 2021, only two new cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection were detected within the group, against more than 3500 nasopharyngeal swabs and 1000 serological tests.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Soccer/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged
20.
Journal of Clinical Investigation ; 131(12):1-7, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1334628

ABSTRACT

The characterization of the adaptive immune response to COVID-19 vaccination in individuals who recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection may define current and future clinical practice. To determine the effect of the 2-dose BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination schedule in individuals who recovered from COVID-19 (COVID-19-recovered subjects) compared with naive subjects, we evaluated SARS-CoV-2 Spike-specific T and B cell responses, as well as specific IgA, IgG, IgM, and neutralizing antibodies titers in 22 individuals who received the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, 11 of whom had a previous history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Evaluations were performed before vaccination and then weekly until 7 days after second injection. Data obtained clearly showed that one vaccine dose is sufficient to increase both cellular and humoral immune response in COVID-19-recovered subjects without any additional improvement after the second dose. On the contrary, the second dose proved mandatory in naive subjects to further enhance the immune response. These findings were further confirmed at the serological level in a larger cohort of naive (n = 68) and COVID-19-recovered (n = 29) subjects, tested up to 50 days after vaccination. These results question whether a second vaccine injection in COVID-19-recovered subjects is required, and indicate that millions of vaccine doses may be redirected to naive individuals, thus shortening the time to reach herd immunity.

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