Presently, the whole globe is struggling the tough challenge of the COVID-19 pandemic. Vaccination remains the most effective and safe COVID-19 weapon for adults and in the paediatric population. Aside from possible mild and moderate post-vaccination side effects, more severe side effects may occur. We retrospectively analysed a group of 5 teenagers aged from 15 to 17 years with obesity/overweight (BMI ranging from 24.8 to 30) who presented typical myocarditis symptoms following the first or second dose (3 and 2 patients, respectively) of the COVID-19 vaccine. In the whole study group, a significant increase in troponin serum concentration was observed (1674-37,279.6 ng/L) with a further quick reduction within 3-4 days. In all patients, ST segments elevation or depression with repolarisation time abnormalities in electrocardiography were noticed. Chest X-ray results were within normal limits. Echocardiography showed normal left ventricular diameter (47-56.2 mm) with ejection fraction between 61-72%. All patients were diagnosed with myocarditis based on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. During further hospitalisation, swift clinical improvement was notable. Follow-up in the whole study group was obtained after 106-134 days from initial CMR, revealing no myocarditis symptoms, proper troponin level, and no ECG or echocardiographic abnormalities. At the same time, persistent myocardium injury features were detected in the whole study group, including ongoing myocarditis. COVID-19-vaccine-induced myocarditis seems to be a mild disease with fast clinical recovery, but the complete resolution of the inflammatory process may last over 3 months. Further follow-up and investigation for assessing subsequent implications and long-term COVID-19-vaccine-induced myocarditis is required.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Myocarditis/chemically induced , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination
BACKGROUND: Pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) is an inflammatory disease occurring in a small minority of children a few weeks after acute infection. Cardiac manifestations are common, but little is known about the potentially persistent heart changes after PIMS-TS. PURPOSE: To analyze the frequency and type of myocardial complications of PIMS-TS with initial cardiac involvement assessed with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including parametric imaging, performed 3 months after hospitalization. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective. POPULATION: Nineteen consecutive children (median age 10 years, interquartile range (IQR) 10-15 years, 74% male). FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: Balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP, cine imaging), modified Look-Locker (T1 mapping), T2-prepared bSSFP (T2-mapping), dark-blood T2-weighted turbo spin echo with fat suppression and phase sensitive inversion recovery (late gadolinium enhancement (LGE)) sequences at 1.5 T. ASSESSMENT: Patients were scanned after a median of 99 days (IQR 89-104 days) from the diagnosis. MR data were reviewed by three independent observers, with 13, 2, and 5 years' experience in cardiac MRI. Pre- and post-contrast T1, T2, extra-cellular volume, and T2 signal intensity (T2 SI) ratio were calculated. Diagnosis of acute myocarditis was based on modified Lake Louise criteria. Cardiac MRI parameters were compared, where possible, to previously published pediatric normal values. STATISTICAL TESTS: Interclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman repeatability analysis. A P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Despite cardiac involvement including decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (median LVEF = 47%, IQR 43%-53%) and increased troponin I (median 101 ng/mL, IQR 50-661 ng/mL) during hospitalization, there were no persistent cardiac changes observed in cardiac MR at follow-up. All patients had normal size and function of the left ventricle and normal precontrast T1 and T2 relaxation times. There were no signs of LGE. Persistent, mild pericardial effusion (8-9 mm) was found in three (16%) patients. DATA CONCLUSION: There were no persistent changes on cardiac MRI in a group of children approximately 3 months post hospitalization due to PIMS-TS with cardiac involvement. This supports the hypothesis that cardiac involvement during PIMS-TS is a form of transient inflammatory response rather than direct and potentially persistent injury from the virus. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 3.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , Child , Contrast Media , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Gadolinium , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Male , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Ventricular Function, Left
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, governments have implemented a wide range of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). Monitoring and documenting government strategies during the COVID-19 crisis is crucial to understand the progression of the epidemic. Following a content analysis strategy of existing public information sources, we developed a specific hierarchical coding scheme for NPIs. We generated a comprehensive structured dataset of government interventions and their respective timelines of implementation. To improve transparency and motivate collaborative validation process, information sources are shared via an open library. We also provide codes that enable users to visualise the dataset. Standardization and structure of the dataset facilitate inter-country comparison and the assessment of the impacts of different NPI categories on the epidemic parameters, population health indicators, the economy, and human rights, among others. This dataset provides an in-depth insight of the government strategies and can be a valuable tool for developing relevant preparedness plans for pandemic. We intend to further develop and update this dataset until the end of December 2020.