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1.
Archives of Razi Institute ; 77(5):1611-1619, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2002783

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis (IB) disease, avian Infectious Bronchitis disease in one of the major cause of respiratory problems and economic loss in poultry industry, even in developed countries with good biosecurity practice. Since the first isolation of the virus in 1931, a lot of serotypes and genotypes of the virus have been reported around the world. The GI-1 lineage, including Massachusetts (Mass) serotype viruses, is one of the most widely spread types worldwide. Moreover, the GI-23 lineage with a growing incidence rate was reported approximately 20 years ago in the Middle East, with no or little homologues vaccine use. The genotype was previously restricted to the Middle East;now, there is evidence that it has spread to European countries, raising concerns regarding potential outbreaks. In the present study, our attempt was to phylogenetically analyze the S1 gene of six isolates from Massachusetts and variant 2 genotypes, which were isolated from broiler and broiler breeder flocks in Iran. The variant 2 viruses were compared to other reported variant 2 viruses from neighboring countries and they had more than 98% identity with the latest reported Iranian variant 2. In addition, Three Mass type viruses were similar to vaccine strains which may be shows continuous circulation of vaccine viruses in the field. This event can cause increasing the risk of their mutation or even reversion to virulence after several passages in natural host, furthermore circulating viruses may recombinant with virulent field viruses and cause emergence of new variants. Considering the variable nature of IB viruses in which few changes lead to important differences, continuous epidemiological surveillance along with clinical studies of new isolates, are crucial to a better understanding of their pathogenicity and subsequent disease control.

2.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-291-S-292, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967287

ABSTRACT

Background: Post-COVID-19 conditions are defined as new, recurring, or ongoing health issues which present weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection. The gastrointestinal (GI) involvement of COVID-19 suggests that a group of patients with lingering GI symptoms may develop Post-COVID-19 DGBI including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) (Schmulson M et al. Am J Gastroenterol. 2021;116:4-7). In this study, we aimed to determine the epidemiological features of Post-COVID-19 DGBI. Methods: Subjects with confirmed COVID-19 at least 6 months before the study who had sustained GI symptoms were invited to complete an internet-based survey on Qualtrics, between March and August 2021. The survey included demographics, acute symptoms, comorbidities, as well as Rome IV questionnaire, Generalized Anxiety Disorder questionnaire (GAD-7) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9 for depression. Data was analyzed using ANOVA and multivariate analysis. Findings were reported as percentage or [p-value;(95% odds ratio CI)]. Results: Overall, 164 subjects (70% female, 14% male, and others unknown) with a positive COVID-19 test completed the survey. Among them, 4% were >65 years old and 24% reported hospitalization. Body mass index ³30 was present in 38%, diabetes in 6.7%, and vitamin D deficiency in 11% of the participants. In total, 108 (66%) subjects fulfilled Rome IV criteria for at least one DGBI. Of 108 with DGBI, only 27 (25%) had DGBI before COVID-19;DGBI developed in 81 subjects after COVID-19. The most common Post-COVID-19 DGBI were functional dyspepsia observed in 38 (postprandial distress syndrome n=31, epigastric pain syndrome n=22) followed by IBS in 26 subjects (IBS with Diarrhea n=7, IBS with Constipation n=4, Mixed-IBS n=14, Unsubtyped IBS n=1) (Table-1). The risk factors of severe COVID-19 including age >65, diabetes, and obesity were not associated with developing Post-COVID- 19 DGBI. Seventy (86%) of subjects with Post-COVID-19 DGBI had at least one GI symptom (abdominal pain, nausea/vomiting, and/or diarrhea) in the acute phase of COVID-19. Nausea/ vomiting during the acute illness increased [p-value of 0.02 with 95% OR CI (0.7-10.4)], and BMI less than 25 also increased the odds [p-value of 0.03 (95% OR CI: 0.26-8.4)] for Post-COVID-19 IBS. Anxiety was present in 48% and depression in 65% of subjects with Post-COVID-19 DGBI. Conclusions: Post-COVID-19 DGBI are new entities associated with a high rate of anxiety and depression. Although the majority of those with Post-COVID-19 DGBI reported having GI symptoms in the acute illness, some appeared in subjects without acute GI symptoms. (Table Presented)

3.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(2): 117, 2022 Feb 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767581

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to find the direct economic losses due to the three viral causes of the avian respiratory syndrome, including Newcastle disease (ND), H9N2 influenza, and infectious bronchitis (IB) in stamped-out broiler farms during 2016-2017 across the country. This study was carried out on the information on cross-sectional monitoring in the years 2016-2017. The statistical society of the study was all the active broiler farms of the country stamped out due to respiratory syndrome. This study used compensation insurance data, and other sources. One-way ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to analyze normally and non-normally distributed data. In total, during the study period, 132 broiler farms and 1,723,131 fowls were stamped out. According to the results of the present investigation, the sum of costs and losses due to respiratory complex was 9.47 $US Million, 2016-2017 (5.72 from $US Million chicken meat losses and 3.75 $US Million was the total cost). ND was the main cause of economic losses and costs with 3.86 $US equal to 40.8% of the total. Cost of feeding was the highest followed by veterinary services and medicines, vaccination, and 1-day-old chicks costs with 2.27, 1.11, 0.33, and 0.036 $US Million, 2016-2017. In conclusion, we need to improve the preventive measures against respiratory viruses, especially NDV. Additionally, as the cost of feeding was the largest, it is important to shorten the time interval between disease occurrence and stamping out to reduce the cost.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype , Influenza in Birds , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Chickens , Cross-Sectional Studies , Farms , Financial Stress , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Iran/epidemiology
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