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JAMA Netw Open ; 5(11): e2241622, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117818


Importance: Minimal data are available regarding the postdischarge treatment of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Objectives: To evaluate clinical characteristics associated with duration of postdischarge glucocorticoid use and assess postdischarge clinical course, laboratory test result trajectories, and adverse events in a multicenter cohort with MIS-C. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study included patients with MIS-C hospitalized with severe illness and followed up for 3 months in an ambulatory setting. Patients younger than 21 years who were admitted between May 15, 2020, and May 31, 2021, at 13 US hospitals were included. Inclusion criteria were inpatient treatment comprising intravenous immunoglobulin, diagnosis of cardiovascular dysfunction (vasopressor requirement or left ventricular ejection fraction ≤55%), and availability of complete outpatient data for 3 months. Exposures: Glucocorticoid treatment. Main Outcomes and Measures: Main outcomes were patient characteristics associated with postdischarge glucocorticoid treatment, laboratory test result trajectories, and adverse events. Multivariable regression was used to evaluate factors associated with postdischarge weight gain (≥2 kg in 3 months) and hyperglycemia during illness. Results: Among 186 patients, the median age was 10.4 years (IQR, 6.7-14.2 years); most were male (107 [57.5%]), Black non-Hispanic (60 [32.3%]), and Hispanic or Latino (59 [31.7%]). Most children were critically ill (intensive care unit admission, 163 [87.6%]; vasopressor receipt, 134 [72.0%]) and received inpatient glucocorticoid treatment (178 [95.7%]). Most were discharged with continued glucocorticoid treatment (173 [93.0%]); median discharge dose was 42 mg/d (IQR, 30-60 mg/d) or 1.1 mg/kg/d (IQR, 0.7-1.7 mg/kg/d). Inpatient severity of illness was not associated with duration of postdischarge glucocorticoid treatment. Outpatient treatment duration varied (median, 23 days; IQR, 15-32 days). Time to normalization of C-reactive protein and ferritin levels was similar for glucocorticoid duration of less than 3 weeks vs 3 or more weeks. Readmission occurred in 7 patients (3.8%); none was for cardiovascular dysfunction. Hyperglycemia developed in 14 patients (8.1%). Seventy-five patients (43%) gained 2 kg or more after discharge (median 4.1 kg; IQR, 3.0-6.0 kg). Inpatient high-dose intravenous and oral glucocorticoid therapy was associated with postdischarge weight gain (adjusted odds ratio, 6.91; 95% CI, 1.92-24.91). Conclusions and Relevance: In this multicenter cohort of patients with MIS-C and cardiovascular dysfunction, postdischarge glucocorticoid treatment was often prolonged, but clinical outcomes were similar in patients prescribed shorter courses. Outpatient weight gain was common. Readmission was infrequent, with none for cardiovascular dysfunction. These findings suggest that strategies are needed to optimize postdischarge glucocorticoid courses for patients with MIS-C.

Hyperglycemia , Pneumonia, Viral , Child , Humans , Male , Female , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Stroke Volume , Aftercare , Ventricular Function, Left , Weight Gain
J Clin Immunol ; 42(8): 1766-1777, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990711


Haploinsufficiency of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) is a recently discovered autoinflammatory disorder with significant rheumatologic, immunologic, and hematologic manifestations. Here we report a case of SOCS1 haploinsufficiency in a 5-year-old child with profound arthralgias and immune-mediated thrombocytopenia unmasked by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Her clinical manifestations were accompanied by excessive B cell activity, eosinophilia, and elevated IgE levels. Uniquely, this is the first report of SOCS1 haploinsufficiency in the setting of a chromosomal deletion resulting in complete loss of a single SOCS1 gene with additional clinical findings of bone marrow hypocellularity and radiologic evidence of severe enthesitis. Immunologic profiling showed a prominent interferon signature in the patient's peripheral blood mononuclear cells, which were also hypersensitive to stimulation by type I and type II interferons. The patient showed excellent clinical and functional laboratory response to tofacitinib, a Janus kinase inhibitor that disrupts interferon signaling. Our case highlights the need to utilize a multidisciplinary diagnostic approach and consider a comprehensive genetic evaluation for inborn errors of immunity in patients with an atypical immune-mediated thrombocytopenia phenotype.

COVID-19 , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Thrombocytopenia , Female , Humans , Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 1 Protein/genetics , Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 1 Protein/metabolism , Haploinsufficiency , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Bone Marrow , SARS-CoV-2 , Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins/genetics , Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins/metabolism , Interferons/metabolism