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1.
J Nephrol ; 35(3): 795-805, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748373

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, a disease caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), is a major global threat that has turned into a pandemic. Despite the emergence of multiple vaccination alternatives and developing therapeutic options, dramatic short- and long-term clinical outcomes have been recorded with more than 250 million infected people and over 5 million deaths as of November 2021. COVID-19 presents various respiratory, cardiovascular, neuropsychiatric, musculoskeletal and kidney features during the acute phase; nevertheless, renal involvement in the post-infection period has recently been emphasized. The present review aims to evaluate the growing literature on kidney involvement in the SARS-CoV-2 infection along with clinical features reported both in the acute phase of the infection and in the post-acute COVID-19 period by assessing potential pathophysiological frameworks explaining such conditions. Chronic kidney disease and development of acute kidney injury (AKI) in the course of initial hospitalization are associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. Moreover, growing evidence suggests a decline in renal function in the 6-to-12-month follow-up period even in patients without any signs of AKI during the acute phase. Despite such concerns there are no guidelines regulating the follow-up period or therapeutic alternatives for such patient population. In conclusion, the burden of COVID-19 on the kidney is yet to be determined. Future prospective large scale studies are needed with long follow-up periods assessing kidney involvement via multiple parameters such as biopsy studies, urinalysis, measurement of serum creatinine and cystatin C, directly measured glomerular filtration rate, and assessment of tubular function via urinary ß2-microglobulin measurements.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Tuberk Toraks ; 69(4): 547-560, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580008

ABSTRACT

Kidney transplant recipients and dialysis patients constitute a risk group for severe COVID-19. They are highly advised to get vaccinated according to the current guidelines. However, data on antibody response, cell responses and protection from events, and factors that might alter this response after a routine full series of vaccination remain incomplete for these populations. The aim of this article was to analyze the antibody responses after a full series of mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in kidney transplantation and dialysis patients and to define the factors that alter seroconversion status in these populations. In this systematic review, 18 studies investigating the antibody response to full vaccination with two doses of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines in hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and kidney transplant patients were included. Kidney transplant and dialysis patients have a lower seroconversion rate after mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination than the healthy population: 27.2% for kidney transplantation, 88.5% for dialysis patients while all healthy control in these studies seroconverted. Moreover, anti-S antibody titers were lower in seroconverted kidney transplantation or dialysis patients than in healthy control in all studies that assessed this variable. Older age and dialysis vintage, immunosuppressive or chemotherapy treatment, and lower serum albumin, white blood cell, lymphocyte and hemoglobin counts were associated with lower/no antibody response to vaccination. Dialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients have lower seroconversion rates after a full series of mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination than the general population. Several factors are associated with an altered antibody response. A third dose could be considered in this patient group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
3.
J Nephrol ; 34(5): 1387-1403, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366435

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing in-centre haemodialysis (HD) are particularly exposed to the dire consequences of COVID-19. The present systematic scoping review aims to identify the extent, range, and nature of articles related to COVID-19 and maintenance HD: it reports specifically the prevalence of the COVID-19 pandemic in the HD population, implementation of strategies for the prevention, mitigation and containment of the COVID-19 pandemic in HD centres, demographic and clinical characteristics, and outcomes of the pediatric and adult HD patients. METHODS: A multi-step systematic search of the literature in Pubmed, Scopus, Ovid Medline, Embase and Web of Science, published between December 1, 2019, and January 30, 2021 was performed. Two authors separately screened the titles and abstracts of the documents and ruled out irrelevant articles. A report of the papers that met inclusion criteria was performed; then, a descriptive analysis of the characteristics of the included articles and a narrative synthesis of the results were performed. RESULTS: The review process ended with the inclusion of 145 articles. Most of them were based on single-centre experiences, which spontaneously developed best practices. Most studies were conducted in high-income countries (69.7%) and a part of them (9.6%) were not in English. Prevalence of COVID-19 among dialysis patients accounted for 0%-37.6%. Preventive measures were reported in 54% of the included articles, with particular emphasis on education, triage, hygiene, and containment measures. Patients experienced a heterogeneous spectrum of symptoms that led 35%-88.2% of them to hospital admission. Median and mean hospital length of stay ranged from 8 to 28.5 and 16.2 to 22 days, respectively. Admission to intensive care units varied widely across studies (from 2.6% to 70.5%) and was associated with high mortality (42.8%-100%). Overall, prognosis was poor in 0%-47% of the hospitalized patients. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic scoping review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the impact of COVID-19 on the frail world of HD patients. Furthermore, it may help to implement the existing strategies of COVID-19 prevention and provide a list of unmet needs (safe transport, testing, shelter). Finally, it may be a stimulus for performing systematic reviews and meta-analyses which will form the basis for evidence-based guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Aged , Child , Frail Elderly , Humans , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 16(7): 1061-1072, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332080

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is concern about potential deleterious effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Patients with kidney failure, who often use ACEis/ARBs, are at higher risk of more severe COVID-19. However, there are no data available on the association of ACEi/ARB use with COVID-19 severity in this population. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: From the European Renal Association COVID-19 database (ERACODA), we retrieved data on kidney transplant recipients and patients on dialysis who were affected by COVID-19, between February 1 and October 1, 2020, and had information on 28-day mortality. We used Cox proportional-hazards regression to calculate hazard ratios for the association between ACEi/ARB use and 28-day mortality risk. Additionally, we studied the association of discontinuation of these agents with 28-day mortality. RESULTS: We evaluated 1511 patients: 459 kidney transplant recipients and 1052 patients on dialysis. At diagnosis of COVID-19, 189 (41%) of the transplant recipients and 288 (27%) of the patients on dialysis were on ACEis/ARBs. A total of 88 (19%) transplant recipients and 244 (23%) patients on dialysis died within 28 days of initial presentation. In both groups of patients, there was no association between ACEi/ARB use and 28-day mortality in both crude and adjusted models (in transplant recipients, adjusted hazard ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.69 to 1.83; in patients on dialysis, adjusted hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.47). Among transplant recipients, ACEi/ARB discontinuation was associated with a higher mortality risk after adjustment for demographics and comorbidities, but the association was no longer statistically significant after adjustment for severity of COVID-19 (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.40 to 4.58). Among patients on dialysis, ACEi/ARB discontinuation was not associated with mortality in any model. We obtained similar results across subgroups when ACEis and ARBs were studied separately, and when other outcomes for severity of COVID-19 were studied, e.g., hospital admission, admission to the intensive care unit, or need for ventilator support. CONCLUSIONS: Among kidney transplant recipients and patients on dialysis with COVID-19, there was no significant association of ACEi/ARB use or discontinuation with mortality.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , COVID-19/mortality , Renal Insufficiency/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Kidney Transplantation , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models
5.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 16(7): 1061-1072, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259309

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is concern about potential deleterious effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Patients with kidney failure, who often use ACEis/ARBs, are at higher risk of more severe COVID-19. However, there are no data available on the association of ACEi/ARB use with COVID-19 severity in this population. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: From the European Renal Association COVID-19 database (ERACODA), we retrieved data on kidney transplant recipients and patients on dialysis who were affected by COVID-19, between February 1 and October 1, 2020, and had information on 28-day mortality. We used Cox proportional-hazards regression to calculate hazard ratios for the association between ACEi/ARB use and 28-day mortality risk. Additionally, we studied the association of discontinuation of these agents with 28-day mortality. RESULTS: We evaluated 1511 patients: 459 kidney transplant recipients and 1052 patients on dialysis. At diagnosis of COVID-19, 189 (41%) of the transplant recipients and 288 (27%) of the patients on dialysis were on ACEis/ARBs. A total of 88 (19%) transplant recipients and 244 (23%) patients on dialysis died within 28 days of initial presentation. In both groups of patients, there was no association between ACEi/ARB use and 28-day mortality in both crude and adjusted models (in transplant recipients, adjusted hazard ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.69 to 1.83; in patients on dialysis, adjusted hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.47). Among transplant recipients, ACEi/ARB discontinuation was associated with a higher mortality risk after adjustment for demographics and comorbidities, but the association was no longer statistically significant after adjustment for severity of COVID-19 (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.40 to 4.58). Among patients on dialysis, ACEi/ARB discontinuation was not associated with mortality in any model. We obtained similar results across subgroups when ACEis and ARBs were studied separately, and when other outcomes for severity of COVID-19 were studied, e.g., hospital admission, admission to the intensive care unit, or need for ventilator support. CONCLUSIONS: Among kidney transplant recipients and patients on dialysis with COVID-19, there was no significant association of ACEi/ARB use or discontinuation with mortality.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , COVID-19/mortality , Renal Insufficiency/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Kidney Transplantation , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models
7.
J Nephrol ; 34(2): 365-368, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120210

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in major disruption to the delivery of both routine and urgent healthcare needs in many institutions across the globe. Vascular access (VA) for haemodalysis (HD) is considered the patient's lifeline and its maintenance is essential for the continuation of a life saving treatment. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, the provision of VA for dialysis was already constrained. Throughout the pandemic, inevitably, many patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have not received timely intervention for VA care. This could have a detrimental impact on dialysis patient outcomes in the near future and needs to be addressed urgently. Many societies have issued prioritisation to allow rationing based on clinical risk, mainly according to estimated urgency and need for treatment. The recommendations recently proposed by the European and American Vascular Societies in the COVID-19 pandemic era regarding the triage of various vascular operations into urgent, emergent and elective are debatable. VA creation and interventions maintain the lifeline of complex HD patients, and the indication for surgery and other interventions warrants patient-specific clinical judgement and pathways. Keeping the use of central venous catheters at a minimum, with the goal of creating the right access, in the right patient, at the right time, and for the right reasons, is mandatory. These strategies may require local modifications. Risk assessments may need specific "renal pathways" to be developed rather than applying standard surgical risk stratification. In conclusion, in order to recover from the second wave of COVID-19 and prepare for further phases, the provision of the best dialysis access, including peritoneal dialysis, will require working closely with the multidisciplinary team involved in the assessment, creation, cannulation, surveillance, maintenance, and salvage of definitive access.


Subject(s)
Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical/standards , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Pandemics , Renal Dialysis/standards , Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical/trends , Comorbidity , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis/trends , Risk Assessment
8.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 35(5): 737-741, 2020 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-11590

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, a disease caused by a novel coronavirus, is a major global human threat that has turned into a pandemic. This novel coronavirus has specifically high morbidity in the elderly and in comorbid populations. Uraemic patients on dialysis combine an intrinsic fragility and a very frequent burden of comorbidities with a specific setting in which many patients are repeatedly treated in the same area (haemodialysis centres). Moreover, if infected, the intensity of dialysis requiring specialized resources and staff is further complicated by requirements for isolation, control and prevention, putting healthcare systems under exceptional additional strain. Therefore, all measures to slow if not to eradicate the pandemic and to control unmanageably high incidence rates must be taken very seriously. The aim of the present review of the European Dialysis (EUDIAL) Working Group of ERA-EDTA is to provide recommendations for the prevention, mitigation and containment in haemodialysis centres of the emerging COVID-19 pandemic. The management of patients on dialysis affected by COVID-19 must be carried out according to strict protocols to minimize the risk for other patients and personnel taking care of these patients. Measures of prevention, protection, screening, isolation and distribution have been shown to be efficient in similar settings. They are essential in the management of the pandemic and should be taken in the early stages of the disease.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Renal Dialysis , COVID-19 , Caregivers , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Equipment Contamination , Hospitals, Isolation , Humans , Patient Care Team , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2
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