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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317743

ABSTRACT

Background: The ongoing outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) represents a major threat to human health, which impairs the functionality of several organs. One of the hardest challenges in the fight against COVID-19 is the development of wide-scale, effective, and rapid laboratory tests to control disease severity, progression, and possible sudden worsening. Monitoring patients in real-time is indeed highly demanded in this pandemic era when physicians need reliable and quantitative tools to prioritize patients’access to intensive care departments. In this regard, salivary biomarkers are extremely promising, as they allow for a fast and non-invasive specimens’collection, which can be repeated multiple times. Methods: We compare salivary levels of immunoglobulin A subclasses (IgA1 and IgA2) and free-light chains (FLC k and λ) in a cohort of 29 SARS-CoV-2 patients and 21 healthy subjects. Results: We found that each biomarkers differs significantly between the two groups, with p-values ranging from 10-8 to 10-4. The performance ranking of these markers, shows that λFLC level (p=1.4e-8) is the best-suited candidate to discriminate the two groups, with an accuracy of 0.94 (0.87-1.00 95% CI), a precision of 0.91 (0.81-1.00 95% CI), a sensitivity of 1.00 (0.96-1.00 95% CI) and a specificity of 0.86 (0.70-1.00 95% CI). Conclusion: These results suggest λFLC as an ideal indicator of patient conditions. This is more strengthened in consideration that λFLC half-life (approximately 6 hours) is significantly shorter than the IgA one (21 days): thus λFLC appears displaying the potential to effectively monitor patients fluctuation in real-time.

2.
Adv Clin Chem ; 108: 155-209, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432691

ABSTRACT

Free light chain (FLC) kappa (k) and lambda (λ) consist of low molecular weight proteins produced in excess during immunoglobulin synthesis and secreted into the circulation. In patients with normal renal function, over 99% of FLCs are filtered and reabsorbed. Thus, the presence of FLCs in the serum is directly related to plasma cell activity and the balance between production and renal clearance. FLCs are bioactive molecules that may exist as monoclonal (m) and polyclonal (p) FLCs. These have been detected in several body fluids and may be key indicators of ongoing damage and/or illness. International guidelines now recommend mFLC for screening, diagnosis and monitoring multiple myeloma and other plasma cell dyscrasias. In current clinical practice, FLCs in urine indicate cast nephropathy and other renal injury, whereas their presence in cerebrospinal fluid is important for identifying central nervous system inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Increased pFLCs have also been detected in various conditions characterized by B cell activation, i.e., chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and HCV infection. Monitoring the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic by analysis of salivary FLCs presents a significant opportunity in clinical immunology worthy of scientific pursuit.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin lambda-Chains , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Immunoglobulin Light Chains/urine , Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains/urine , Immunoglobulin lambda-Chains/urine
3.
Liver Int ; 41(11): 2560-2577, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434779

ABSTRACT

Metabolic diseases are associated with a higher risk of a severer coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) course, since fatty liver is commonly associated with metabolic disorders, fatty liver itself is considered as a major contributor to low-grade inflammation in obesity and diabetes. Recently a comprehensive term, metabolic (dysfunction) associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), has been proposed. The hepatic inflammatory status observed in MAFLD patients is amplified in presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Intestinal dysbiosis is a powerful activator of inflammatory mediator production of liver macrophages. The intestinal microbiome plays a key role in MAFLD progression, which results in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis. Therefore, patients with metabolic disorders and COVID-19 can have a worse outcome of COVID-19. This literature review attempts to disentangle the mechanistic link of MAFLD from COVID-19 complexity and to improve knowledge on its pathophysiology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metabolic Diseases , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Humans , Immunity , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Pers Med ; 11(5)2021 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224056

ABSTRACT

The ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which impairs the functionality of several organs, represents a major threat to human health. One of the hardest challenges in the fight against COVID-19 is the development of wide-scale, effective, and rapid laboratory tests to control disease severity, progression, and possible sudden worsening. Monitoring patients in real-time is highly demanded in this pandemic era when physicians need reliable and quantitative tools to prioritize patients' access to intensive care departments. In this regard, salivary biomarkers are extremely promising, as they allow for the fast and non-invasive collection of specimens and can be repeated multiple times. METHODS: We compare salivary levels of immunoglobulin A subclasses (IgA1 and IgA2) and free light chains (kFLC and λFLC) in a cohort of 29 SARS-CoV-2 patients and 21 healthy subjects. RESULTS: We found that each biomarker differs significantly between the two groups, with p-values ranging from 10-8 to 10-4. A Receiving Operator Curve analysis shows that λFLC level is the best-suited candidate to discriminate the two groups (AUC = 0.96), with an accuracy of 0.94 (0.87-1.00 95% CI), a precision of 0.91 (0.81-1.00 95% CI), a sensitivity of 1.00 (0.96-1.00 95% CI), and a specificity of 0.86 (0.70-1.00 95% CI). CONCLUSION: These results suggest λFLC as an ideal indicator of patient conditions. This hypothesis is strengthened by the consideration that the λFLC half-life (approximately 6 h) is significantly shorter than the IgA one (21 days), thus confirming the potential of λFLC for effectively monitoring patients' fluctuation in real-time.

5.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 60(9): 4418-4427, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193773

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The biomarkers of an immunological dysregulation due to a chronic HBV infection are indeed understudied. If untreated, this condition may evolve into liver impairment co-occurring with extrahepatic involvements. Here, we aim to identify a new panel of biomarkers [including immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses, RF, and Free Light Chains (FLCs)] that may be useful and reliable for clinical evaluation of HBV-related cryoglobulinemia. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed clinical data from 44 HBV-positive patients. The patients were stratified (according to the presence/absence of mixed cryoglobulinemia) into two groups: 22 with cryoglobulins (CGs) and 22 without CGs. Samples from 20 healthy blood donors (HDs) were used as negative controls. Serum samples were tested for IgG subclasses, RF (-IgM, -IgG, and -IgA type), and FLCs. RESULTS: We detected a strikingly different distribution of serum IgG subclasses between HDs and HBV-positive patients, together with different RF isotypes; in addition, FLCs were significantly increased in HBV-positive patients compared with HDs, while no significant difference was shown between HBV-positive patients with/without mixed cryoglobulinemia. CONCLUSION: The immune-inflammatory response triggered by HBV may be monitored by a peculiar profile of biomarkers. Our results open a new perspective in the precision medicine era; in these challenging times, they could also be employed to monitor the clinical course of those COVID-19 patients who are at high risk of HBV reactivation due to liver impairment and/or immunosuppressive therapies.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Cryoglobulinemia/immunology , Cryoglobulinemia/virology , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Adv Clin Chem ; 104: 299-340, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893387

ABSTRACT

Cryoglobulins consist of serum immunoglobulins that precipitate below 37°C and resolubilize upon warming. The clinical triad of cryoglobulinemia usually includes purpura, weakness, and arthralgia. Cryoglobulinemic syndrome, clinically defined as a systemic vasculitis, is associated with chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and autoimmune disorders and can evolve into B-cell malignancies. While the current literature about HCV-associated cryoglobulinemia is not very limited, little is known about the immunologic and serologic profiles of affected patients. Therefore, comprehension of the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying cryoprecipitation could be very helpful. Due to the persistence of viral antigenic stimulation, biomarkers to use after the worsening progression of HCV infection to lymphoproliferative and/or autoimmune diseases are widely needed. Laboratory methods used to detect and characterize low concentrations of cryoprecipitates and immunotyping patterns could improve patient management. The most critical factor affecting cryoglobulin testing is that the pre-analytical phase is not fully completed at 37°C.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , Cryoglobulinemia/blood , Cryoglobulins/analysis , Hepatitis C/physiopathology , Animals , Autoantibodies/blood , Chemical Precipitation , Cryoglobulinemia/therapy , Cryoglobulins/chemistry , Hepatitis C/blood , Humans , Vasculitis/virology
7.
Scand J Immunol ; 93(3): e12977, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760191

ABSTRACT

In the natural history of SARS-CoV-2 infection, liver injury is frequent but quite mild and it is defined as any liver damage occurring during disease progression and treatment of infection in patients with or without pre-existing liver diseases. The underlying mechanisms for hepatic injury in patients with COVID-19 are still unclear but the liver damage in SARS-CoV-2 infection seems to be directly caused by virus-induced cytopathic effects. In this review, we will summarize all data of updated literature, regarding the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection, acute response and liver involvement. An overview will be given on liver injury, liver transplant and the possible consequences of COVID-19 in patients with pre-existing liver diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Liver Diseases/immunology , Liver/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antiviral Agents/immunology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Hepatocytes/immunology , Hepatocytes/metabolism , Hepatocytes/pathology , Humans , Liver/pathology , Liver/physiopathology , Liver Diseases/physiopathology , Liver Diseases/therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
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